[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously it was shown that a 53-nucleotide viral replication origin, derived from the left-end (3') telomere of minute virus of mice (MVM) DNA, directed integration of infecting MVM genomes into an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based episome in cell culture. Integration depended upon the presence, in the episome, of a functional origin sequence which could be nicked by NS1, the viral initiator protein. Here we extend our studies to the genomic right-end (5') origin and report that three 131- to 135-nucleotide right-end origin sequences failed to target MVM episomal integration even though the same sequences were functional in NS1-driven DNA replication assays in vitro. Additionally, we observed amplification of episomal DNA in response to MVM infection in cell lines harboring episomes which directed integration, but not in cell lines containing episomes which did not direct integration, including those with inserts of the MVM right-end origin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA sequence motifs which direct adeno-associated virus type 2 site-specific integration are being investigated using a shuttle vector, propagated as a stable episome in cultured cell lines, as the target for integration. Previously, we reported that the minimum episomal targeting elements comprise a 16-bp binding motif (Rep binding site [RBS]) for a viral regulatory protein (Rep) separated by a short DNA spacer from a sequence (terminal resolution site [TRS]) that can serve as a substrate for Rep-mediated nicking activity (R. M. Linden, P. Ward, C. Giraud, E. Winocour, and K. I. Berns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:11288-11294, 1996; R. M. Linden, E. Winocour, and K. I. Berns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:7966-7972, 1996). We now report that episomal integration depends upon both the sequence and the position of the spacer DNA separating the RBS and TRS motifs. The spacer thus constitutes a third element required for site-specific episomal integration.
Journal of Virology 08/2000; 74(13):6213-6. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies with adeno-associated virus (AAV) have shown that site-specific integration is directed by DNA sequence motifs that are present in both the viral replication origin and the chromosomal preintegration DNA and that specify binding and nicking sites for the viral regulatory Rep protein. This finding raised the question as to whether other parvovirus regulatory proteins might direct site-specific recombination with DNA targets that contain origin sequences functionally equivalent to those described for AAV. To investigate this question, active and inactive forms of the minute virus of mice (MVM) 3' replication origin, derived from a replicative-form dimer-bridge intermediate, were propagated in an Epstein-Barr virus-based shuttle vector which replicates as an episome in a cell-cycle-dependent manner in mammalian cells. Upon MVM infection of these cells, the infecting genome integrated into episomes containing the active-origin sequence reported to be efficiently nicked by the MVM regulatory protein NS1. In contrast, MVM did not integrate into episomes containing either the inactive form of the origin sequence reported to be inefficiently nicked by NS1 or the active form from which the NS1 consensus nick site had been deleted. The structure of the cloned MVM episomal recombinants displayed several features previously described for AAV episomal and chromosomal recombinants. The findings indicate that the rules which govern AAV site-specific recombination also apply to MVM and suggest that site-specific chromosomal insertions may be achievable with different autonomous parvovirus replicator proteins which recognize binding and nicking sites on the target DNA.
Journal of Virology 01/1998; 71(12):9008-15. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High mobility group protein 1 (HMG1) is an abundant non-histone chromosomal protein which plays a role in several nuclear events involving DNA. Here we demonstrate that HMG1 physically interacts with the human adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep protein. HMG1 promotes the formation of Rep-DNA complexes and stimulates the activity of Rep in site- and strand-specific cleavage of DNA and the hydrolysis of ATP, functions required for viral gene regulation, replication and site-specific integration of viral DNA into human chromosome 19. We show that HMG1 enhances Rep-mediated repression of the AAV p5 promoter in transfected cells, suggesting that HMG1 and Rep also interact in vivo. HMG1, Rep and DNA can be immunoprecipitated as a ternary complex. Kinetic studies indicate that complexes of Rep with DNA have similar stabilities in the presence and absence of HMG1. These results suggest that the effect of HMG1 on Rep binding is exerted at the step of complex formation and thereby may reflect an activity of HMG1 in promoting the assembly of complex cellular nucleoprotein structures.
The EMBO Journal 11/1997; 16(19):5943-54. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has attracted considerable interest as a potential vector for gene delivery. Wild-type virus is notable for the lack of association with any human disease and the ability to stably integrate its genome in a site-specific manner in a locus on human chromosome 19 (AAVS1). Use of a functional model system for AAV DNA integration into AAVS1 has allowed us to conclude that the recombination event is directed by cellular DNA sequences. Recombinant junctions isolated from our integration assay were analyzed and showed characteristics similar to those found in latently infected cell lines. The minimal DNA signals within AAVS1 required for targeted integration were identified and shown to contain functional motifs of the viral origin of replication. A replication mediated model of AAV DNA integration is proposed.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1996; 93(21):11288-94. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome integrates site specifically into a defined region of human chromosome 19 (termed AAVS1). Using a functional assay for AAV integration into AAVS1 DNA propagated as an episome, we obtained evidence that a 33-nucleotide AAVS1 DNA sequence contains the minimum signal required for targeted integration. The recombination signal comprises a DNA-binding motif for the AAV regulatory Rep protein [Rep binding site (RBS)] separated by an eight-nucleotide spacer from a sequence that can act as a substrate for Rep endonucleolytic activity [terminal resolution site (TRS)]. Mutations in either the AAVS1-encoded RBS or TRS elements abort targeted integration. Since both the RBS and TRS elements are present in the viral origin of replication and are required for AAV replication, targeted integration into chromosome 19 AAVS1 DNA may involve a replicative type of recombination that is discussed. An additional chromosome 19 element, which is responsible for DNA rearrangements in episomes propagating AAVS1 DNA, was identified and shown not to be required for AAV episomal integration, despite its location adjacent to the recombination signal.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/1996; 93(15):7966-72. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A model system using an episomal Epstein-Barr virus shuttle vector was recently developed to study the adeno-associated virus (AAV) site-specific integration event in chromosome 19q13.3-qter (C. Giraud, E. Winocour, and K.I. Berns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:10039-10043, 1994). In this study, we analyze the recombinant junctions generated after integration of the AAV genome into an Epstein-Barr virus shuttle vector carrying 8.2, 1.6, or 0.51 kb of the chromosome 19 preintegration sequence (AAVS1 locus). In most of the recombinants, one end of the viral genome was joined to a portion of the AAVS1 DNA previously shown to be a minimum target for AAV integration. Within this AAVS1 segment, the AAV insertion points were strikingly clustered around a binding site for the AAV regulatory protein. In all cases, the second junction with AAV occurred with vector DNA outside of the AAVS1 segment. With respect to the viral genome, one junction with the shuttle vector DNA occurred either within the AAV inverted terminal repeat (itr), or near the P5 promoter, approximately 100 nucleotides distal to a modified itr. The modified itr in 5 of 11 recombinants involved a head-to-tail organization. In one such instance, the AAV insert contained slightly more than one genome equivalent arranged in a head-to-tail manner with a junction close to the P5 promoter; the AAV insert in this recombinant episome could be rescued by adenovirus infection and replicated to virus particles. The significance of the head-to-tail organization is discussed in terms of the possible circularization of AAV DNA before or during integration.
Journal of Virology 12/1995; 69(11):6917-24. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different regions of an 8.2-kb cloned DNA segment containing the target for adeno-associated virus (AAV) integration in human chromosome 19q13-3-qter (AAVS1 locus) were subcloned in an Epstein-Barr virus-based shuttle vector and propagated as episomes in a derivative of the 293 human embryonic kidney cell line. Preferential recombination with an infecting AAV genome was assessed by measuring the frequency of recombinants among the shuttle vectors recovered in Escherichia coli. The signals which direct recombination with the AAV genome were localized to a 510-nt region at the 5' end of the 8.2-kb AAVS1 DNA. Hence, the results indicate that site-specific integration of AAV is directed by a specific DNA sequence on human chromosome 19. An unusual degree of DNA heterogeneity in the recovered vector was also associated with the 510 nt at the 5' end of AAVS1 DNA, suggesting that the AAV chromosomal integration locus may be involved in genomic instability.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1994; 91(21):10039-43. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irradiation of simian virus 40 (ori mutant)-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells (OD4 line) with UV light induced a cellular capacity which supported a full cycle of helper-independent adeno-associated virus replication. Monochromatic UV light at 254 nm was about 1,000-fold more effective than UV light at 313 nm, indicating that cellular nucleic acid is the primary chromophore in the UV-induced process leading to permissiveness for adeno-associated virus replication. The UV irradiation and the infection could be separated for up to 12 h without substantial loss of permissiveness. During this time interval, the induction process was partly sensitive to cycloheximide, suggesting a requirement for de novo protein synthesis.
Journal of Virology 04/1989; 63(3):1023-30. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the helper-independent replication of adeno-associated virus (AAV) in cells synchronized by pretreatment with hydroxyurea, reversal of polyamine depletion, or physical mitotic detachment. In Chinese hamster cells (OD4 line) treated with hydroxyurea prior to infection. AAV underwent a complete cycle of replication. Transfection of such cells with plasmid-cloned AAV DNAs also gave rise to infectious viral progeny. Synchronization of OD4 cells by reversal of polyamine depletion or mitotic detachment led to independent AAV DNA synthesis (and infectious viral progeny in the case of the former procedure), but these procedures were not as effective as hydroxyurea pretreatment. Independent AAV DNA synthesis was also detected in some other cell lines of Chinese hamster, human, and monkey origin treated with hydroxyurea prior to infection. The results demonstrate that, in contrast to previous notions, the AAV infectious process is not absolutely dependent upon the addition of a coinfecting helper virus.
Journal of Virology 05/1987; 61(4):972-81. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structures of recombinant genomes formed by recombination between simian virus 40 (SV40) and adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV) DNAs after either DNA cotransfection or coinfection by virions were characterized. Two types of structures were found. Group A structures, found after cotransfection and in one of seven recombinants arising from coinfection, represented a simple deletion of SV40 sequences replaced by a slightly shorter AAV sequence. Group B structures were found in six of seven recombinants arising after virion coinfection. All contained either the left or right terminal sequences (approximately 250 to 450 bases) of the AAV genome adjacent to the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Only 350 to 650 bases (including the origin) remained of the SV40 sequence. The joined SV40-AAV sequences were present in the recombinant genome as a tandem repeat of a size that can be packaged into SV40 capsids.
Journal of Virology 12/1985; 56(2):457-65. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A linear simian virus 40 origin-containing DNA fragment replicated in monkey COS cells, generating tandemly repeated (head-to-tail) structures. Electron microscopy revealed circle-and-tail configurations characteristic of rolling-circle replication intermediates. Circularization of the same DNA before transfection led to a theta type of replication which generated supercoiled DNA molecules.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 08/1985; 5(7):1787-90. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linear forms of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, when added to transfection mixtures containing circular SV40 and phi X174 RFI DNAs, enhanced the frequency of SV40/phi X174 recombination, as measured by infectious center in situ plaque hybridization in monkey BSC-1 cells. The sequences required for the enhancement of recombination by linear DNA reside within the SV40 replication origin/regulatory region (nucleotides 5,171 to 5,243/0 to 128). Linearization of phi X174 RFI DNA did not increase the recombination frequency. The SV40/phi X174 recombinant structures arising from transfections supplemented with linear forms of origin-containing SV40 DNA contained phi X174 DNA sequences interspersed within tandem head-to-tail repeats derived from the recombination-enhancing linear DNA. Evidence is presented that the tandem repeats are not formed by homologous recombination and that linear forms of SV40 DNA must compete with circular SV40 DNA for the available T antigen to enhance recombination. We propose that the enhancement of recombination by linear SV40 DNA results from the entry of that DNA into a rolling circle type of replication pathway which generates highly recombinogenic intermediates.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 05/1985; 5(4):869-80. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombination between simian virus 40 (SV40) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been detected, by infectious center in situ plaque hybridization procedures, after both DNA contransfection and virion coinfection of monkey BSC-1 cells. The number of cells producing recombinants (1 in a 1000) was the same irrespective of the way in which the SV40 and AAV genomes were delivered to the cell, despite the fact that 5-10 times more cells were infected after virion coinfection. Several other dosage-response parameters of the recombination process consequent to virion coinfection were comparable to those after DNA cotransfection. The sole difference observed between the two infection systems was that the SV40/AAV recombinants formed after virion coinfection contained an inordinately high proportion of AAV terminal DNA sequences. By separating the SV40 and AAV infections in time, such that the AAV infection was delayed until after certain events in the SV40 cycle had taken place, an optimum phase for recombination in the SV40 cycle was identified. This phase occurs a few hours after infection, well before the onset of SV40 DNA replication and the synthesis of SV40-specific early proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three simian virus (SV40)-phi X174 recombinant genomes were isolated from single BSC-1 monkey cells cotransfected with SV40 and phi X174 RF1 DNAs. The individual cell progenies were amplified, cloned, and mapped by a combination of restriction endonuclease and heteroduplex analyses. In each case, the 600 to 1,000 base pairs of phi X174 DNA (derived from different regions of the phi X174 genome) were present as single inserts, located in either the early or late SV40 regions; the deletion of SV40 DNA was greater than the size of the insert; and the remaining portions of the hybrid genome were indistinguishable from wild-type SV40 DNA, as judged by both mapping and biological tests. Hence, apart from the deletion which accommodates the phi X174 DNA insert, no other rearrangements of SV40 DNA were detected. The restriction map of a SV40-phi X174 recombinant DNA isolate before molecular cloning was indistinguishable from those of two separate cloned derivatives of that isolate, indicating that the species cloned was the major amplifiable recombinant structure generated by a single recombinant-producing cell. The relative simplicity of the SV40-phi X174 recombinant DNA examined is consistent with the notion that most recombinant-producing BSC-1 cells support single recombination events generating only one amplifiable recombinant structure.
Journal of Virology 11/1983; 48(1):229-38. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe an infectious-center in situ plaque hybridization procedure which quantitates simian virus 40 (SV40) nonhomologous recombination in terms of the number of recombinant-producing cells in the DNA transfected cell population. Using this assay to measure the efficiency of recombination with SV40 DNA in permissive monkey BSC-1 cells, we found that: (i) over a range of DNA concentrations, polyomavirus DNA (which is partially homologous to SV40 DNA) cannot be distinguished from nonhomologous phi X174 RF1 DNA with respect to its ability to recombine with SV40 DNA; (ii) at defined DNA concentrations, polyomavirus and phi X174 RF1 DNA compete with each other for recombination with SV40 DNA; (iii) virtually all segments of the phi X174 genome recombine, apparently at random, with SV40 DNA; (iv) the frequency of recombinant-producing cells, among the successfully transfected (virion-producing) cells, depends upon the input SV40 DNA concentration in the transfection solution; and (v) replication-defective SV40 mutant DNAs compete with wild-type SV40 DNA for recombination with phi X174 RF1 DNA. From these observations, we conclude that the efficiency of recombination with SV40, in the system under study, is unaffected by nucleotide sequence homology and that a limiting stage in the recombination pathway occurs before SV40 DNA replication. Comparison of the dependency of recombination on initial SV40 DNA concentration with the dependency on initial phi X174 RF1 DNA concentration indicates that SV40 DNA sequences are a controlling factor in the nonhomologous recombination pathway.
Journal of Virology 11/1983; 48(1):218-28. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure of a newly and independently isolated defective variant of simian virus 40 that contains covalently linked monkey and SV40 DNA sequences is described. This variant, termed 290, has a structure essentially identical with a previously isolated and characterized variant named CVP8/1/P2 (Eco RI res). The structural similarities include the monkey (host) DNA segment that is combined with viral DNA sequences, the particular viral DNA segment that is present, and the arrangement of these within the defective genome. The monkey DNA segment contains sequences derived from both low and high reiteration frequency monkey DNA. The viral sequences include the origin of replication. The separate isolation of essentially identical variants suggests a high level of specificity in the events leading to the formation and amplification of this type of defective genome.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1980; 255(18):8919-27. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA transfection of African green monkey BSC-1 cells with simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA and bacterial virus phi X174 replicative form DNA ("cotransfection") yielded stocks containing SV40/phi X174 recombinant virus, which was detected by an infectious-center in situ plaque hybridization procedure and which was sensitive to anti-SV40 antiserum. The recombinant virus replicated during serial passage. Restriction endonuclease cleavage of the SV40/phi X174 DNA indicated that several different types of recombinant DNA structures had arisen. Similar SV40 DNA cotransfection experiments with polyoma virus DNA, bacterial plasmid (pBR322) DNA, and a plasmid-cloned segment of the mouse genome (coding for intracisternal type A particles) yielded stocks that generated recombinant plaques as judged by in situ plaque hybridization with the appropriate labeled probe. It appears, therefore, that an active indiscriminate recombination process, incapable of distinguishing between diverse DNAs of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin, occurs in SV40-infected monkey cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1980; 77(8):4861-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The binding of simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T antigen) to DNA was analyzed by using the salt-sensitive affinities of the protein for various DNAs immobilized on cellulose. At least two types of interactions could be distinguished that differed in their stability. Higher salt concentrations were required to elute T antigen from SV40 DNA than from calf thymus DNA; and even greater salt concentrations were required for the lution of T antigen from multiorigin SV 40 DNA compared to wild-type SV40 DNA. This would indicate that T antigen can bind weakly or strongly to DNA, depending on the DNA sequence. It was also found that a greater proportion of rapidly labeled or newly synthesized T antigen binds more efficiently and tightly to multiorigin SV40 DNA than to long-labeled or older forms of T antigen. This approach can be utilized not only to distinguish between different forms of T antigens which vary in their affinities for DNA but also for rapidly obtaining highly enriched T antigen preparations.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/1980; 77(1):220-4. · 9.74 Impact Factor