Yuyu Yao

Southeast University (China), Nanjing, Jiangxi Sheng, China

Are you Yuyu Yao?

Claim your profile

Publications (24)81.14 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: c-kit-positive cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have been proven suitable for stem cell therapy. CPCs marker c-kit and its ligand, the stem cell factor (SCF), are associated with the functions of proliferation and differentiation. In our previous study, we found that stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) could enhance the expression of c-kit. However, the mechanism is unknown. CPCs were isolated from adult mouse hearts, and c-kit-positive CPCs were purified by magnetic-activated c-kit cell sorting magnetic beads. The cells were cultured with SDF-1α, c-kit expression was measured by western blotting and qPCR, the proliferation and migration of cells were measured by CCK-8 and transwell assay, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) mRNA were measured by qPCR, global DNMT activity was measured by DNMT activity assay kit, and DNA methylation was analysed using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform. Results showed that SDF-1α could enhance the expression of c-kit, which results in the promoting of c-kit-positive CPCs proliferation and migration. SDF-1α stimulation inhibited the expression of DNMT1, DNMT3β, and global DNMT activity, which led to significant demethylation in c-kit-positive CPCs. SDF-1α signalling, via CXCR4 activation, up-regulated c-kit expression by inhibiting DNMT1 and DNMT3β expression and global DNMT activity, and by subsequent demethylation of the c-kit gene.
    Heart Lung &amp Circulation 07/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to enhance angiogenesis not only by incorporating into the vasculature but also by secreting cytokines, thereby serving as an ideal vehicle for gene transfer. As tissue kallikrein (TK) has pleiotropic effects in inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress, and promoting angiogenesis, we evaluated the salutary potential of kallikrein-modified human EPCs (hEPCs; Ad.hTK-hEPCs) after acute myocardial infarction (MI). We genetically modified hEPCs with a TK gene and evaluated cell survival, engraftment, revascularization, and functional improvement in a nude mouse left anterior descending ligation model. hEPCs were manipulated to overexpress the TK gene. In vitro, the antiapoptotic and paracrine effects were assessed under oxidative stress. TK protects hEPCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via inhibition of activation of caspase-3 and -9, induction of Akt phosphorylation, and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo, the Ad.hTK-hEPCs were transplanted after MI via intracardiac injection. The surviving cells were tracked after transplantation using near-infrared optical imaging. Left ventricular (LV) function was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. Capillary density was quantified using immunohistochemical staining. Engrafted Ad.hTK-hEPCs exhibited advanced protection against ischemia by increasing LV ejection fraction. Compared with Ad.Null-hEPCs, transplantation with Ad.hTK-hEPCs significantly decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis in association with increased retention of transplanted EPCs in the myocardium. Capillary density and arteriolar density in the infarct border zone was significantly higher in Ad.hTK-hEPC-transplanted mice than in Ad.Null-hEPC-treated mice. Transplanted hEPCs were clearly incorporated into CD31(+) capillaries. These results indicate that implantation of kallikrein-modified EPCs in the heart provides advanced benefits in protection against ischemia-induced MI by enhanced angiogenesis and reducing apoptosis.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 18 March 2013; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2013.48.
    Laboratory Investigation 03/2013; · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of ultrasound combined with the homemade nitric oxide (NO) micro-bubble destruction on the in vitro proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Furthermore, we studied whether or not irradiation of the NO micro-bubble combined with bone-marrow derived MSC infusion had a better effect on treating myocardial infarction. The possible mechanism of MSC delivery into the infarcted myocardium was also investigated. The murine bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated, cultured, irradiated, and combined with different concentrations of NO microbubbles. MTT proliferation assay, annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection, migration assay, and RT-PCR were performed 24 h after the irradiation. The NO micro-bubbles was a intravenously injected, followed by the infusion of MSCs, which were labeled by CM-Dil. Myocardium was harvested 48 h later and the distribution of MSCs was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope after frozen sectioning. Echocardiography, histological examination, RT-PCR, and western blotting were performed four weeks after the cell transplantation. Ultrasound combined with 1:70 NO micro-bubbles had no significant impact on the proliferation or apoptosis of MSCs. Transwell chamber findings demonstrated that MSCs migrated more efficiently in group that underwent ultrasound combined with 1:70 NO micro-bubbles. The Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of CXCR4 was much higher in the group undergoing ultrasound combined with 1:70 NO micro-bubbles. The normalized fluorescence intensity greatly increased in the group of US+NO micro-bubbles and the cardiac function was also markedly improved. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the capillary density was much greater in the group of US+NO micro-bubbles as compared to that of the other groups. RT-PCR and western blotting also revealed a higher SDF-1 and VEGF expression in the group of US+NO micro-bubbles. NO micro-bubbles could be used in the cell transplantation, which efficiently promoted the MSC homing into the infarcted myocardium.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80186. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss of cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction (MI) causes heart failure. In this study, we investigate whether the in situ cardiomyocytes can re-enter the cell cycle and to what extent cell division of cardiomyocytes occurs after acute MI (AMI) in rats. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study; the left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated. At time points (3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks) after the operation, five rats were euthanized, respectively. An additional five sham-operated rats serves as a control group and were euthanized at 3 days post-operation. The expressions of cyclin A2, Ki-67, phospho-histone H3 (H3P), and Aurora B in myocardial tissues were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The expression levels of cyclin A2 were significantly higher in all groups with AMI except the 4-week group than those found in the sham-operated group (P < 0.01). The percentage of Ki-67-positive nuclei in the border zones was significantly higher than the percentage in the distant normal myocardium (P < 0.01). our results demonstrate that cardiomyocytes re-enter the cell cycle after AMI and that cyclin A2 is a reliable marker for the detection of cell cycle activity in cardiomyocytes.
    American Journal of Translational Research 01/2013; 5(3):327-35.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have been proven suitable for stem cell therapy after myocardial infarction, especially c-kit(+)CPCs. CPCs marker c-kit and its ligand, the stem cell factor (SCF), are linked as c-kit/SCF axis, which is associated with the functions of proliferation and differentiation. In our previous study, we found that stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) could enhance the expression of c-kit. However, the mechanism is unknown. CPCs were isolated from adult mouse hearts, c-kit(+) and c-kit(-) CPCs were separated by magnetic beads. The cells were cultured with SDF-1α and CXCR4-selective antagonist AMD3100, and c-kit expression was measured by qPCR and Western blotting. Results showed that SDF-1α could enhance c-kit expression of c-kit(+)CPCs, made c-kit(-)CPCs expressing c-kit, and AMD3100 could inhibit the function of SDF-1α. After the intervention of SDF-1α and AMD3100, proliferation and migration of CPCs were measured by CCK-8 and transwell assay. Results showed that SDF-1α could enhance the proliferation and migration of both c-kit(+) and c-kit(-) CPCs, and AMD3100 could inhibit these functions. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) mRNA were measured by qPCR, DNMT activity was measured using the DNMT activity assay kit, and DNA methylation was analyzed using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform, after the CPCs were cultured with SDF-1α. The results showed that SDF-1α stimulation inhibited the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3β, which are critical for the maintenance of regional DNA methylation. Global DNMT activity was also inhibited by SDF-1α. Lastly, SDF-1α treatment led to significant demethylation in both c-kit(+) and c-kit(-) CPCs. SDF-1α combined with CXCR4 could up-regulate c-kit expression of c-kit(+)CPCs and make c-kit(-)CPCs expressing c-kit, which result in the CPCs proliferation and migration ability improvement, through the inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3β expression and global DNMT activity, as well as the subsequent demethylation of the c-kit gene.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69134. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cell preconditioning (PC) is a powerful approach in reducing cell death after transplantation. We hypothesized that PC human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) with bradykinin (BK) enhance cell survival, inhibit apoptosis and repair the infarcted myocardium. The hEPCs were preconditioned with or without BK. The hEPCs apoptosis induced by hypoxia along with serum deprivation was determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/ propidium iodide staining. Cleaved caspase-3, Akt and eNOS expressions were determined by Western blots. Caspase-3 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were assessed in hEPCs. For in vivo studies, the survival and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of transplanted hEPCs were assessed using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodi- carbocyanine,4-chlorobenzenesul-fonate salt labeled hEPCs and TUNEL staining. Infarct size and cardiac function were measured at 10 days after transplantation, and the survival of transplanted hEPCs were visualized using near-infrared optical imaging. In vitro data showed a marked suppression in cell apoptosis following BK PC. The PC reduced caspase-3 activation, increased the Akt, eNOS phosphorylation and VEGF levels. In vivo data in preconditioned group showed a robust cell anti-apoptosis, reduction in infarct size, and significant improvement in cardiac function. The effects of BK PC were abrogated by the B2 receptor antagonist HOE140, the Akt and eNOS antagonists LY294002 and L-NAME, respectively. The activation of B2 receptor-dependent PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway by BK PC promotes VEGF secretion, hEPC survival and inhibits apoptosis, thereby improving cardiac function in vivo. The BK PC hEPC transplantation for stem cell-based therapies is a novel approach that has potential for clinical used.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81505. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), a key mediator of cardiac fibroblast activation, has a major influence on collagen type I production. However, the epigenetic mechanisms by which TGF-β induces collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) expression are not fully understood. This study was designed to examine whether or not DNA methylation is involved in TGF-β-induced COL1A1 expression in cardiac fibroblasts. Cells isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured and stimulated with TGF-β1. The mRNA levels of COL1A1 and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) were determined via quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the protein levels of collagen type I were determined via Western blot as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantitative methylation of the COL1A1 promoter region was analyzed using the MassARRAY platform of Sequenom. Results showed that TGF-β1 upregulated the mRNA expression of COL1A1 and induced the synthesis of cell-associated and secreted collagen type I in cardiac fibroblasts. DNMT1 and DNMT3a expressions were significantly downregulated and the global DNMT activity was inhibited when treated with 10 ng/mL of TGF-β1 for 48 h. TGF-β1 treatment resulted in a significant reduction of the DNA methylation percentage across multiple CpG sites in the rat COL1A1 promoter. Thus, TGF-β1 can induce collagen type I expression through the inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3a expressions as well as global DNMT activity, thereby resulting in DNA demethylation of the COL1A1 promoter. These findings suggested that the DNMT-mediated DNA methylation is an important mechanism in regulating the TGF-β1-induced COL1A1 gene expression.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60335. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To observe the impact of supernatants from macrophages that phagocytized dead MSCs (pMΦ) on the survival of hypoxic cardiomyocytes. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of mice and dead MSCs were harvested after 6h hypoxia. Macrophages were obtained from thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal cavity. Macrophages and dead MSCs were co-cultured for 2days in the presence or absence of LPS (1μg/ml). Cardiomyocytes obtained from neonatal mice were exposed to various medium including supernatants from pMΦ. MTT cell proliferation assay and mitochondria membrane potential were used to evaluate the viability of cardiomyocytes. Cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-12, PGE2, VEGF-α, Ang-1, KGF, IGF-1, PDGF-BB, and EPO) in culture medium of macrophages, MSCs and pMΦ were detected by ELISA and Real-Time-PCR. Results: phagocytic activity of macrophages to dMSC was significantly enhanced by LPS. PGE2, VEGF-α, Ang-1, KGF, IGF-1, PDGF-BB, and EPO levels were significantly increased in supernatants of pMΦ. Exposure to supernatants of pMΦ significantly improved viability and survival time of hypoxic cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSION: Exposure to supernatants of pMΦ significantly improved viability and survival time of hypoxic cardiomyocytes, which might be linked to increased cytokines and chemokines secretion by pMΦ.
    International journal of cardiology 04/2012; · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tissue kallikrein (TK) has been demonstrated to improve neovasculogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, we examined the role and underlying mechanisms of TK in peripheral endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells containing EPCs were isolated from rat. The in vitro effects of TK on EPC differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and vascular tube formation capacity were studied in the presence or absence of TK, kinin B(2) receptor antagonist (icatibant), and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor (LY294002). Apoptosis was evaluated by flow-cytometry analysis using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, as well as western-blot analysis of Akt phosphorylation and cleaved caspase-3. Using an MI mouse model, we then examined the in vivo effects of human TK gene adenoviral vector (Ad.hTK) administration on the number of CD34(+)Flk-1(+) progenitors in the peripheral circulation, heart tissue, extent of vasculogenesis, and heart function. Administration of TK significantly increased the number of Dil-LDL/UEA-lectin double-positive early EPCs, as well as their migration and tube formation properties in vitro. Transduction of TK in cultured EPCs attenuated apoptosis induced by hypoxia and led to an increase in Akt phosphorylation and a decrease in cleaved caspase-3 levels. The beneficial effects of TK were blocked by pretreatment with icatibant and LY294002. The expression of recombinant human TK in the ischemic mouse heart significantly improved cardiac contractility and reduced infarct size 7 days after gene delivery. Compared with the Ad.Null group, Ad.hTK reduced mortality and preserved left ventricular function by increasing the number of CD34(+)Flk-1(+) EPCs and promoting the growth of capillaries and arterioles in the peri-infarct myocardium. These data provide direct evidence that TK promotes vessel growth by increasing the number of EPCs and enhancing their functional properties through the kinin B(2) receptor-Akt signaling pathway.
    Human gene therapy 03/2012; 23(8):859-70. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and its receptor, lectin-Like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), play important roles in the development of endothelial injuries. Olmesartan can protect endothelial cells from the impairment caused by various pathological stimulations. In the present study we investigated whether olmesartan decreased the impairment of endothelial cells induced by ox-LDL by exerting its effects on LOX-1 both in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of cultured endothelial cells of neonatal rats with ox-LDL for 24 h or infusion of ox-LDL in mice for 3 weeks led to the remarkable impairment of endothelial cells, including increased lactate dehydrogenase synthesis, phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) and expression of apoptotic genes such as B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3. Simultaneously, the cell vitality and expression of Bcl-2 gene were greatly reduced. All these effects, however, were significantly suppressed by the treatment with olmesartan. Furthermore, ox-LDL promoted up-regulation of LOX-1 expression either in cultured endothelial cells or in the aortas of mice, which was reversed with the administration of olmesartan. Our data indicated that olmesartan may attenuate the impairment of endothelial cell via down-regulation of the increased LOX-1 expression induced by ox-LDL.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(2):1512-23. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mural inflammation has been shown to contribute to the development of plaque, with the α(V)β(3) integrin highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques. We herein examined α(V)β(3) integrin expression as a function of carotid atherosclerosis formation in the apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mouse. Constrictive collars were placed around the left common carotid arteries of apo E(-/-) mice maintained on a high-fat diet (n = 14). Before and 21 days following collar placement, in vivo serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of the carotid aortic diameter were performed using a 7T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Near- infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging was performed (n = 6) using an in vivo imaging system 0-24 hours following administration of 1.0 nmol c(RGDyK)-Cy5.5 via the tail vein. A competition experiment was performed by the co-injection of a saturating dose of bicyclic RGD peptide H-Glu[cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys)]2 (n = 3). Following image acquisition and sacrifice at 24 hours after injection, carotid arteries were harvested for histological analyses. Neointima formation and arterial remodeling in the carotid arteries of apoE(-/-) mice were induced by the placement of a constrictive collar. Significantly greater fluorescent signals were obtained from constrictive collar left common carotid arteries as compared to uninvolved aortic segments in constrictive collar mice. Binding to stenotic lesions was efficiently blocked in competition experiments. Immunostaining confirmed the presence of mural α(V)β(3) integrin expression in macrophages in the neointima. Signal intensity increased in a macrophage density-dependent fashion in the stenotic segments. Mural α(V)β(3) integrin expression, as determined using RGD-Cy5.5 near-infrared optical imaging, was increased in carotid arteries with constrictive collars in experimental mice. This expression can estimate the macrophage-bound inflammatory activity of atherosclerotic lesions.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:641-9. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thrombus and secondary thrombosis plays a key role in stroke. Recent molecular imaging provides in vivo imaging of activated factor XIII (FXIIIa), an important mediator of thrombosis or fibrinolytic resistance. The present study was to investigate the fibrin deposition in a thromboembolic stroke mice model by FXIIIa-targeted near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. The experimental protocol was approved by our institutional animal use committee. Seventy-six C57B/6J mice were subjected to thromboembolic middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham operation. Mice were either intravenously injected with the FXIIIa-targeted probe or control probe. In vivo and ex vivo NIRF imaging were performed thereafter. Probe distribution was assessed with fluorescence microscopy by spectral imaging and quantification system. MR scans were performed to measure lesion volumes in vivo, which were correlated with histology after animal euthanasia. In vivo significant higher fluorescence intensity over the ischemia-affected hemisphere, compared to the contralateral side, was detected in mice that received FXIIIa-targeted probe, but not in the controlled mice. Significantly NIRF signals showed time-dependent processes from 8 to 96 hours after injection of FXIIIa-targeted probes. Ex vivo NIRF image showed an intense fluorescence within the ischemic territory only in mice injected with FXIIIa-targeted probe. The fluorescence microscopy demonstrated distribution of FXIIIa-targeted probe in the ischemic region and nearby micro-vessels, and FXIIIa-targeted probe signals showed good overlap with immune-fluorescent fibrin staining images. There was a significant correlation between total targeted signal from in vivo or ex vivo NIRF images and lesion volume. Non-invasive detection of fibrin deposition in ischemic mouse brain using NIRF imaging is feasible and this technique may provide an in vivo experimental tool in studying the role of fibrin in stroke.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30262. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (ANG II) promotes vascular inflammation and induces abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E knock-out (apoE(-/-)) mice. The aim of the present study was to detect macrophage activities in an ANG II-induced early-stage AAA model using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as a marker. Twenty-six male apoE(-/-) mice received saline or ANG II (1000 or 500 ng/kg/min) infusion for 14 days. All animals underwent MRI scanning following administration of SPIO with the exception of three mice in the 1000 ng ANG II group, which were scanned without SPIO administration. MR imaging was performed using black-blood T2 to proton density -weighted multi-spin multi-echo sequence. In vivo MRI measurement of SPIO uptake and abdominal aortic diameter were obtained. Prussian blue, CD68,α-SMC and MAC3 immunohistological stains were used for the detection of SPIO, macrophages and smooth muscle cells. ANG II infusion with 1000 ng/kg/min induced AAA in all of the apoE(-/-) mice. ANG II infusion exhibited significantly higher degrees of SPIO uptake, which was detected using MRI as a distinct loss of signal intensity. The contrast-to-noise ratio value decreased in proportion to an increase in the number of iron-laden macrophages in the aneurysm. The aneurysmal vessel wall in both groups of ANG II treated mice contained more iron-positive macrophages than saline-treated mice. However, the presence of cells capable of phagocytosing haemosiderin in mural thrombi also induced low-signal-intensities via MRI imaging. SPIO is taken up by macrophages in the shoulder and the outer layer of AAA. This alters the MRI signaling properties and can be used in imaging inflammation associated with AAA. It is important to compare images of the aorta before and after SPIO injection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33523. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have been shown to be suitable in stem cell therapy for resurrecting damaged myocardium, but poor retention of transplanted cells in the ischemic myocardium causes ineffective cell therapy. Hypoxic preconditioning of cells can increase the expression of CXCR4 and pro-survival genes to promote better cell survival; however, it is unknown whether hypoxia preconditioning will influence the survival and retention of CPCs via the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis. CPCs were isolated from adult mouse hearts and purified by magnetic activated cell sorting using c-kit magnetic beads. These cells were cultured at various times in either normoxic or hypoxic conditions, and cell survival was analyzed using flow cytometry and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), CXCR4, phosphorylated Akt and Bcl-2 were measured by Western blot. Results showed that the expression of pro-survival genes significantly increased after hypoxia treatment, especially in cells cultured in hypoxic conditions for six hours. Upon completion of hypoxia preconditioning from c-kit+ CPCs for six hours, the anti-apoptosis, migration and cardiac repair potential were evaluated. Results showed a significant enhancement in anti-apoptosis and migration in vitro, and better survival and cardiac function after being transplanted into acute myocardial infarction (MI) mice in vivo. The beneficial effects induced by hypoxia preconditioning of c-kit+ CPCs could largely be blocked by the addition of CXCR4 selective antagonist AMD3100. Hypoxic preconditioning may improve the survival and retention of c-kit+ CPCs in the ischemic heart tissue through activating the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis and the downstream anti-apoptosis pathway. Strategies targeting this aspect may enhance the effectiveness of cell-based cardiac regenerative therapy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e37948. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel photonic suspension array has been developed for multiplex immunoassay. The carriers of this array were silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs). The codes of these carriers have characteristic reflection peaks originating from their structural periodicity; therefore they do not suffer from fading, bleaching, quenching or chemical instability. In addition, the fluorescence background of SCCBs is negligible because no fluorescence materials or dyes are involved. With a sandwich method, the proposed suspension array was used for simultaneous multiplex detection of heart failure (HF) and coronary heart disease (CAD) biomarkers in one test tube. The results showed that the three biomarkers: cardiac troponin I (cTnI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) could be assayed in the ranges of 0.1-500 ng/ml, 1-500 mg/L and 0.02-50 ng/ml with detection limits of 0.01 ng/ml, 0.36 mg/L and 0.004 ng/ml at 3σ, respectively. There were no significant differences between the photonic suspension array and traditional parallel single-analyte test. This novel method demonstrated acceptable accuracy, high detection sensitivity and reproducibility and excellent storage stability. This technique provides a new strategy for low cost, automated, and simultaneous multiplex immunoassays of bio-markers.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41448. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the targeting activity of the peptide (named P1c) derived from connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) to αvβ3-rich tumor cells. P1c was synthesized and conjugated with ultrasuperparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIOs) coated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The specific binding activity of P1c-USPIOs to αvβ3 was verified by solid phase binding assay. The combination of P1c-USPIOs with a human primary liver cancer cell (Bel 7402) with αvβ3-positive expression and uptake of P1c-USPIOs by cells was investigated by Prussian blue staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The targeting activity of the probe in vivo was also evaluated using a small-animal tumor model by MRI. The cell uptake of P1c-USPIOs was observed in a dose-dependent manner, whereas no significant particle uptake was found in the plain USPIOs group. The differences on T2*-weighted imaging were also found by MRI and the signal intensity (SI) was statistically reduced after coculture of Bel 7402 cells with P1c-USPIOs at a concentration of 20-80 μg/mL compared with plain USPIOs (P < 0.05). The in vivo study showed that the signal reduction was distributed mainly in the periphery and some central areas of the tumor. The tumor-to-muscle CNR (contrast-to-noise ratio) at 12 hours after the administration of the P1c-USPIOs was statistically significantly different compared to those at 0 hour, 1 hour, or the plain USPIO group (P < 0.05). The peptide P1c might be a good candidate as a targeting carrier for drugs or tracers.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 08/2011; 34(2):395-402. · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to detect and follow transplanted superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Infarcted rats were randomized to injections of SPIO-labeled EPCs, unlabeled EPCs, or saline. From 1 day to 8 weeks, in vivo serial MRI was performed for cell tracking. Labeled cells were visualized as hypointense areas by MRI. The presence of labeled EPCs at 10 days and disappearance of these cells by 8 weeks was confirmed by iron and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Co-staining for iron and ED-1 showed that the iron-positive cells were macrophages. EPC implantation significantly elevated vascular endothelial growth factor expression, accompanied by increased capillary and arteriole density in the ischemic myocardium. At 8 weeks, the transplanted EPCs were not present and the enhanced MRI signals arose from macrophages. However, both EPCs enhanced cardiac function. The major mechanism of cardiac improvement appears to be paracrine pathways of the engrafted EPCs.
    Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging 04/2011; 13(2):303-13. · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Results for implantation efficiency and effective improvement of cardiac function in the field of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are controversial. To attempt to clarify this debate, we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared optical imaging (OI) to explore the effects of different delivery modes of mesenchymal stem cells on cell retention time and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Rat MSCs were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and 1, 1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine, 4-chlorobenzenesulfonate salt (DiD) for noninvasive cell tracking in a rat MI model. Rats underwent coronary artery ligation and were randomized into three experimental groups: intravenous (IV), intramyocardial (IM), and a control group. The first two groups referred to the route of delivery of the transplanted dual-labeled MSCs; whereas the control group was given an IV injection of serum-free medium one day post-MI. Cellular engraftment was determined 1 day and 7 days post cell delivery by measuring the iron and optical signals in explanted organs. Prussian blue staining and fluorescent microscopy were performed on histological sections for iron and DiD, respectively. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography on day 7. The cardiac function of the IM group increased significantly compared to the IV and control groups at day 7. In the IM group, labeled cells were visualized in the infracted heart by serial MRI, and the intensity by OI was significantly higher on day 1. In the IV group, the heart signals were significantly attenuated by dual-modal tracking at two time points, but the lung signals in OI were significantly stronger than the IM group at both time points. IM injection of MSCs increased cell engraftment within infarcted hearts and improved cardiac function after MI. However, IV infusion has a low efficacy due to the cell trapping in the lung. Therefore, direct injection may provide an advantage over IV, with regard to retention of stem cells and protection of cardiac function.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2011; 6:815-23. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of intracoronary transfer of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeled heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpressed bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a porcine myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model. Cell apoptosis was assayed and supernatant cytokine concentrations were measured in BMSCs that underwent hypoxia/reoxygen in vitro. Female mini-swines that underwent 1 h LAD occlusion followed by 1 h reperfusion were randomly allocated to receive intracoronary saline (control), 1 x 10(7) SPIO-labeled BMSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-Lacz plasmid (Lacz-BMSCs), pcDNA3.1-human HO-1 (HO-1-BMSCs), pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 pretreated with a HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, n = 10 each). MRI and postmortem histological analysis were made at 1 week or 3 months thereafter. Post hypoxia/reoxygen in vitro, apoptosis was significantly reduced, supernatant VEGF significantly increased while TNF-alpha and IL-6 significantly reduced in HO-1-BMSCs group compared with Lacz-BMSCs group (all p < 0.05). Myocardial expression of VEGF was significantly higher in HO-1-BMSCs than in Lacz-BMSCs group at 1 week post transplantation (all p < 0.05). Signal voids induced by the SPIO were detected in the peri-infarction region in all BMSC groups at 1 week but not at 3 months post transplantation and the extent of the hypointense signal was the highest in HO-1-BMSCs group, and histological analysis showed that signal voids represented cardiac macrophages that engulfed the SPIO-labeled BMSCs. Pretreatment with SnPP significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of HO-1-BMSCs. Transplantation of HO-1-overexpressed BMSCs significantly enhanced the beneficial effects of BMSCs on improving cardiac function in this model.
    Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 05/2010; 105(3):431-42. · 7.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2237897, rs2283228) in KCNQ1 are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in different ancestral groups. We investigated whether these 4 genetic markers are determinants of type 2 diabetes and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in a Chinese population. We studied 398 consecutive patients, including 180 with coronary stenosis >or=50% or previous myocardial infarction (male <55 years, female <65 years) and 218 controls without documented CAD. CAD cases and controls were genotyped for 4 SNPs by using the ligase detection reaction method. The 3 genotypes AA, AC, and CC were present in rs2283228 and rs2237895, and the 3 genotypes CC, CT, TT were present in rs2237897 and rs2237892. No differences were found in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of these 4 SNPs between subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. Logistic regression showed that the risk of premature CAD in subjects carrying the CC genotype at rs2237892 was reduced by 90% in relation to individuals carrying the TT genotype (OR = 0.100, 95% CI: 0.018-0.564, P = 0.009). The association of other 3 SNPs with premature CAD could not be detected, nor did there exist any association of these 4 SNPs among groups of patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3-vessel disease (all P > 0.05). Our data implicate rs2237892 in KCNQ1 as a protective gene variant against premature CAD and we couldn't replicate any association of these 4 SNPs with T2DM or extent of coronary lesions in a Chinese population.
    Molecular Biology Reports 08/2009; 37(1):207-12. · 2.51 Impact Factor