[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Changes in stiffness parameters can predict the higher risk of the development of cardiovascular disease.
Cadaveric donor kidney transplant patients (n=184) were followed in a cross-sectional single-center study. Arterial stiffness parameters were measured by arteriography. We analyzed the correlation between stiffness parameters and immunosuppressive therapy, the main operation parameters, patient age, elapsed time since transplantation, carotid artery stenosis, and septual wall thickness. We enrolled 24 patients in a 3-year longitudinal study to analyze changes in stiffness parameters.
Our cross-sectional study showed pulse wave velocity (PWV) to be significantly related to the age of the patient (P=.0001; r=0.41). There was no significant correlation between the stiffness parameters and type or dosage of immunosuppressive drugs and number of transplantations. We noted significant correlations between pulse pressure (PP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), and augmentation index (AI) (P=.01). Patients with abnormal PWV (>12 m/s) showed significantly higher systolic blood pressures, body mass indexes, PP, and AI (P<.01). Our 3-year longitudinal study revealed a significant elevation in PWV.
Improving endothelial function and prevention of atherosclerosis may help to reduce cardiovascular complications. Among chronic kidney disease patients, early transplantation is a possible way to prevent cardiovascular events. It is better to perform the transplantation at as early an age as possible.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating IgG antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (anti-oxLDL) have been implicated in the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of IgG anti-oxLDL antibodies in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
In total 54 patients with ACS and 41 matched healthy controls were involved in this prospective study. Serum IgG anti-oxLDL levels were assessed by ELISA.
Higher IgG anti-oxLDL levels were found in patients with ACS versus controls (22.8 ± 23.3 vs. 7.5 ± 5.27 EU/ml, p < 0.0001). IgG anti-oxLDL concentrations were significantly higher in ACS patients with unstable clinical complications (circulatory insufficiency, malignant arrhythmias, recurring ischaemic pain, positive stress-test, need for urgent coronary intervention or sudden cardiac death) versus those without such complications (30.0 vs. 11.7 EU/ml, p < 0.001). Twelve patients (22%) were taking statins. Patients on statins had a significant reduction in clinical complications (33%) versus patients not receiving statin therapy (61%). IgG anti-oxLDL levels were also different in these two groups (11.4 vs. 25.8 EU/ml, respectively; p = 0.03). Serum IgG anti-oxLDL levels correlated with the subsequent development of unstable coronary events. Levels of anti-oxLDL significantly decreased in response to statin therapy, independently of its lipid-lowering effect.
Anti-oxLDL antibodies are involved in ACS. The association of anti-oxLDL with unstable clinical complications may indicate the role of this antibody in plaque destabilization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a distinct clinical entity characterized by arterial and venous thromboembolic events, recurrent fetal loss and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the patients' sera. In primary APS, there is no detectable underlying disease, while overlap APS is associated with clinical syndromes including systemic autoimmune diseases, infections, or malignancies. We carried out a retrospective analysis of serological and clinical manifestations as well as assessed outcome-measures in 165 patients with primary APS. Thrombotic manifestations and possible signs of autoimmune diseases were determined at the time of the diagnosis, followed by the analysis of recurrent thrombotic events and effects of therapy during the follow-up period. Among the 165 patients with primary APS at onset, 105 patients (63%) remained primary APS after a mean 5.2 years of follow-up. In 14% of the patients, subsequently APS became associated with various characteristics of undifferentiated connective tissue disease. Finally 23% of patients evolved into a definitive systemic autoimmune disease during a mean 9.75 years of follow-up. Recurrent thrombotic events were registered in 24% of patients. Our results suggest that primary APS may be considered as a potential early phase of a dynamic transition towards a well-defined systemic autoimmune disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by increased pathologic autoantibody production. A decrease in the number of CD4+CD25(high)FoxP3+ regulatory T cells can play a key role in the loss of tolerance to self antigens. Our aim was to determine the absolute number of peripheral CD4+CD25(high)FoxP3+ T cells in 44 patients with SLE, furthermore, to measure the changes in the number of CD+CD25(high)FoxP3+ T cells in 5 patients with severe SLE treated with repeated plasmapheresis for 4-6 days in comparison to the changes in the activity of disease (SLEDAI). Percent of CD4+CD25(high)FoxP3+ T cells were measured by flow cytometry. The absolute number of peripheral CD4+CD25(high)FoxP3+ T cells was significantly decreased in the 44 patients with SLE compared to the healthy controls n = 32 (0.012 +/- 0.006 vs. 0.038 +/- 0.017 G/L, p < 0.05). In the 5 patients with severe SLE the repeated plasmapheresis treatments increased the peripheral number of CD4+CD25(high)FoxP3+ T cells. As the number of CD4+CD25(high)FoxP3+ T cells increased during the treatment, the activity of disease (the value of SLE activity index) decreased. In the peripheral blood of SLE patients not only the ratio was decreased (as it was published earlier) but also the absolute number of these regulatory T cells. The repeated plasmapheresis treatments of SLE patients induced a significant increase in the number of peripheral CD4+CD25(high)FoxP3+ T cells in parallel to the decrease in the values of SLEDAI (the activity of disease). This phenomenon is, among others, possibly due to the elimination of interpheron-alpha and lymphocytotoxic antibodies during plasmapheresis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) includes vasculopathy with endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), as well as endothelium-independent, nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation (NMD) of the brachial artery and to assess common carotid intimal-medial thickness (ccIMT) in SSc patients compared with healthy controls.
FMD and NMD of the brachial artery were determined using high-resolution ultrasound imaging and the values were expressed as percentage change from baseline in 29 SSc patients and 29 healthy controls. The two groups were very similar regarding sex, age and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, common carotid arteries were assessed by duplex colour ultrasound, ccIMT determined using high resolution ultrasound and expressed in mm thickness in the same patients and controls. Correlations between FMD, NMD, ccIMT, age and the SSc subtype (diffuse or limited form) were analysed.
In the 29 SSc patients (mean age: 51.8 yrs), the FMD was significantly lower (4.82 +/- 3.76%) in comparison with the controls (8.86 +/- 3.56%) (P < 0.001). No difference was found in NMD between patients (19.13 +/- 17.68%) and controls (13.13 +/- 10.40%) (P > 0.1). There was a tendency of increased ccIMT in SSc patients (0.67 +/- 0.26 mm) compared with healthy subjects (0.57 +/- 0.09), but this difference was not significant (P = 0.067). A significant, positive correlation between ccIMT and age in SSc (r = 0.470, P = 0.013) was detected, as well as in healthy controls (r = 0.61, P = 0.003), but no correlation was found between FMD and age. In addition, ccIMT, but not FMD and NMD, displayed significant correlation with disease duration (r = 0.472, P = 0.011). NMD displayed significant inverse correlation with the age in SSc patients (r = -0.492, P = 0.012), but not in controls. We did not find any correlation between FMD, NMD, ccIMT and SSc subtype.
There is an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation indicated by low FMD in SSc. At the same time, the endothelium-independent dilatation assessed by NMD is still preserved giving an opportunity of nitroglycerine therapy. Carotid atherosclerosis indicated by ccIMT may occur at higher ages and after longer disease duration. Thus, the assessment of FMD in the pre-atherosclerotic stage may have a beneficial diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic relevance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies entailing anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta2 glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies may be involved in a number of vascular diseases including coronary artery diseases (CAD) or stroke. Here we assessed the presence of aPL antibodies in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The frequency of anti-beta2GPI antibodies was significantly higher (14.4%) in ACS in comparison to control healthy subjects (2%). In addition, serum concentrations of anti-beta2GPI antibodies were also increased in ACS. Anti-beta2GPI antibodies of the IgA isotype might be the most relevant for the onset and outcome of ACS. Regarding subclasses of ACS, anti-beta2GPI IgA antibodies were elevated in unstable angina (UA) and myocardial infarction with ST elevation (STEMI), but not in myocardial infarction without ST elevation (NSTEMI). The involvement of anti-beta2GPI antibodies in ACS was more pronounced in men than women, and in younger rather than older patients. Finally, anti-beta2GPI antibodies in ACS were associated with previous stroke, but not with hypertension or previous myocardial infarction. Thus, anti-beta2GPI antibodies may be involved in the thrombotic events underlying ACS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analysed the data of 1519 antiphospholipid antibody (APLA) positive patients between 1986 and 1999. Among them 637 were considered to have antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) based on the 1999 preliminary classification criteria, while 704 patients had no clinical signs of the syndrome. Our aim was to compare the autoantibody profile and clinical characteristics of primary and secondary APS, moreover to evaluate the associations between different APLA and specific symptoms attributable to APS. In our results, the APLA profiles for primary and SLE-associated secondary APS were similar. Among the evaluated clinical symptoms, cerebrovascular thrombosis was found to be more frequent in the SLE-associated, than in the primary APS group (P = 0.04). We identified important differences in the clinical profile of patient populations with various types of APLA. Venous thrombosis occurred more frequently in subjects withlupus anticoagulant (LA), than in those with IgG or IgM type ACLA (P < 0.0001), while coronary, carotid and peripheral artery thrombosis occurred more often in subjects with IgG or IgM ACLA (P < 0.0001). These findings may support the role of antibodies to cardiolipin or its cofactor, beta2glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Cerebrovascular thrombosis was detected in larger proportion of LA or IgG ACLA-positive patients compared with to IgM ACLA-positive subjects, while the occurrence of foetal loss was similar in all three groups.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical datas of 20 patients with severe Guillain-Barre syndrome were evaluated retrospectively. The diagnosis was established on the electrophysiological and histopathological examinations (electroneurography, electromyography, sural nerve and muscle biopsy) and the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid. All of the patients were treated with plasma exchange and some of them with other immunomodulant therapies (intravenous immunoglobuline, steroid, cyclophosphamide), too. To judge the clinical state correctly we used the modified Rankin scale. The patient's follow up went on for maximum 4 years. The improvement was satisfactory in 7 cases (35%) and good in 6 patients (30%). The last 6 patients had pure motor neuropathy. Six patients (30%) remained in severe residual condition. All of them had long-term course of disease, serious sensory symptoms and predominantly axonal degeneration of the peripheral nerves. One patient had died. The plasma exchanges were well tolerated, without any serious adverse event. This therapy would be safe and effective help in Guillain-Barre syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors detected lupus anticoagulant and/or anticardiolipin antibodies in 1519 patients' blood samples between 1986-1999 in 3rd Department of Internal Medicine of Medical School of Debrecen. Examining only the proved thrombotic events and fetal losses as symptoms of antiphospholipid syndrome 218 patients had suffered from this syndrome. Secunder antiphospholipid syndrome was the diagnosis in case of 420 patients, the most common in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (288 patients). In 704 antiphospholipid antibody positivity cases the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome was not fulfilled. Analysing the antibodies profile of primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome in SLE, IgG type anticardiolipin antibody positivity was significantly higher in blood samples of SLE patients (82 patients, p < 0.01). Among thrombotic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome cerebrovascular thrombosis were significantly higher in patients suffering from SLE (128 patients, p < 0.04), while the occurrence of venous thrombosis, thrombosis of coronary, carotic, aorta and peripheral arteries and recurrent abortions was not significantly different in case of primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus anticoagulant positivity means higher risk for venous thrombosis (94 patients, p < 0.0001), but anticardiolipin antibody positivity associated with a higher risk for thrombosis of coronary, carotic, aorta and peripheral arteries (59 patients, p < 0.00006). Comparing IgG- and IgM-type anticardiolipin antibody positivity the authors found significantly higher cerebrovascular thrombosis events in IgG-anticardiolipin group (p < 0.004). Sneddon syndrome were detected in 17 patients in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome group and in 16 cases in secundary, SLE-associated antiphospholipid syndrome group. One of the patients had died because of the Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies resulting in arterial and venous thromboembolism. Apart from primary cases, this syndrome is often associated with autoimmune diseases. Around 50 cases of catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome have been reported as yet. Authors describe the first case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome associated with gastric cancer. Apart from presenting the clinical case, authors also discuss the possible pathomechanism of this associated disorder including the role of immunological factors, as well as antiphospholipid antibodies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies resulting in arterial and venous thromboembolism. Apart from primary cases, this syndrome is often associated with autoimmune diseases. Around 50 cases of catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome have been reported as yet. Authors describe a case of a female patients with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome associated with gastric cancer. This may be the first case of such association in the literature. Authors also discuss the possible pathomechanism of this disorder, as well as the available therapeutic approaches.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The functional activity and the expression of CR1 on the erythrocytes (E) of patients with SLE were, respectively, determined by measuring the binding to E of either complement-opsonized bovine serum albumin (BSA)-anti-BSA immune complexes (ICC) or specific anti-ECR1 MoAbs. We found that both the functional activity and levels of ECR1 in SLE patients homozygous for ECR1 high density allele were significantly lowered compared with healthy controls having the same allele. Soon after plasmapheresis there was a significant increase in E ICC binding activity, and this increased functional activity was stable. Moreover, plasmapheresis reduced the level of immune complexes demonstrable in the circulation of the patients. The expression of ECR1 determined with several different anti-CR1 MoAbs was also elevated as a consequence of plasmapheresis. This elevation was observed for both MoAb 1B4, which competes for the ICC binding site of ECR1, and for MoAb HB8592, which does not, but the time course for the increase in binding of the two MoAbs was different, in that the epitope recognized by MoAb 1B4 increased more rapidly. The present results, considered in the context of previous findings, suggest that more than one mechanism may be operative with respect to the effects of the plasmapheresis in increasing ECR1 levels defined by different epitopes on the molecule.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IgG, IgA and IgM anti-beta2-GPI antibodies in anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), and to establish the clinical significance of IgA type antibodies compared with the other isotypes. Anti-beta2-GPI antibodies were measured in the sera of 70 patients by solid-phase enzyme immunoassay in gamma-irradiated polystyrene plates coated with human purified beta2-GPI. Thirty-three out of the 70 patients were classified as having APS: three of them had primary, and 30 had secondary APS related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The remaining 37 patients had SLE without APS. Anti-beta2-GPI antibodies of IgG, IgA and IgM isotypes were present in 84.8%, 59.3% and 51.5% of patients with APS. Both the frequency and the level of each isotype were significantly higher in patients with APS. This association was very strong for IgA (P = 0.0004 for the antibody frequency and P < 0.0001 for the antibody level), as well as for IgG type antibodies (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001), whereas it was weaker for IgM (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04). A strong relationship was demonstrated between increased IgA anti-beta2-GPI antibody levels and a history of venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, heart valve disease, livedo reticularis and epilepsy. IgG anti-beta2-GPI antibodies were associated with the presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA) in addition to the main features of APS. However, antibodies of IgM isotype were related only to thrombocytopenia and heart valve disease. We recommend the evaluation of anti-beta2-GPI antibodies of IgA isotype in addition to IgG in patients with clinical suspicion of APS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors describe the case of a female patient with a history of simultaneous abortion and deep vein thrombosis as well as moderate bleeding disturbances. Investigations revealed the presence of lupus anticoagulant while a thrombocyte "storage pool" disease was confirmed. This case demonstrates the association of these two haemostatic disturbances, and points to a possible relationship between them. Since detailed analyses failed to demonstrate the presence of antiplatelet antibodies, the authors suggest a possible damaging effect of lupus anticoagulant to the endothelium leading to thrombocyte activation.