Shelly K Weiss

SickKids, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (47)116.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy surgery can be successful in children with extensive congenital or early acquired focal or hemispheric brain lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) despite generalized interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). The aim of this study was to assess if rapid eye movement (REM) sleep reduced generalized IEDs and revealed lateralized IEDs to identify the epileptogenic hemisphere in children with generalized IEDs and normal/subtle changes on MRI. We studied 20 children with generalized IEDs on scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and normal/subtle changes on MRI who underwent intracranial video-EEG for epilepsy surgery. We assessed a minimum of 100 IEDs during REM, non-REM, and wakefulness, and assigned the distribution (generalized, left, or right hemisphere) to each IED. The number of lobes in the resected areas and seizure outcome were compared between 20 children with generalized IEDs and a comparison group of 28 children without generalized IEDs. The mean occurrence rate of generalized IEDs during REM (37%) was significantly lower than that during non-REM (67%, p < 0.001) and wakefulness (54%, p = 0.003). The number of children whose largest number of IEDs was lateralized in REM was significantly higher than that in non-REM (15 vs. 3 children, 75% vs. 15%, p < 0.001). The hemisphere with lateralized IEDs among three states corresponded with the surgical side in 16 children with generalized IEDs. Seventeen children (85%) with generalized IEDs and 27 (96%) without generalized IEDs underwent resective surgery. Multilobar resection was required for 16 children (94%) with generalized IEDs more frequently than 7 children (26%) without generalized IEDs (p < 0.001). Thirteen children (77%) with generalized IEDs and 19 (73%) without generalized IEDs were seizure-free with a mean of 3.3 years of follow-up. Our study demonstrates the importance of assessing REM in children with generalized IEDs as it reveals lateralized epileptogenic spikes. Seizure freedom may be achieved with multilobar resection in these children with generalized IEDs and normal/subtle changes on MRI. Generalized IEDs in children with normal/subtle changes on MRI should not preclude surgical resection. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.
    Epilepsia 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/epi.13081 · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Infantile spasms (IS) are a severe form of childhood epilepsy associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in up to 35% of cases. The objective of this post hoc analysis of our randomized control trial was to determine whether rapid diagnosis and treatment of IS could limit the incidence of ASD while identifying risk factors related to ASD outcome.Methods Patients with IS were randomized in a standardized diagnostic and treatment protocol. Clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG) evaluations were completed at all eight visits over 5 years, while cognitive evaluations were administered at 0, 6, 24 and 60 months, respectively. Autism was initially screened by means of the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) at 24 months, and formally assessed at the 30-and 60-month follow-ups using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Generic (ADOS-G).ResultsOf the 69 patients included in the study, 25 could not be assessed due to severe delay or death. Eleven of the 42 patients screened with CHAT, were found to be at risk of an ASD outcome. ADOS was performed in 44 and 10 were diagnosed with ASD. The CHAT proved to correlate highly with the ADOS (80% ppv). Only patients with symptomatic IS developed ASD (p = 0.003). Earlier diagnosis or successful treatment did not correlate with a reduced rate of ASD. Other risk factors were identified such as having chronic epileptic discharges in the frontotemporal areas after disappearance of hypsarrhythmia (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007) and being of nonwhite origin (p = 0.009).SignificanceASD was only observed in children with sympyomatic IS. Other clinical risk factors include chronic frontotemporal epileptic activity and being of non-white origin. Early diagnosis and treatment did not prevent ASD as an outcome of IS. However, patients at risk for ASD could be identified early on and should in the future benefit from early intervention to potentially improve their long-term outcome.
    Epilepsia 05/2015; 56(6). DOI:10.1111/epi.12997 · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder of childhood. To determine the genetic diagnostic yield in epileptic encephalopathy, we performed a retrospective cohort study in a single epilepsy genetics clinic.Methods We included all patients with intractable epilepsy, global developmental delay, and cognitive dysfunction seen between January 2012 and June 2014 in the Epilepsy Genetics Clinic. Electronic patient charts were reviewed for clinical features, neuroimaging, biochemical investigations, and molecular genetic investigations including targeted next-generation sequencing of epileptic encephalopathy genes.ResultsGenetic causes were identified in 28% of the 110 patients: 7% had inherited metabolic disorders including pyridoxine dependent epilepsy caused by ALDH7A1 mutation, Menkes disease, pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency, cobalamin G deficiency, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency, glucose transporter 1 deficiency, glycine encephalopathy, and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency; 21% had other genetic causes including genetic syndromes, pathogenic copy number variants on array comparative genomic hybridization, and epileptic encephalopathy related to mutations in the SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN8A, KCNQ2, STXBP1, PCDH19, and SLC9A6 genes. Forty-five percent of patients obtained a genetic diagnosis by targeted next-generation sequencing epileptic encephalopathy panels. It is notable that 4.5% of patients had a treatable inherited metabolic disease.SignificanceTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to combine inherited metabolic disorders and other genetic causes of epileptic encephalopathy. Targeted next-generation sequencing panels increased the genetic diagnostic yield from <10% to >25% in patients with epileptic encephalopathy.
    Epilepsia 03/2015; 56(5). DOI:10.1111/epi.12954 · 4.58 Impact Factor
  • 01/2015; 1(1):16-31. DOI:10.1037/tps0000016
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    ABSTRACT: Background The relationship between epilepsy and sleep is bidirectional as seizures disrupt sleep and coexisting sleep disorders have detrimental effects on seizure control and quality of life for both the children and their families. Previous research has reported on sleep disturbance in children with epilepsy primarily by subjective parental reports. Actigraphy may provide a more accurate objective evaluation of sleep, but the validity of this sleep measure for children with epilepsy has not yet been assessed. The primary objective of this study was to validate the use of actigraphy as a tool in studying sleep patterns in children with epilepsy. Methods This was a prospective study comparing sleep and wake epochs recorded for 24 h simultaneously by actigraphy and by continuous video-electroencephalography (VEEG) monitoring in 27 patients aged 2–18 years with medically refractory epilepsy. Results Strong correlations were found between actigraphy and VEEG sleep variables including night sleep period (r = 0.99), night sleep time (r = 0.96), duration of night wake time (r = 0.93) and number of significant wakings during the night (r = 0.81). Conclusion The study results validate that actigraphy is a reliable and objective clinical and research tool for evaluating sleep and wakefulness in children with epilepsy.
    Sleep Medicine 09/2014; 15(9). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.04.021 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Sleep problems are common among children with chronic illnesses such as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (or JIA). However, little is known about the frequency and severity of sleep disturbance(s) and the factors that are associated with sleep problems in children with JIA. The mechanism(s) of the relationships characterizing the development or exacerbation of sleep problems in children with JIA are still unknown, however studies have reported an association. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing research related to sleep problems in children with JIA. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement guided the conduct and reporting of this review. An experienced librarian conducted searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to January 2012, to identify potentially relevant citations. Two members independently selected, rated methodological quality using the QUIPS tool, and extracted data from included studies. Results Ten studies were included and findings varied across studies; studies were mostly cross-sectional, or case-controlled designs, with only one cohort study available. Four studies found that children and adolescents diagnosed with JIA had significantly more sleep disturbances when compared to healthy controls. Pain was most often associated with sleep disturbances. The heterogeneous findings highlight the complex relationships between JIA and sleep, and low methodological quality of studies in the field. Conclusions This review supports an association between poor sleep and increased symptoms related to JIA, specifically the experience of pain. However, results need to be interpreted cautiously given the inconsistent findings regarding factors associated with sleep problems in JIA, the limited evidence available, and its low quality. Furthermore it is not yet determined if the poor sleep patterns predate the symptoms reported with JIA. More research is vital to understanding the factors that predict or perpetuate poor sleep in children and adolescents diagnosed with JIA.
    Pediatric Rheumatology 06/2014; 12(1):19. DOI:10.1186/1546-0096-12-19 · 1.62 Impact Factor
  • Sleep Medicine Clinics 06/2014; 9(2):149-168. DOI:10.1016/j.jsmc.2014.02.006
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    ABSTRACT: The literature has been highly informative for when to use actigraphy and its validity in pediatric research. However, minimal literature exists on how to perform actigraphy, especially in special populations. We determined whether providing actigraphy training to parents and coordinators increased the nights of actigraphy data that could be scored. We compared two studies in children with autism spectrum disorders, one of which provided a basic level of training in a single-site trial and the other of which provided more detailed training to parents and coordinators in a multisite trial. There was an increase in scorable nights in the multisite trial containing a one-hour structured parent training session. Our results support the use of educational tools in clinical trials that use actigraphy.
    Behavioral Sleep Medicine 03/2014; 13(3). DOI:10.1080/15402002.2013.854245 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children with epilepsy have frequent sleep disturbance and challenges in learning and memory. There is little research on the consolidation of memory during sleep in this population. The goal of this pilot study was to determine whether children with epilepsy are able to consolidate memories better after a sleep versus wake period as has been demonstrated in typically developing children. This study was a prospective evaluation of children with epilepsy to determine if sleep improved episodic memory (using word lists) as compared with memory following a wake period of similar duration. The study was conducted in patients in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit at a single academic health science center. In the sleep recall condition, the learning trials were presented in the evening, and delayed recall of the words was tested in the morning. In the wake condition, the learning took place in the morning, and the delayed recall took place later in the day. Subjects wore an actigraph to evaluate sleep/wake patterns. Data regarding the children's epilepsy, antiepileptic medications, and frequency of interictal epileptiform discharges were also documented. Ten children (agd 8-17years) participated in the study. For the entire sample, recall after sleep was better than recall after awake (p=0.03), and 7 of the 10 children showed this effect. However, reanalyses removing an outlier showed no difference between the two recall conditions. The mean number of interictal epileptiform discharges was 8.8 during the recall after sleep and 7.8 during the recall after awake. Three children had seizures during the evaluation. In this pilot study, we demonstrated that a small cohort of children with epilepsy, with similar interictal epileptiform discharges during sleep and wake, showed no advantage in memory for a word list after a period of sleep than after a period of being awake. This finding requires further study in a larger cohort. Poor memory consolidation during sleep may contribute to the cognitive deficits in children with epilepsy.
    Epilepsy & Behavior 01/2014; 31C:176-180. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.12.012 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Sleep Medicine Clinics 01/2014; 9(2):149–168.
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    ABSTRACT: A systems analysis perspective was undertaken to evaluate access to surgery for children with medically refractory epilepsy (MRE) in Ontario, the largest province in Canada. The analysis focused on the assessment of referral patterns, healthcare utilization, time intervals and patient flow to determine surgical candidacy in children with MRE. The purpose of this systems analysis study was to identify rate limiting steps that may lead to delayed surgical candidacy decision and surgery. Prolonged video electroencephalography (vEEG) is the common entry point into the process for all potential epilepsy surgery candidates. Therefore, a single centre retrospective chart review of children and adolescents referred to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) for vEEG monitoring at the primary referral centre for paediatric epilepsy surgery in the province. Basic demographic and referral data were abstracted for all screened cases. Included cases were: (1) age <19 years old at time of first EMU admission, (2) date of EMU admission between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2006 and (3) referral for elective vEEG and/or overnight with vEEG greater than 8h duration. Data were collected on number of seizure conferences, surgical candidacy, surgical outcomes (seizure free and seizure reduction), resource utilization, and recorded time stamps for each event to estimate system delays. During the two-year period, 463 patients were referred to the EMU of whom 349 received prolonged vEEG (>8h). Forty five percent (n=160) of patients came to seizure conference for discussion of their data, of whom 40% (64/160) were considered surgical candidates. Time from first seizure to EMU referral was approximately 4.6 years. Time from referral to admission and admission to first seizure conference were approximately 103 days and 71 days, respectively. From initial EMU referral to surgery ranged from 1.6 to 1.1 years depending on whether the patient required invasive monitoring with intracranial EEG. Overall, 95% of surgical patients had a reduction in seizure frequency, 74% were seizure free after one year post-surgery. Referral rates for surgical assessment are low relative to the estimated number of children living with MRE in Ontario, less than 2%. Hence, only a limited number of children with this disorder in the province of Ontario who could benefit from epilepsy surgery are being assessed for surgical candidacy. The majority of Ontario children with MRE are not being provided the potential opportunity to be seizure free and live without functional limitations following surgical intervention. These data document the critical need for health system redesign in Ontario, the goal of which should be to provide more consistent and just access to evidence-based medical and surgical care for those citizens of the province who suffer from epilepsy.
    Epilepsy research 09/2013; 107. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2013.08.010 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study provided sleep education to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to determine whether an individual or group format was more effective in improving sleep and aspects of daytime behavior and family functioning. Eighty children, ages 2-10 years, with ASD and sleep onset delay completed the study. Actigraphy and parent questionnaires were collected at baseline and 1 month after treatment. Mode of education did not affect outcomes. Sleep latency, insomnia subscales on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and other outcomes related to child and family functioning improved with treatment. Parent-based sleep education, delivered in relatively few sessions, was associated with improved sleep onset delay in children with ASD. Group versus individualized education did not affect outcome.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 06/2013; 44(1). DOI:10.1007/s10803-013-1866-z · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Shelly K. Weiss
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep starts (hypnic jerks) and sleep talking (somniloquy) are both common physiologic phenomenon that occur during sleep in healthy children and adults. They are both examples of nocturnal events that may be a source of concern to parents, partners, or others who are watching or listening to a child or bed-partner during sleep. Neither of these phenomenon disturb sleep, and hence should not have any daytime consequences. Sleep talking can be disturbing to individuals sleeping in close proximity due to anxiety about what it may represent to the individual or simply because it disturbs the sleep of others. Sleep starts can be disturbing also, as they may be confused with sleep-onset seizures. Either phenomenon can coexist with other mental or physical health or other sleep disturbances. Proper diagnosis and where appropriate, reassurance can relieve parental and/or bed-partner’s anxiety and avoid costly and time-consuming evaluations that are often unnecessary. Health care providers must be able to differentiate these phenomena from other worrisome sleep disturbance such as parasomnias or sleep-related breathing disorders may coexist; thus, requiring further evaluation.
    Parasomnias, 01/2013: pages 139-154; , ISBN: 978-1-4614-7626-9
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cognitive impairment is observed commonly in children with a history of infantile spasms (IS). The goal of this study was to prospectively examine the effect on cognitive outcome of a neuroprotective agent used as adjunctive therapy during treatment of the spasms. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, patients received a standardized therapy plus flunarizine or placebo. The standardized treatment consisted of vigabatrin as first-line therapy. Nonresponders were switched to intramuscular synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (sACTH depot) after 2 weeks and, if necessary, to topiramate after two additional weeks. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) were used as outcome measures 24 months after the intervention. Key Findings: Sixty-eight of 101 children diagnosed over 3 years in seven centers in Canada received either adjunctive flunarizine or placebo. Sixty-five of the 68 children (96%) became spasm-free within 8 weeks and no late relapse occurred. Bayley and Vineland results were available at baseline and at 24 months in 45 children. There was no significant difference in the BSID developmental quotient between the flunarizine- and placebo-treated children at baseline (44.3 ± 35.5 vs. 30.9 ± 29.8; p = 0.18) or 24 months later (56.9 ± 33.3 vs. 46 ± 34.2; p = 0.29). However, the 10 flunarizine-treated children with no identified etiology had a better outcome than the eight controls at 24 months on both the Vineland Scale (84.1 ± 11.3 vs. 72.3 ± 9.8; p = 0.03) and the Bayley Scale (87.6 ± 14.7 vs. 69.9 ± 25.3; p = 0.07). Significance: Our study failed to demonstrate a protective effect of flunarizine on cognitive outcome in a cohort of children with IS. An analysis of subgroups suggested that flunarizine may further improve cognitive outcome in children with no identified etiology.
    Epilepsia 08/2012; 53(9):1570-1576. DOI:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2012.03623.x · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) remains a challenging condition for neurosurgeons and epileptologists to manage. Postoperative seizure outcomes remain far inferior to those observed in temporal lobe epilepsies, possibly due to inherent difficulties in delineating and subsequently completely resecting responsible epileptogenic regions. In this study, the authors review their institutional experience with the surgical management of FLE and attempt to find predictors that may help to improve seizure outcome in this population. All surgically treated cases of intractable FLE from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. Demographic information, preoperative and intraoperative imaging and electrophysiological investigations, and follow-up seizure outcome were assessed. Inferential statistics were performed to look for potential predictors of seizure outcome. Forty patients (20 male, 20 female) underwent surgical management of FLE during the study period. Patients were an average of 5.6 years old at the time of FLE onset and 11.7 years at the time of surgery; patients were followed for a mean of 40.25 months. Most patients displayed typical FLE semiology. Twenty-eight patients had discrete lesions identified on MRI. Eight patients underwent 2 operations. Cortical dysplasia was the most common pathological diagnosis. Engel Class I outcome was obtained in 25 patients (62.5%), while Engel Class II outcome was observed in 5 patients (12.5%). No statistically significant predictors of outcome were found. Control of FLE remains a challenging problem. Favorable seizure outcome, obtained in 62% of patients in this series, is still not as easily obtained in FLE as it is in temporal lobe epilepsy. While no statistically significant predictors of seizure outcome were revealed in this study, patients with FLE continue to require extensive workup and investigation to arrive at a logical and comprehensive neurosurgical treatment plan. Future studies with improved neuroimaging and advanced invasive monitoring strategies may well help define factors for success in this form of epilepsy that is difficult to control.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 07/2012; 10(3):206-16. DOI:10.3171/2012.6.PEDS11125 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-frequency oscillations (HFOs), termed ripples at 80-200 Hz and fast ripples (FRs) at >200/250 Hz, recorded by intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), may be a valuable surrogate marker for the localization of the epileptogenic zone. We evaluated the relationship of the resection of focal brain regions containing high-rate interictal HFOs and the seizure-onset zone (SOZ) determined by visual EEG analysis with the postsurgical seizure outcome, using extraoperative intracranial EEG monitoring in pediatric patients and automated HFO detection. We retrospectively analyzed 28 pediatric epilepsy patients who underwent extraoperative intracranial video-EEG monitoring prior to focal resection. Utilizing the automated analysis, we identified interictal HFOs during 20 min of sleep EEG and determined the brain regions containing high-rate HFOs. We investigated spatial relationships between regions with high-rate HFOs and SOZs. We compared the size of these regions, the surgical resection, and the amount of the regions with high-rate HFOs/SOZs within the resection area with seizure outcome. Ten patients were completely seizure-free and 18 were not at 2 years after surgery. The brain regions with high-rate ripples were larger than those with high-rate FRs (p = 0.0011) with partial overlap. More complete resection of the regions with high-rate FRs significantly correlated with a better seizure outcome (p = 0.046). More complete resection of the regions with high-rate ripples tended to improve seizure outcome (p = 0.091); however, the resection of SOZ did not influence seizure outcome (p = 0.18). The size of surgical resection was not associated with seizure outcome (p = 0.22-0.39). The interictal high-rate FRs are a possible surrogate marker of the epileptogenic zone. Interictal ripples are not as specific a marker of the epileptogenic zone as interictal FRs. Resection of the brain regions with high-rate interictal FRs in addition to the SOZ may achieve a better seizure outcome.
    Epilepsia 07/2011; 52(10):1802-11. DOI:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03199.x · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a technique to produce images of dynamic changes in ictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) >40 Hz recorded on subdural electroencephalography (EEG) that are time-locked to the ictal EEG and ictal semiology video. We applied this technique to Jacksonian seizures to demonstrate ictal HFO propagation along the homunculus in the primary sensory-motor cortex to visualize the underlying epileptic network. We analyzed intracranial ictal EEGs from two patients with intractable Jacksonian seizures who underwent epilepsy surgery. We calculated the degrees of increase in amplitude within 40-80, 80-200, and 200-300 Hz frequency bands compared to the interictal period and converted them into topographic movies projected onto the brain surface picture. We combined these data with the ictal EEGs and video of the patient demonstrating ictal semiology. The ictal HFOs began in the sensory cortex and appeared concomitantly with the sensory aura. They then propagated to the motor cortex at the same time that focal motor symptoms evolved. As the seizure progressed, the ictal HFOs spread or reverberated in the rolandic region. However, even when the seizure became secondarily generalized, the ictal HFOs were confined to the rolandic region. In both cases, there was increased amplitude of higher frequency bands during seizure initiation compared to seizure progression. This combined movie showed the ictal HFO propagation corresponding to the ictal semiology in Jacksonian seizures and revealed the epileptic network involved in seizure initiation and progression. This method may advance understanding of neural network activities relating to clinical seizure generation and propagation.
    Epilepsia 11/2010; 52(1):75-83. DOI:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2010.02776.x · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined potential differences in the effects of pathology type on language lateralization in pediatric epilepsy. We examined findings from intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (IAP/Wada) in a large consecutive sample of children with refractory epilepsy. Subjects were assigned to one of three pathology groups: developmental (n = 28), acquired (n = 26), and tumor (n = 20); groups were compared for language lateralization. Rates of atypical language lateralization did not differ across groups. Greater than half of the subjects with left hemisphere insults and seizure onset before 6 years of age had atypical language lateralization, independent of pathology type. Atypical language lateralization may occur in the context of developmental, acquired, and/or tumor pathology.
    Epilepsia 03/2009; 50(6):1498-504. DOI:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.02014.x · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of adults who underwent temporal lobectomy for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) demonstrated declining seizure free rates over time. Using seizure and social parameters, we followed patients who had temporal lobe surgery (TLS) in childhood to determine long-term outcomes. We identified 42 patients who underwent TLS for medically intractable epilepsy during childhood. Follow-up data were collected from 10 to 20 years after surgery (median, 12 years). We studied histopathology, seizure outcome, employment, school enrolment, and driver's licensing. Patients or parents graded their satisfaction with TLS. Number of Engel class I patients was 34 (81%) after 6 months; 32 (76%) after 1 year; 30 (71%) after 5 years; and 28 (67%) at last >or=10 years follow-up. Nineteen (79%) of 24 children with tumors or cavernous angioma achieved class I outcomes in contrast to 9 (50%) of 18 children with other pathologies (p<0.05). Ten (56%) of 18 recurrent seizure patients experienced seizures within the first year; 4 required reoperation for seizure freedom. More seizure free patients (24, 86%) than residual seizure patients (8, 57%) were employed or in school (p=0.05). Twelve (63%) of 19 eligible patients obtained driver's licenses. Twenty-three (82%) of 28 seizure free patients discontinued anticonvulsants. Surgery grading averaged "satisfied." Class I patients reported greater satisfaction than class III/IV patients (p<0.001). Two-thirds of children who underwent TLS achieved seizure freedom at >or=10 year follow-up. Children with tumors or cavernous angiomas achieved better long-term outcomes than those with other histopathologies. Long-term seizure free patients were most often satisfied with surgery and employed or in school.
    Epilepsy research 10/2008; 82(2-3):133-8. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2008.07.012 · 2.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

753 Citations
116.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2015
    • SickKids
      • Division of Neurology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001–2015
    • University of Toronto
      • • Division of Neurology
      • • Hospital for Sick Children
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada