[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prostate cancer incidence, anatomic distribution, Gleason score profile, and tumor burden in patients diagnosed by transperineal template-guided saturation biopsy (TTSB).
One hundred and two patients underwent TTSB; all but one patient had undergone at least one prior negative TRUS biopsy. Criteria for inclusion included an elevated PSA and/or the diagnosis of ASAP or high-grade PIN on prior biopsy. The prostate gland was divided into 24 regional biopsy locations. The median number of biopsy cores was 50. Multiple clinical parameters were evaluated as predictors for prostate cancer diagnosis.
The mean patient age was 64.8 yr with a mean PSA of 9.1 ng/ml and a prostate volume of 78.6 cm(3). On average, patients had undergone 2.1 prior negative TRUS biopsies with a mean of 22.4 core biopsies. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 43 patients (42.2%) with a Gleason score distribution of 6-9. No anatomic region of the prostate gland was spared of cancer. In patients with prostate cancer, an average of 9.9 cores were involved. In multivariate analysis, prostate volume was the best predictor for prostate cancer diagnosis.
TTBS diagnosed prostate cancer in 42.2% of patients. Considerable anatomic variability in prostate cancer distribution was documented. On the basis of this and other reports, cancer eradication will depend on treatment of the entire prostate gland.
European Urology 10/2007; 52(3):715-23. DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2007.02.041 · 12.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) spikes after permanent prostate brachytherapy in low-risk patients.
The study population consisted of 164 prostate cancer patients who were part of a prospective randomized trial comparing (103)Pd and (125)I for low-risk disease. Of the 164 patients, 61 (37.2%) received short-course androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. On average, 11.1 post-treatment PSA measurements were obtained per patient. Biochemical disease-free survival was defined as a PSA level of < or =0.40 ng/mL after nadir. A PSA spike was defined as an increase of > or =0.2 ng/mL, followed by a durable decline to prespike levels. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors for a PSA spike.
Of the 164 patients, 44 (26.9%) developed a PSA spike. Of the 46 hormone-naive (125)I patients and 57 hormone-naive (103)Pd patients, 21 (45.7%) and 8 (14.0%) developed a PSA spike. In the hormone-naive patients, the mean time between implantation and the spike was 22.6 months and 18.7 months for (125)I and (103)Pd, respectively. In patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, the incidence of spikes was comparable between isotopes ((125)I 28.1% and (103)Pd 20.7%). The incidence of spikes was substantially different in patients <65 years vs. > or =65 years old (38.5% vs. 16.3%). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, patient age (p < 0.001) and isotope (p = 0.002) were significant predictors for spike.
In low-risk prostate cancer, PSA spikes are most common in patients implanted with (125)I and/or <65 years of age. Differences in isotope-related spikes are most pronounced in hormone-naive patients.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 09/2007; 68(5):1431-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.01.066 · 4.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies on long-term rectal function by means of a patient-administered quality-of-life instrument.
As part of an ongoing prospective evaluation, 164 of an initial 209 patients who remain alive were mailed the Rectal Function Assessment Score (R-FAS) with a prestamped return envelope. R-FAS range from 0 to 27 with lower scores being indicative of better bowel function. Of the 162 eligible patients, 161 (99.4%) returned the survey. Median follow-up was 9.0 years (range 8.2-11.2 years). Clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters evaluated for bowel function included patient age, diabetes, hypertension, tobacco consumption, clinical T stage, elapsed time since brachytherapy, ultrasound volume, planning target volume, androgen deprivation therapy, supplemental external beam radiation, isotope, rectal dose, prostate D100/D150/D200, and prostate D90.
For the entire cohort, the current R-FAS was 3.59, which represented a nonstatistical improvement from prior surveys in 1999 (4.29) and 2002 (3.92) (P=0.134). Only 16 patients (9.9%) reported bowel function to be worse after brachytherapy. Of the clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters evaluated, only the number of preimplant bowel movements, tobacco use, and diabetes correlated with R-FAS. Despite lower rectal doses with Pd, isotope did not predict for bowel function. Consistent with prior surveys, patient perception of overall rectal quality of life was inversely related to supplemental external beam radiation (P=0.027).
Prostate brachytherapy adversely affects bowel function. However, in most patients the changes are minimal and slowly resolve with time. Overall rectal quality of life is inversely related to supplemental external beam radiation.
The Cancer Journal 01/2007; 13(2):95-104. DOI:10.1097/01.PPO.0000260917.97290.70 · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) before seed implantation, stratified into mild (0-7), moderate (8-19) and severe (>20) categories, predicts brachytherapy-related morbidity in terms of IPSS resolution, catheter dependency and the need for surgical intervention after brachytherapy.
From January 1998 to September 2003, 1034 consecutive patients had permanent interstitial brachytherapy for clinical stage T1b-T3a NXM0 (2002 system) prostate cancer. Of the 1034 patients, 739 (71.5%) presented with an IPSS of 0-7, 287 (27.7%) of 8-19, and eight (0.8%) of > or = 20. The IPSS 8-19 cohort was further stratified into 8-14 (237 men) and 15-19 (50 men) subgroups. The median follow-up was 38.2 months. In all patients, an alpha-blocker was initiated before brachytherapy and continued at least until the IPSS normalized, the latter defined as a return to within 1 point of that before implantation. A median of 21 IPSS questionnaires were obtained per patient. Several clinical, treatment and dosimetric variables were evaluated as predictors of urinary morbidity.
For the entire cohort, the IPSS peaked at a mean of 0.5 months after implantation and resolved at a mean of 1.7 months. At 5 years after brachytherapy, 90.1% of patients at risk (88.8%, 95.5%, and four of eight patients with a pre-implant IPSS of 0-7, 8-19 and > or = 20, respectively) were within the IPSS 0-7 category. Compared to the pre-implant IPSS, 13 patients (8%) were assigned to a higher IPSS severity category. Neither prolonged urinary catheter dependency (>5 days; 16 patients, 1.5%) or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP, 17 patients, 1.6%) depended on the pre-implant IPSS subgroup. In Cox regression analysis, IPSS resolution was best predicted by pre-implant IPSS, prolonged catheter dependency by patient age, and TURP by any catheter dependency, the maximum IPSS increase and the maximum urethral dose.
The IPSS before implantation predicted the resolution of IPSS after brachytherapy, but did not correlate with substantial urinary morbidity, including catheter dependency or the need for TURP. At 5 years after brachytherapy, 90.1% of patients at risk were assigned to the IPSS 0-7 category.
BJU International 02/2006; 97(1):62-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.05887.x · 3.13 Impact Factor