[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to extremely poor prognosis, pancreatic cancer (PDAC) represents the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. For more than a decade, gemcitabine (Gem) has been the mainstay of first-line PDAC treatment. Many efforts aimed at improving single-agent Gem efficacy by either combining it with a second cytotoxic/molecularly targeted agent or pharmacokinetic modulation provided disappointing results. Recently, the field of systemic therapy of advanced PDAC is finally moving forward. Polychemotherapy has shown promise over single-agent Gem: regimens like PEFG-PEXG-PDXG and GTX provide significant potential advantages in terms of survival and/or disease control, although sometimes at the cost of poor tolerability. The PRODIGE 4/ACCORD 11 was the first phase III trial to provide unequivocal benefit using the polychemotherapy regimen FOLFIRINOX; however the less favorable safety profile and the characteristics of the enrolled population, restrict the use of FOLFIRINOX to young and fit PDAC patients. The nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-Paclitaxel) formulation was developed to overcome resistance due to the desmoplastic stroma surrounding pancreatic cancer cells. Regardless of whether or not this is its main mechanisms of action, the combination of nab-Paclitaxel plus Gem showed a statistically and clinically significant survival advantage over single agent Gem and significantly improved all the secondary endpoints. Furthermore, recent findings on maintenance therapy are opening up potential new avenues in the treatment of advanced PDAC, particularly in a new era in which highly effective first-line regimens allow patients to experience prolonged disease control. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in the systemic treatment of advanced PDAC, mostly focusing on recent findings that have set new standards in metastatic disease. Potential avenues for further development in the metastatic setting and current efforts to integrate new effective chemotherapy regimens in earlier stages of disease (neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and multimodal approaches in both resectable and unresectable patients) are also briefly discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia has been associated with prolonged survival selectively in patients on a conventional schedule (combined 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin [FOLFOX2]) but not on a chronomodulated schedule of the same drugs administered at specific circadian times (chronoFLO4). The authors hypothesized that the early occurrence of chemotherapy-induced symptoms correlated with circadian disruption would selectively hinder the efficacy of chronotherapy.
Fatigue and weight loss (FWL) were considered to be associated with circadian disruption based on previous data. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (n = 543) from an international phase 3 trial comparing FOLFOX2 with chronoFLO4 were categorized into 4 subgroups according to the occurrence of FWL or other clinically relevant toxicities during the initial 2 courses of chemotherapy. Multivariate Cox models were used to assess the role of toxicity on the time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS).
The proportions of patients in the 4 subgroups were comparable in both treatment arms (P = .77). No toxicity was associated with TTP or OS on FOLFOX2. The median OS on FOLFOX2 ranged from 16.4 (95% confidence limits [CL], 7.2-25.6 months) to 19.8 months (95% CL, 17.7-22.0 months) according to toxicity subgroup (P = .45). Conversely, FWL, but no other toxicity, independently predicted for significantly shorter TTP (P < .0001) and OS (P = .001) on chronoFLO4. The median OS on chronoFLO4 was 13.8 months (95% CL, 10.4-17.2 months) or 21.1 months (95% CL, 19.0-23.1 months) according to presence or absence of chemotherapy-induced FWL, respectively.
Early onset chemotherapy-induced FWL was an independent predictor of poor TTP and OS only on chronotherapy. Dynamic monitoring to detect early chemotherapy-induced circadian disruption could allow the optimization of rapid chronotherapy and concomitant improvements in safety and efficacy.
Cancer 07/2013; 119(14). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28072 · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a prospective multicenter phase II trial of radioembolization with yttrium-90 (90Y-RE) in chemorefractory liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), we showed that median survival was 12.6 months (95% CI 7.0–18.3) with 48% of 50 patients achieving disease control. In this extension retrospective study, we analyzed whether a panel of biomarkers, known to be associated to an adverse clinical outcome, underwent variations in CRC liver metastases pre and post 90Y-RE.
Of the 50 patients included in the study, 29 pre-90Y-RE therapy and 15 post-90Y-RE had liver biopsy specimens available. In these series we investigated survivin, p53, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 expression pre- and post-90Y-RE by immuhistochemistry (IHC). Our findings evidenced a decrease of survivin (77% vs 33%), p53 (93% vs 73%), Bcl-2 (37% vs 26%) expression as well as of Ki-67 proliferation index (62.5% vs 40%) on liver biopsies collected post-90Y-RE as compared to pre-90Y-RE. In the subset of 13 matched liver metastases we further confirmed the reduction of survivin (92.3% vs 53.8%; p = 0.06), p53 (100% vs 69.2%; p = 0.05) and Bcl-2 (69.2% vs 53.8%; p = 0.05) expression post-90Y-RE. This biomarker modulation was accompanied by morphological changes as steatohepatitis, hepatocyte necrosis, collagen deposition, proliferating and/or bile duct ectasia, focal sinusoidal dilatation and fibrosis.
Although our analysis was conducted in a very limited number cases, these changes appear strictly related to the response to 90Y-RE therapy and may deserve further investigation on a larger series of patients.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 03/2013; 32(1):13. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-32-13 · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical relevance of circadian rhythm modifications in patients on chemotherapy is unknown. Even so, circadian parameter I<O before chemotherapy independently predicted overall survival. This study investigates the relevance of I<O measured during chemotherapy for survival and symptoms. The circadian rest-activity pattern was monitored for 3 days using a wristwatch actigraph while 77 patients were receiving a chemotherapy course within an international randomized Phase III trial. Treatment consisted of first-line chronomodulated or conventional delivery of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin for metastatic colorectal cancer. I<O was computed as the percentage of minutes of activity counts in bed which were below the median of activity out of bed. Circadian disruption was defined by I<O equal to or less than 97.5%. Circadian disruption occurred in 39 patients (51%) on chemotherapy. It was associated with a significantly shorter overall survival, independently of other prognostic factors (multivariate Hazard Ratio: 2.12; p = 0.004). The median survival of patients with a robust circadian rhythm was 22.3 months as compared to 14.7 months in those with circadian disruption during chemotherapy. No toxicity was significantly associated with circadian disruption, but the incidence of grade ≥2 fatigue and of body weight loss ≥5% was two and threefold higher, respectively, in patients with disrupted circadian rhythm on chemotherapy. Chemotherapy disrupted circadian activity rhythm in nearly 50% of the patients. Circadian disruption on chemotherapy predicted for shorter overall survival. The prevention of chemotherapy-induced circadian disruption might reduce toxicity and improve efficacy in cancer patients.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2012; 131(11):2684-92. DOI:10.1002/ijc.27574 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Molecular circadian clocks can modify cancer chemotherapy effects, with a possible moderation according to sex differences. We investigated whether sex determine the optimal delivery schedule of chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.Patients and methodsA meta-analysis was performed using individual data from three international Phase III trials comparing 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin administered in chronomodulated (chronoFLO) or conventional (CONV) infusions. The data from 345 females and 497 males were updated at 9 years. The main end point was survival.ResultsOverall survival was improved in males on chronoFLO when compared with CONV (P = 0.009), with respective median values of 20.8 (95% CL, 18.7 to 22.9) and 17.5 months (16.1 to 18.8). Conversely, median survival was 16.6 months (13.9 to 19.3) on chronoFLO and 18.4 months (16.6 to 20.2) on CONV in females (P = 0.012). The sex versus schedule interaction was a strong predictive factor of optimal treatment schedule, with a hazard ratio of 1.59 (1.30 to 1.75) for overall survival (P = 0.002) in multivariate analysis.Conclusions
Males lived significantly longer on chronomodulated chemotherapy rather than on conventional chemotherapy. The current chronoFLO schedule deserves prospective assessment as a safe and more effective first-line treatment option than conventional delivery for male patients.
Annals of Oncology 06/2012; 23(12). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mds148 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scientific data provide the evidence that secondary K-RAS mutations do not occur during anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy in colorectal cancer patients. This multicenter phase II prospective study aims to investigate the activity of a retreatment with a cetuximab-based therapy.
We enrolled 39 irinotecan-refractory patients who had a clinical benefit after a line of cetuximab- plus irinotecan-based therapy and then a progression of disease for which underwent a new line chemotherapy and finally, after a clear new progression of disease, were retreated with the same cetuximab- plus irinotecan-based therapy.
Median number of therapeutic lines before accrual was 4. Median interval time between last cycle of first cetuximab-based therapy and first cycle of the retreatment was 6 months. Overall response rate was 53.8% with 19 partial responses (48.7%) and 2 complete responses (5.1%). Disease stabilization was obtained in 35.9% of patients and progression in four patients (10.2%). Median progression-free survival was 6.6 months. The correlation between skin toxicity during first cetuximab therapy and during cetuximab rechallenge was significant (P = 0.01).
Rechallenge with the same cetuximab-based therapy may achieve a new important clinical benefit further delaying the progression of disease and improving the therapeutic options.
Annals of Oncology 03/2012; 23(9):2313-8. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdr623 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this phase II study was to assess the activity of panitumumab in combination with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and external radiotherapy (RT) as preoperative treatment in locally advanced rectal cancer patients.
Patients had rectal adenocarcinoma, cT3N+ or cT4N-/+ stage, located <12 cm from the anal margin. Panitumumab was administered before the start of chemo-RT, and every 2 weeks in combination with 5-fluorouracil-oxaliplatin with concurrent RT. Rectal surgery was carried out 7-8 weeks after the end of neoadjuvant treatment. The primary end point was a pathological complete response rate of 25%.
Sixty patients were enrolled from February 2007 to October 2009. Fifty-five (91.7%) patients underwent surgery. Rate of pathological complete response was 21.1% (95% confidence interval 10.4% to 31.6%). Pathological downstaging occurred in 33 of 57 (57.9%) patients. Grade 3-4 toxicity during neoadjuvant treatment was diarrhea (38.9%), cutaneous reactions (18.6%), nausea (5.1%), asthenia (3.4%), anorexia (3.4%), and neutropenia (1.7%). One toxic death was observed for diarrhea.
In our study, the primary end point is not reached and panitumumab combination treatment was associated with high incidence of grade 3-4 diarrhea. The higher pathological complete response rate in comparison with the results of previous neoadjuvant rectal cancer trials with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies supports further studies necessary to understand the possibility of optimal regimens and sequences with chemo-RT.
Annals of Oncology 10/2011; 22(11-22):2424-2430. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdq782 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circadian clocks control cellular proliferation and drug metabolism over the 24 h. However, circadian chronomodulated chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (chronoFLO4) offered no survival benefit as compared with the non-time-stipulated FOLFOX2, in an international randomized trial involving patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (EORTC 05963). The authors hypothesized that treatment near maximum tolerated dose could disrupt circadian clocks thus impairing the efficacy of chronoFLO4 but not of FOLFOX2. Patients with available data (N = 556) were categorized into three subgroups according to the worst grade (G) of neutropenia experienced during treatment. Distinct multivariate models with time-dependent covariates were constructed for each treatment schedule. Neutropenia incidence (all grades) was 33% on chronoFLO4 and 61% on FOLFOX2 (p < .0001), and G3-4 were 7% and 25%, respectively (p < .0001). Neutropenia was significantly more frequent in women than men on either schedule (FOLFOX2, p = .003; chronoFLO4, p = .04). Median survival was 20.7 mo in patients with G3-4 neutropenia versus 12.5 mo in neutropenia-free patients on FOLFOX2 (p < .0001). Corresponding figures were 13.7 and 19.4 mo, respectively, on chronoFLO4 (p = .36). Multivariate analysis confirmed occurrence of severe neutropenia independently predicted for better overall survival on FOLFOX2 (HR = 0.56; p = .015), and worse survival on chronoFLO4 (HR = 1.77, p = .06), with a significant interaction test (p < .0001). Prediction of better survival in neutropenic patients on FOLFOX2 supports the administration of conventional chemotherapy near maximum tolerated dose. The opposite trend shown here for chronoFLO4 supports the novel concept of jointly optimized hematologic tolerability and efficacy through personalized circadian-timed therapy.
Chronobiology International 08/2011; 28(7):586-600. DOI:10.3109/07420528.2011.597532 · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the effectiveness of cetuximab plus chronomodulated irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (FA) and oxaliplatin (L-OHP) (chrono-IFLO) administered as neoadjuvant chemotherapy to increase the resectability of colorectal liver metastases.
This was a phase II prospective trial with rate of liver metastases resection as primary end point. Forty-three patients with unresectable metastases were enroled: 9 with metastases >5 cm; 29 with multinodular (>4) disease; 1 with hilar location; 4 with extrahepatic lung disease. Treatment consisted of cetuximab at day 1 plus chronomodulated irinotecan 5-FU, FA and L-OHP for 2-6 days every 2 weeks. After the first 17 patients, doses were reduced for irinotecan to 110 mg m⁻², 5-FU to 550 mg m⁻² per day and L-OHP to 15 mg m⁻² per day.
Macroscopically complete resections were performed in 26 out of 43 patients (60%) after a median of 6 (range 3-15) cycles. Partial response was noticed in 34 patients (79%). Median overall survival was 37 months (95% CI: 21-53 months), with a 2-year survival of 68% in the entire population, 80.6% in resected patients and 47.1% in unresected patients (P=0.01). Grade 3/4 diarrhoea occurred in 93% and 36% of patients before and after dose reduction.
Cetuximab plus chrono-IFLO achieved 60% complete resectability of colorectal liver metastases.
British Journal of Cancer 10/2010; 103(10):1542-7. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605940 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Responsiveness to Cetuximab alone can be mediated by an increase of Epidermal Growth factor Receptor (EGFR) Gene Copy Number (GCN). Aim of this study was to assess the role of EGFR-GCN in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving chemotherapy plus Cetuximab.
One hundred and one advanced CRC patients (43 untreated- and 58 pre-treated) were retrospectively studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to assess EGFR-GCN and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to determine EGFR expression. Sixty-one out of 101 patients were evaluated also for k-ras status by direct sequencing. Clinical end-points were response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Increased EGFR-GCN was found in 60/101 (59%) tumor samples. There was no correlation between intensity of EGFR-IHC and EGFR-GCN (p = 0.43). Patients receiving chemotherapy plus Cetuximab as first line treatment had a RR of 70% (30/43) while it was 18% (10/56) in the group with previous lines of therapy (p < 0.0001). RR was observed in 29/60 (48%) of patients with increased EGFR-GCN and in 6/28 (21%) in those without (p = 0.02). At multivariate analyses, number of chemotherapy lines and increased EGFR-GCN were predictive of response; EGFR-IHC score, increased EGFR-GCN and number of chemotherapy lines were significantly associated with a significant better PFS. Response to therapy was the only prognostic predictive factor for OS. In the 60 patients analyzed for k-ras mutations, number of chemotherapy lines, increased EGFR-GCN and k-ras wild type status predicted a better PFS.
In metastatic CRC patients treated with chemotherapy plus Cetuximab number of chemotherapy lines and increased EGFR-GCN were significantly associated with a better clinical outcome, independent of k-ras status.
Journal of Translational Medicine 04/2010; 8(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-8-36 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FOLFOX-4 and FOLFIRI are considered equivalent in terms of activity and efficacy as first-line chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The monoclonal antibody (mAb) cetuximab showed intrinsic activity as a single agent in mCRC and was approved in combination with CPT-11 for patients who failed previous CPT-11-based treatment. The purpose of this phase II study was to evaluate the activity and safety of FOLFOX-4 plus cetuximab in untreated mCRC patients.
Untreated patients with measurable metastatic disease and expressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) received cetuximab at a loading dose of 400 mg/m(2), followed by weekly doses of 250 mg/m(2), in combination with the FOLFOX-4 regimen every 2 weeks for a maximum of 12 cycles, after which a maintenance program using cetuximab alone was allowed for a maximum of 6 months.
Eighty-two unselected patients were screened; 70 were EGFR+ and entered the trial. Of the 67 assessable patients, the objective response rate was 64.2% (95% CI: 52.5-75.5%) and the tumor growth control rate was 94% (95% CI: 88-99%). All the objective responses except 1 were confirmed. In the group of patients with initially unresectable liver disease alone, 7/33 (21%) were resected. The median time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were 10.0 and 22.0 months, respectively. The treatment was well tolerated, with no treatment-related deaths, while 24.2% of the patients were affected by cutaneous toxicity of grade >2. Mutational analysis of the KRAS and BRAF genes was retrospectively performed on 35 of the 69 patients treated with cetuximab (51%). KRAS was mutated in 13 out of the 35 cases (37%), whereas no mutations were detected in the BRAF gene. A trend toward an association between KRAS mutations and objective response to treatment (p = 0.07) was demonstrated. Analysis of survival showed that patients harboring KRAS mutations had a trend toward worst TTP (p = 0.14) confirmed by age- and sex-adjusted Cox multivariate regression (hazard ratio, HR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.36-1.06; p = 0.08). Indeed, KRAS mutations were significantly associated with worst OS in both unadjusted analysis (p = 0.047; log rank test) and age- and sex-adjusted Cox multivariate regression (HR = 0.458; 95% CI: 0.248-0.847; p = 0.01).
These results suggest that the combination of FOLFOX-4 plus cetuximab is very active and obtains long TTP with an acceptable toxicity profile. Indeed, our results are in line with recent findings from phase II and phase III randomized studies providing strong evidence that the efficacy of anti-EGFR mAb is confined to patients with wild-type KRAS mCRC. Investigation of other predictive biomarkers may be useful to further define the responder population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rest-activity circadian rhythm (CircAct) reflects the function of the circadian timing system. In a prior single-institution study, the extent of CircAct perturbation independently predicted for survival and tumor response in 192 patients receiving chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Moreover, the main CircAct parameters correlated with several health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scales. In this prospective study, we attempted to extend these results to an independent cohort of chemotherapy-naive metastatic colorectal cancer patients participating in an international randomized phase III trial (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 05963). Patients were randomized to receive chronomodulated or conventional infusion of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients from nine institutions completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 and wore a wrist accelerometer (actigraph) for 3 days before chemotherapy delivery. Two validated parameters (I<O and r24) were used to estimate CircAct. Of 130 patients with baseline CircAct assessments, 96 had baseline HRQoL data. I<O was confirmed to correlate with global quality of life, physical functioning, social functioning, fatigue, and appetite loss (r > |0.25|; P < 0.01). I<O further independently predicted for overall survival with a hazard ratio of 0.94 (P < 0.0001). The associations between CircAct parameters, HRQoL, and survival, which were shown in this international study involving previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer patients, confirm prior single-institution findings in mostly pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer patients. The circadian timing system constitutes a novel therapeutic target. Interventions that normalize circadian timing system dysfunction may affect quality of life and survival in cancer patients.
Cancer Research 07/2009; 69(11):4700-7. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4747 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment optimising desired effects and minimising undesired ones by administering medications at the appropriate time according
to the body’s biological rhythms, e.g. administration of methyl-prednisolon in the morning; signs and symptoms of many diseases
vary over a 24-hour period, e.g. asthma symptoms may be more than 100-fold greater during sleep, myocardial infarction is
more frequent during the initial hours of activity, hypertension is most prominent around noon, ulcer disease is worsening
during early hours of sleep; in cancer treatment, hypothesis of chronotherapy is that normal tissues conform to a circadian
growth cycle, while malignant cell divisions occur randomly; → see also circadian rhythm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Young people (40 years of age) with colorectal cancer (CRC) represent a distinct subgroup with more aggressive disease behaviour compared to older patients. We evaluate whether p53 and bcl-2 could be useful in identifying young patients at higher risk of tumour progression. We reviewed 1340 CRC patients with 58 patients 40 years (4.2%). They had more frequent moderately or poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinomas (26% versus 12.3%, p=0.03); higher advanced stage at diagnosis; shorter 5-year overall survival (49.8% versus 71%; p=0.02); more frequent p53 positive (89.8% versus 72.6%, p<0.05) and bcl-2 negative (88.0% versus 66.2%, p<0.05) tumours; no difference in DNA content or proliferation indexes. Moreover, p53+ and bcl-2- resulted in being independent predictors of survival with shorter survival for the p53+/bcl-2- patients. Combining p53 and bcl-2, we could identify young CRC patients at higher risk of progression, who probably require development of a more sophisticated therapeutic approach based on identification of predictive factors.
European Journal of Cancer 06/2008; 44(9):1217-22. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2008.03.002 · 5.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent study identified a prognostic model for survival in metastatic colorectal cancer patients which included WBC count, alkaline phosphatase (AP), number of metastatic sites, and patients' self-reported social functioning. The aim of this research is to validate this model on data from an independent sample.
This validation study is based on a prospective randomized controlled trial in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer conducted by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Chronotherapy Group. Overall, 564 patients in 10 countries were enrolled. For the purpose of this independent validation, patients with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) baseline data were analyzed. HRQOL was assessed using the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (QLQ-C30). The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for both univariate and multivariate analyses of survival.
The previous model with an additional adjustment, by stratification for sex, was replicated and its parameters were confirmed to independently predict survival: WBC count with an hazard ratio (HR) of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.021 to 1.698; P = .034); AP with an HR of 1.53 (95% CI, 1.188 to 1.979; P = .001); number of sites involved with an HR of 1.90 (95% CI, 1.531 to 2.364; P < .0001); and patients' self-reported social functioning with an HR of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.905 to 0.976; P = .001). The latter translates into a 6% increase in the likelihood of an earlier death for every 10-point decrease in the social functioning scale of the EORTC QLQ-C30.
This study provides confirmatory evidence of the independent prognostic value of patients' self-reported social functioning in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients locally progressing after two lines of chemotherapy, some locoregional approaches showed encouraging results in terms of local control of disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate toxicity, clinical response and quality of life in 48 patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases submitted to selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT).
Up to now 35 patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases, refractory to two lines of chemotherapy, underwent intra-arterial infusion of resin microspheres with yttrium-90 (SIR-spheres). Pre-treatment evaluation included a CT scan, blood tests, a PET scan and arteriography of celiac trunk, hepatic and superior mesenteric artery; extrahepatic uptakes and pulmonary shunts more than 10% were excluded by a Scinti-scan. The gastroduodenal artery was embolized before the SIR-spheres injection. Other exclusion criteria were liver dysfunction and anatomical vascular anomalies. The clinical response was evaluated by CT-scan following the RECIST criteria. Median follow-up was 4 months.
Median number of metastases was 4 (range, 1-15), 38% of cases presenting hepatic involvement < 25%. The median SIRT dose delivered was 1.7 GBq. Median pulmonary shunt was 6%. No operative mortality occurred; early toxicity (within 48 hours) was 20.6%, shown as fever, acute pain and leucocytosis. The late toxicity was 24.1% with chronic pain, jaundice and nausea being the most frequent. All the toxic events were graded 2 or 3 according to the WHO scale. Preliminary results were available in terms of clinical response after 6 weeks: 12.5% had a partial response, 75% a stable disease, while progression of disease, was observed in 12.5% of the patients.
SIRT is a safe treatment in terms of acute and late toxicity. Intra-arterial microspheres could represent a good therapeutic option for patients with progressing liver metastases only, after two lines of systemic chemotherapy.
In vivo (Athens, Greece) 11/2006; 20(6A):711-4. · 0.97 Impact Factor