[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate [(11)C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([(11)C]choline PET/CT) for the detection of a biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.
Retrospective analysis of [(11)C]choline PET/CT performed in 41 consecutive prostate cancer patients with a rising PSA. The mean time to biochemical relapse was 24 months. PSA levels were determined at time of examination, and patients received either a targeted biopsy or surgery. Histopathology reports served as reference for the evaluation of the [(11)C]choline PET/CT findings.
Mean PSA in [(11)C]choline PET/CT positive patients was 3.1 ng/ml (median 2.2 ng/ml, range 0.5-11.6 ng/ml) and 0.86 ng/ml in [(11)C]choline PET/CT negative patients (median 0.83 ng/ml, range 0.41-1.40 ng/ml). Six of 12 patients with PSA < 1.5 ng/ml [(11)C]choline PET/CT revealed a pathological uptake. Histopathology was positive in 6/12 patients in this group. At PSA levels ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 ng/ml all [(11)C]choline PET/CT were positive (n = 16), a positive histology was found in 12/16 patients (75%) and at PSA 2.5-5 ng/ml [(11)C]choline PET/CT was positive in 8/8 patients, confirmed by histology in 7/8 patients. Finally, at PSA higher than 5 ng/ml [(11)C]choline PET/CT identified 5/5 patients positive all confirmed by histology. The sensitivity of [(11)C]choline PET/CT for the detection of recurrence at PSA < 2.5 ng/ml was 89% with a positive predictive value of 72%.
[(11)C]choline PET/CT is useful for re-staging of prostate cancer in patients with rising PSA even at levels below 1.5 ng/ml. Our study confirms results from other published studies on [(11)C]choline PET/CT in prostate cancer relapse.
World Journal of Urology 03/2009; 27(5):619-25. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report a laparoscopic device that facilitates regional ischaemia in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN).
Mimicking the shape of a clamp successfully applied in open PN, we developed a laparoscopic device that allows selective clamping in LPN. After obtaining transperitoneal access to the renal mass, the laparoscopic clamp was placed around the tumour 1-2 cm proximal to the line of resection. After excising the tumour, haemostasis was mainly achieved by applying a haemostyptic agent.
Three patients with elective indications had LPN using this novel laparoscopic clamp. The tumours were in the upper and lower pole of the kidney in one and two patients, respectively. The tumour diameter was 2.4, 2.6 and 3.2 cm, and the selective clamping time 23, 27 and 38 min. Blood loss was minimal in all three cases, with no complications after LPN. The final pathology showed a papillary and clear cell renal carcinoma in two and one patients, respectively. There were no positive margins on histological assessment.
LPN with clamping of the renal parenchyma using this novel device can be used in selected patients with peripheral tumours. Resection of the tumour in a bloodless field is possible. The main advantage is that ischaemia occurs only in the renal parenchyma next to the tumour, facilitating nephron-sparing surgery without being pressed for time.
BJU International 11/2008; 103(6):805-8. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following clamping of the renal hilus, warm ischemia is an issue in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. If ischemia longer than 30 min is anticipated, special protective measures are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a solely laparoscopic technique for in situ cold perfusion of kidneys during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy to increase the tolerance of renal parenchyma to ischemic damage in a porcine model.
Six animals were used in this study. We tried to develop a technique that allowed us to cannulate the renal artery, introduce a catheter to perform an in situ cold perfusion and-the most important feature-secure the catheter throughout the laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
A modified laparoscopic vascular bulldog clamp was ultimately ideal to fulfil expectations. In five pigs, a successful partial nephrectomy in in situ perfusion was performed. The median warm ischemia time, starting from occlusion of the renal artery and vein to the commencement of cold perfusion, was 130 s (range 75-165 s). The subsequent median cold ischemia time in which a partial nephrectomy was simulated was 42 min (range 26-52 min).
The newly developed technique expands the armamentarium of the urologist in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, if the anticipated time of ischemia exceeds 30 min and renal hypothermia is indicated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective clamping techniques are an attractive surgical option in nephron-sparing surgery. We describe the use of the Nussbaum clamp for this procedure and point out the advantages of this clamping technique.
The perirenal fat overlying the tumor is removed from the kidney. It is unnecessary to expose the renal artery and vein. The Nussbaum clamp is placed around the tumor 1 to 2 cm proximal to the line of resection. Afterward, the tumor is excised and a hemostasis achieved. Twelve patients underwent nephron-sparing surgery that used the Nussbaum clamp between January 2006 and November 2006. The indications for nephron-sparing surgery were complicated renal cysts or a suspected renal carcinoma in 3 and 9 patients, respectively. The location of the tumor was in the upper pole, lower pole, middle portion, and in a horseshoe-shaped kidney in 4, 6, 1, and 1 patient, respectively. The median time of selective clamping and intraoperative blood loss was 19 minutes (range 12 to 31 minutes) and 300 mL (range: 100 to 500 mL), respectively.
The Nussbaum clamp is a commercially available, easy-to-use and effective instrument for selective clamping in nephron-sparing surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the results using an extensive saturation biopsy in men with negative prostate biopsies but in whom there is still a clinical suspicion for carcinoma.
Between February 1999 and October 2004 we offered 40 patients (median age 63 years) an extensive saturation biopsy if there was clinical suspicion of prostate cancer after previous negative prostate biopsies. The median (range) number of cores taken was 64 (39-139) and was adjusted to the size of the prostate. All patients received general or spinal anaesthesia.
Of the 40 patients, 18 (45%) had carcinoma in at least one core; 16 had a radical prostatectomy, which showed pT2a, pT2b, pT2c, pT3a and pT3b adenocarcinoma of the prostate in three, four, six, two and one patients, respectively. Brachytherapy and external radiation were the therapies of choice in the other patients. Sixteen patients had marked haematuria after the biopsy procedure.
There is no significant increase in the cancer detection rate in an extensive saturation-biopsy regimen compared to published series with fewer cores, but the morbidity increased.
BJU International 04/2008; 102(4):459-62. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this prospective study we set out to investigate the diagnostic value of [(11)C]choline-PET/CT in patients with suspected lymph node metastases before salvage lymph node dissection.
15 consecutive patients with rising PSA underwent [(11)C]choline-PET/CT and consecutive open salvage pelvic/retroperitoneal extended lymph node dissection due to uptake of [(11)C]choline in at least 1 lymph node. Mean age was 62.1 (range 53-73).
[(11)C]choline-PET/CT results were compared with the histopathology reports and clinical follow-up (mean 13.7 months, range 6-24). Mean time to progression was 23.6 months (range 4-81). [(11)C]choline uptake was observed in nodes along the external and internal and common iliac arteries and in the paraaortic region. A positive histology was reported in 8/15 patients. Only one patient had a PSA nadir of <0.1 ng/ml after salvage surgery. Another patient had stable disease with a PSA of 0.5 ng/ml. Three patients developed bone metastases during follow-up.
This interim analysis indicates that [(11)C]choline-PET/CT may be a useful technique in detection of lymph node metastases when rising PSA occurs after definite prostate cancer therapy. The presented cohort is limited in size, but there is still strong evidence that the patients benefit from [(11)C]choline-PET/CT and consecutive salvage lymph node dissection is rather small.
Urologia Internationalis 02/2008; 81(2):191-7. · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with prolonged catheter drainage following pelvic surgery are at increased risk for bacteriuria that may have an impact on the clinical course.
We retrieved all urine analyses from 148 consecutive patients that underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy at our institution in 2002. The following data were generated: number of bacteriuria with day of onset, used antibiotics, microbiological analysis, resistogram, day of catheter removal and clinical postoperative course.
44.6% of the investigated patients presented with bacteriuria. The highest incidence of bacteriuria was between day 13-15 (40.4%). The most common bacteria detected over the hospital stay were Staphylococcus spp. (24.3%). The most common used antibiotic was trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (44.6%). The highest susceptibility was found for levofloxacin (62.4%). No difference in time period of catheter drainage was noticeable in patients with bacteriuria compared to patients without bacteriuria.
Bacteriuria is common after radical prostatectomy. To minor the risk of complications related to bacterial infection, the catheter should be removed 7-10 days after surgery. In case of the necessity of longer catheter drainage, an empiric antibiotic therapy seems rational.
Urologia Internationalis 02/2008; 81(4):389-93. · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The indications for nephron-sparing surgery are expanding constantly. One major contributing fact for this development is the improvement of haemostatic techniques following excision of the tumor. Nevertheless, postoperative bleeding complications still occur. To prevent this, we prospectively studied the effect of application of small-intestine submucosa (SIS) over the renal defect.
We performed 55 nephron-sparing surgeries applying SIS between 08/03 and 10/06 in 53 pts. (mean age: 59 yrs., range 29 - 79 yrs.). After resection of the renal tumor and application of a haemostyptic agent, we used SIS to secure and apply compression on the defect.
The final pathology revealed clear-cell and papillary carcinoma, papillary adenoma, oncocytoma, and angiomyolipoma in 39 (70.9%), 6 (10.9), 1 (1.8%), 2 (3.6%) and 7 (12.7%) patients, respectively. The 45 malignant lesions (81.8%) were classified as pT1a and pT1b in 35 (77.8%) and 10 (22.2%) patients, respectively. The median tumor size was 4.5 cm (range: 1.3 - 13 cm). The median operating time was 186 min (range: 90 - 260 min). 18 (32.7%) procedures were performed without ischemia. 23 (41.8%) and 14 (25.5%) cases were operated in in-situ cold and warm ischemia, respectively. The median intraoperative blood loss was 730 cc (range: 100 - 2500 cc). No open operative revision was indicated due to postoperative bleeding complications. Furthermore, there was no necessity to substitute persistent blood loss from the drains postoperatively. No urinoma occurred.
SIS is a highly effective and easy-to-use instrument for preventing postoperative bleeding and urinary fistula complications in nephron-sparing surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of nitrate levels in the drinking water on the incidence of urological malignancies in a German community.
For 28 years (1957-86) the community of Bocholt, Germany (70,000 inhabitants) had a drinking water supply with different nitrate levels, i.e. 60 mg/L in group A (57,253 inhabitants) and 10 mg/L in group B (10,037 inhabitants). All newly diagnosed cases of urological malignancies were registered from 1986 to 1997. The incidence was calculated using an age standardization based on the German population.
In all, there were 527 urological malignancies recorded (urothelial cancer 39.8%, renal cell carcinoma 10.8%, testicular tumours 8.0%, penile carcinoma 1.7%, prostate cancer 39.7%). The incidence per 100,000 inhabitants/year of urinary tract tumours was 33.8 in group A and only 17.1 in group B (relative risk, RR 1.98, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.10-3.54). The RR was 0.87 (0.34-2.22) for renal tumours, 0.66 (0.14-2.88) for penile cancer and 1.06 (0.76-1.48) for prostate cancer. For testicular tumours there was an inverse association with nitrate level, with a RR of 0.43 (0.21-0.90).
This study showed an association of nitrate load in drinking water and the incidence of urothelial cancer in both genders, with an inverse correlation to testicular tumours and no correlation with renal, penile and prostatic tumours.
BJU International 06/2005; 95(7):972-6. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: January 1986 and September 2003 cystectomy and formation of an ileal neobladder were performed in 86 female patients. In this retrospective study we focused on the impact of orthotopic reconstruction on female sexuality.
To assess female sexuality the standardized self-reporting instrument female sexual function index was mailed to 44 patients who were 70 years or younger at cystectomy with a recurrence-free followup of greater than 1 year, no pelvic irradiation and no concomitant diseases impairing sexual functions. The questionnaire analyzes 6 domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain) with 19 items. It was returned by 29 patients (65.9%) with a median age of 65.0 years. The indication for cystectomy was benign disease in 8 cases and malignancy in 21.
Factors influencing female sexuality were age younger than 60 years, benign disease, partnership at surgery and current partnership. Clean intermittent catheterization, urinary stress incontinence and hormonal therapy did not affect the results. The 11 of 17 patients who remained sexually active after cystectomy even had slight improvement in all female sexual function items. Six patients ceased to be sexually active postoperatively due to erectile dysfunction or partner death. One patient with interstitial cystitis became sexually active following cystectomy due to the loss of pelvic pain. Another 12 patients remained sexually inactive postoperatively.
All aspects of female sexuality may remain unchanged following cystectomy and ileal neobladder formation as long as sexual activity is not ceased due to other reasons. Even fertility can be preserved when the internal genitalia do not have to be removed.
The Journal of Urology 12/2004; 172(6 Pt 1):2353-7. · 3.70 Impact Factor