Anthony T Yeung

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (41)186.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether pancreatic main duct fluid can provide protein biomarkers with prognostic value. Mass spectrometry proteomics was applied to as little as 20µL of fluid collected at the time of tumor surgical resection. Biomarker proteins identified for 27 patients were correlated with clinical outcomes. Thirteen patients had pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, 4 had intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with in situ adenocarcinoma, 5 had ampullary adenocarcinomas, 2 had intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, and 3 had benign diseases. In pathologic stage II or higher pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, moderate or high expression of S100A8 or S100A9 proteins was associated with a median disease recurrence-free survival of 5.8 months compared with 17.3 months in patients with low expression (P = 0.002). Median overall survival was 12.6 versus 27 months for patients with moderate to high versus low S100A8 and A9 expression (P = 0.02). This analysis suggests distinct proteomic signatures for pancreatic cancer. Patients in our study with elevated levels of S100A8 or A9 in the ductal fluid, a near absence of pancreatic enzymes, and high levels of mucins were found to have significantly worse prognosis. Although further validation is needed to corroborate these findings, analysis of pancreatic ductal fluid is a promising tool for identifying biomarkers of interest.
    Pancreas 01/2014; 43(1):22-7. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The search for COPD biomarkers has largely employed a targeted approach that focuses on plasma proteins involved in the systemic inflammatory response and in lung injury and repair. This proof of concept study was designed to test the idea that an open, unbiased, in-depth proteomics approach could identify novel, low abundance plasma proteins i.e., ng/mL concentration, which could serve as potential biomarkers. Differentially expressed proteins were identified in a discovery group with severe COPD (FEV1 <45% predicted; n = 10). Subjects with normal lung function matched for age, sex, ethnicity and smoking history served as controls (n = 10). Pooled plasma from each group was exhaustively immunodepleted of abundant proteins, d separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and extensively fractionated prior to LC-tandem mass spectroscopy (GeLC-MS). Thirty one differentially expressed proteins were identified in the discovery group including markers of lung defense against oxidant stress, alveolar macrophage activation, and lung tissue injury and repair. Four of the 31 proteins (i.e., GRP78, soluble CD163, IL1AP and MSPT9) were measured in a separate verification group of 80 subjects with varying COPD severity by immunoassay. All 4 were significantly altered in COPD and 2 (GRP78 and soluble CD163) correlated with both FEV1 and the extent of emphysema. In-depth, plasma proteomic analysis identified a group of novel, differentially expressed, low abundance proteins that reflect known pathogenic mechanisms and the severity of lung remodeling in COPD. These proteins may also prove useful as COPD biomarkers.
    COPD Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 10/2013; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma proteomic experiments performed rapidly and economically using several of the latest high-resolution mass spectrometers were compared. Four quantitative hyperfractionated plasma proteomics experiments were analyzed in replicates by two AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600 and three Thermo Scientific Orbitrap (Elite/LTQ-Orbitrap Velos/Q Exactive) instruments. Each experiment compared two iTRAQ isobaric-labeled immunodepleted plasma proteomes, provided as 30 labeled peptide fractions. 480 LC-MS/MS runs delivered >250 GB of data in two months. Several analysis algorithms were compared. At 1 % false discovery rate, the relative comparative findings concluded that the Thermo Scientific Q Exactive Mass Spectrometer resulted in the highest number of identified proteins and unique sequences with iTRAQ quantitation. The confidence of iTRAQ fold-change for each protein is dependent on the overall ion statistics (Mascot Protein Score) attainable by each instrument. The benchmarking also suggested how to further improve the mass spectrometry parameters and HPLC conditions. Our findings highlight the special challenges presented by the low abundance peptide ions of iTRAQ plasma proteome because the dynamic range of plasma protein abundance is uniquely high compared with cell lysates, necessitating high instrument sensitivity.
    Journal of Proteome Research 09/2013; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunodepletion of abundant plasma proteins increases the depth of proteome penetration by mass spectrometry. However, the nature and extent of immunodepletion and the effect of off-target depletion on the quantitative comparison of the residual proteins have not been critically addressed. We performed mass spectrometry label-free quantitation to determine which proteins were immunodepleted and by how much. Two immunodepletion resins were compared: Qproteome (Qiagen) which removes albumin+immunoglobulins and Seppro IgY14+SuperMix (Sigma-Aldrich) which removes 14 target proteins plus a number of unidentified proteins. Plasma collected by P100 proteomic plasma collection tubes (BD) from 20 human subjects was individually immunodepleted to minimize potential variability, prior to pooling. The abundant proteins were quantified better when using only albumin+immunoglobulins removal (Qproteome) while lower abundance proteins were evaluated better using exhaustive immunodepletion (Seppro IgY14+SuperMix). The latter resin removed at least 155 proteins, 38% of the plasma proteome in protein number and 94% of plasma protein in mass. The depth of immunodepletion likely accounts for the effectiveness of this resin in revealing low abundance proteins. However, the more profound immunodepletion achieved with the IgY14+SuperMix may lead to false-positive fold-changes between comparison groups if the reproducibility and efficiency of the depletion of a given protein is not considered.
    Journal of Proteome Research 10/2012; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isobaric multiplexed quantitative proteomics can complement high-resolution sample isolation techniques. Here, we report a simple workflow exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI)-MW deconvolution (EMMOL) for normalizing isobaric reporter ratios within and between experiments, where small or unknown amounts of protein are used. EMMOL deconvolutes the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) data to yield the quantity of each protein of each sample in the pool, a new approach that enables the comparison of many samples without including a channel of reference standard. Moreover, EMMOL allows using a sufficient quantity of control sample to facilitate the peptide fractionation (isoelectric-focusing was used in this report), and mass spectrometry MS/MS sequencing yet relies on the broad dynamic range of iTRAQ quantitation to compare relative protein abundance. We demonstrated EMMOL by comparing four pooled samples with 20-fold range differences in protein abundance and performed data normalization without using prior knowledge of the amounts of proteins in each sample, simulating an iTRAQ experiment without protein quantitation prior to labeling. We used emPAI, the target protein MW, and the iTRAQ reporter ratios to calculate the amount of each protein in each of the four channels. Importantly, the EMMOL-delineated proteomes from separate iTRAQ experiments can be assorted for comparison without using a reference sample. We observed no compression of expression in iTRAQ ratios over a 20-fold range for all protein abundances. To complement this ability to analyze minute samples, we report an optimized iTRAQ labeling protocol for using 5 μg protein as the starting material.
    Journal of biomolecular techniques: JBT 04/2012; 23(1):11-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Here we compared the proteomes of primary fibroblast cultures derived from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with those obtained from unaffected controls. The expression signature of about 19% of total fibroblast proteins separates FAP mutation carriers from unaffected controls (P < 0.01). More than 4,000 protein spots were quantified by 2D PAGE analysis, identifying 368 non-redundant proteins and 400 of their isoforms. Specifically, all three classes of cytoskeletal filaments and their regulatory proteins were altered as were oxidative stress response proteins. Given that FAP fibroblasts showed heightened sensitivity to transformation by KiMSV and SV40 including elevated levels of the p53 protein, events controlled in large measure by the Ras suppressor protein-1 (RSU-1) and oncogenic DJ-1, here we show decreased RSU1 and augmented DJ-1 expression in both fibroblasts and crypt-derived epithelial cells from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of FAP gene-carriers. The results indicate that heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteomes of both colon-derived normal fibroblasts in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a "one-hit" effect.
    Oncotarget 03/2011; 2(3):197-208. · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive cancer that is refractory to all current chemotherapeutic regimens. Therefore, uncovering new rational therapeutic targets is imperative in the field. Tyrosine kinase signaling pathways are aberrantly activated in many human cancers and are currently being targeted for chemotherapeutic intervention. Thus, we sought to identify tyrosine kinases hyperactivated in MM. An unbiased phosphotyrosine proteomic screen was employed to identify tyrosine kinases activated in human MM cell lines. From this screen, we have identified novel signaling molecules, such as JAK1, STAT1, cortactin (CTTN), FER, p130Cas (BCAR1), SRC and FYN as tyrosine phosphorylated in human MM cell lines. Additionally, STAT1 and SRC family kinases (SFK) were confirmed to be active in primary MM specimens. We also confirmed that known signal transduction pathways previously implicated in MM, such as EGFR and MET signaling axes, are co-activated in the majority of human MM specimens and cell lines tested. EGFR, MET, and SFK appear to be co-activated in a significant proportion of MM cell lines, and dual inhibition of these kinases was demonstrated to be more efficacious for inhibiting MM cell viability and downstream effector signaling than inhibition of a single tyrosine kinase. Consequently, these data suggest that TKI mono-therapy may not represent an efficacious strategy for the treatment of MM, due to multiple tyrosine kinases potentially signaling redundantly to cellular pathways involved in tumor cell survival and proliferation.
    Genes & cancer 05/2010; 1(5):493-505.
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be differentiated in vitro by aggregation and/or retinoic acid (RA) treatment. The principal differentiation lineage in vitro is extraembryonic primitive endoderm. Dab2, Laminin, GATA4, GATA5, and GATA6 are expressed in embryonic primitive endoderm and play critical roles in its lineage commitment. Results. We found that in the absence of GATA4 or GATA5, RA-induced primitive endoderm differentiation of ES cells was reduced. GATA4 (-/-) ES cells express higher level of GATA5, GATA6, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha marker of visceral endoderm lineage. GATA5 (-/-) ES cells express higher level of alpha fetoprotein marker of early liver development. GATA6 (-/-) ES cells express higher level of GATA5 as well as mesoderm and cardiomyocyte markers which are collagen III alpha-1 and tropomyosin1 alpha. Thus, deletion of GATA6 precluded endoderm differentiation but promoted mesoderm lineages. Conclusions. GATA4, GATA5, and GATA6 each convey a unique gene expression pattern and influences ES cell differentiation. We showed that ES cells can be directed to avoid differentiating into primitive endoderm and to adopt unique lineages in vitro by modulating GATA factors. The finding offers a potential approach to produce desirable cell types from ES cells, useful for regenerative cell therapy.
    Stem cells international. 01/2010; 2010:602068.
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that cells bearing a single inherited "hit" in a tumor suppressor gene express an altered mRNA repertoire that may identify targets for measures that could delay or even prevent progression to carcinoma. We report here on the transcriptomes of primary breast and ovarian epithelial cells cultured from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and controls. Our comparison analyses identified multiple changes in gene expression, in both tissues for both mutations, which were validated independently by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Several of the differentially expressed genes had been previously proposed as cancer markers, including mammaglobin in breast cancer and serum amyloid in ovarian cancer. These findings show that heterozygosity for a mutant tumor suppressor gene can alter the expression profiles of phenotypically normal epithelial cells in a gene-specific manner; these detectable effects of "one hit" represent early molecular changes in tumorigenesis that may serve as novel biomarkers of cancer risk and as targets for chemoprevention.
    Cancer Prevention Research 01/2010; 3(1):48-61. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are currently no diagnostic indicators that are consistently reliable, obtainable, and conclusive for diagnosing and risk-stratifying pancreatic cysts. Proteomic analyses were performed to explore pancreatic cyst fluids to yield effective diagnostic biomarkers. We have prospectively recruited 20 research participants and prepared their pancreatic cyst fluids specifically for proteomic analyses. Proteomic approaches applied were as follows: (1) matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry peptidomics with LC/MS/MS (HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry) protein identification; (2) 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis; (3) GeLC/MS/MS (tryptic digestion of proteins fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS). Sequencing of more than 350 free peptides showed that exopeptidase activities rendered peptidomics of cyst fluids unreliable; protein nicking by proteases in the cyst fluids produced hundreds of protein spots from the major proteins, making 2-dimensional gel proteomics unmanageable; GeLC/MS/MS revealed a panel of potential biomarker proteins that correlated with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Two homologs of amylase, solubilized molecules of 4 mucins, 4 solubilized CEA-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), and 4 S100 homologs may be candidate biomarkers to facilitate future pancreatic cyst diagnosis and risk-stratification. This approach required less than 40 microL of cyst fluid per sample, offering the possibility to analyze cysts smaller than 1 cm in diameter.
    Pancreas 02/2009; 38(2):e33-42. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) because they are virtually certain to develop colon cancer, and because much is known about the causative APC gene. We hypothesized that the inherited heterozygous mutation itself leads to changes in the proteome of morphologically normal crypts and the proteins that changed may represent targets for preventive and therapeutic agents. We determined the differential protein expression of morphologically normal colon crypts of FAP patients versus those of individuals without the mutation, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and validation by two-dimensional gel Western blotting. Approximately 13% of 1,695 identified proteins were abnormally expressed in the morphologically normal crypts of APC mutation carriers, indicating that a colon crypt cell under the one-hit state is already abnormal. Many of the expression changes affect pathways consistent with the function of the APC protein, including apoptosis, cell adhesion, cell motility, cytoskeletal organization and biogenesis, mitosis, transcription, and oxidative stress response. Thus, heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteome of normal-appearing crypt cells in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a detectable one-hit event. These changes may represent the earliest biomarkers of colorectal cancer development, potentially leading to the identification of molecular targets for cancer prevention.
    Cancer Research 10/2008; 68(18):7579-86. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against ABL, BCR-ABL, c-KIT, and PDGFR alpha. Several clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy and safety of imatinib in patients with ovarian carcinoma who have persistent or recurrent disease following front-line platinum/taxane based chemotherapy. However, there is limited pre-clinical and clinical data on the molecular targets and action of imatinib in ovarian cancer. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780) were treated with imatinib mesylate for either 6 or 24 h. We employed a 2D (two-dimensional) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify protein expression patterns and signaling pathways that were altered in response to imatinib. Cells were analyzed for PDGFR alpha and AKT expression, which were then correlated with imatinib sensitivity. Using 2D gel electrophoresis of overlapping pH ranges from pH 4 to 11, about 4,000 protein spots could be analyzed reproducibly. Proteins whose levels changed between twofold to 30 fold were grouped according to whether changes were in the same direction at both time points of treatment with respect to the control, or changed their levels only at one of the time points. Differentially regulated proteins following imatinib treatment of A2780 cells involved the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, metabolic pathways, cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell junctions, and signal transduction. Thus, exposure of cells to imatinib produces complex changes in the cell that require further investigation.
    Cancer genomics & proteomics 08/2008; 5(3-4):137-49.
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    ABSTRACT: We seek alterations in protein patterns at the earliest possible step on the path to cancer, namely, in cells of the target tissue from normal persons versus the corresponding normally appearing cells from persons who are heterozygous for mutation in a tumor suppressor gene that predisposes strongly to carcinoma in that tissue. To begin a systematic comparison of the proteomes of cells from normal and from neoplastic colons, we have undertaken the isolation of human colon crypts that are derived from the normal-appearing mucosa of left (descending) colon of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a proteomic approach that excels in the resolution of protein isoforms. Here, we document the practicality of this approach with human samples using gels of three overlapping pH ranges. For the first time, about 800 nonredundant proteins and 900 isoforms from purified human colonic crypts were identified, permitting an assessment of the contributions of protein isoforms. These interactive, searchable, hyperlink-enabled proteome maps and gene ontology analyses will facilitate future studies to discover the earliest markers and intervention targets during progression to colon cancer.
    Journal of Proteome Research 07/2007; 6(6):2232-8. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The detection of unknown mutations is important in research and medicine. For this purpose, a mismatch-specific endonuclease CEL I from celery has been established as a useful tool in high throughput projects. Previously, CEL I-like activities were described only in a variety of plants and could not be expressed in an active form in bacteria. We describe expression of active recombinant plant mismatch endonucleases and modification of their activities. We also report the cloning of a CEL I ortholog from Spinacia oleracea (spinach) which we termed SP I nuclease. Active CEL I and SP I nucleases were expressed as C-terminal hexahistidine fusions and affinity purified from the cell culture media. Both recombinant enzymes were active in mutation detection in BRCA1 gene of patient-derived DNA. Native SP nuclease purified from spinach is unable to incise at single-nucleotide substitutions and loops containing a guanine nucleotide, but the recombinant SP I nuclease can cut at these sites. The insect cell-expressed CEL I orthologs may not be identical to their native counterparts purified from plant tissues. The present expression system should facilitate further development of CEL I-based mutation detection technologies.
    BMC Biotechnology 02/2007; 7:29. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Altered expression of GATA factors was found and proposed as the underlying mechanism for dedifferentiation in ovarian carcinogenesis. In particular, GATA6 is lost or excluded from the nucleus in 85% of ovarian tumors and GATA4 expression is absent in majority of ovarian cancer cell lines. Here, we evaluated their DNA and histone epigenetic modifications in five ovarian epithelial and carcinoma cell lines (human 'immortalized' ovarian surface epithelium (HIO)-117, HIO-114, A2780, SKOV3 and ES2). GATA4 and GATA6 gene silencing was found to correlate with hypoacetylation of histones H3 and H4 and loss of histone H3/lysine K4 tri-methylation at their promoters in all lines. Conversely, histone H3/lysine K9 di-methylation and HP1gamma association were not observed, excluding reorganization of GATA genes into heterochromatic structures. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, but not the DNA methylation inhibitor 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, re-established the expression of GATA4 and/or GATA6 in A2780 and HIO-114 cells, correlating with increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation, histone H3 lysine K4 methylation and DNase I sensitivity at the promoters. Therefore, altered histone modification of the promoter loci is one mechanism responsible for the silencing of GATA transcription factors and the subsequent loss of a target gene, the tumor suppressor Disabled-2, in ovarian carcinogenesis.
    Oncogene 09/2006; 25(39):5446-61. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA sequences encoding hypothetical proteins homologous to S1 nuclease from Aspergillus oryzae are found in many organisms including fungi, plants, pathogenic bacteria, and eukaryotic parasites. One of these is the M1 nuclease of Mesorhizobium loti which we demonstrate herein to be an enzymatically active, soluble, and stable S1 homolog that lacks the extensive mannosyl-glycosylation found in eukaryotic S1 nuclease homologs. We have expressed the cloned M1 protein in M. loti and purified recombinant native M1 to near homogeneity and have also isolated a homogeneous M1 carboxy-terminal hexahistidine tag fusion protein. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal Edman degradation sequencing confirmed the protein identity. The enzymatic properties of the purified M1 nuclease are similar to those of S1. At acidic pH M1 is 25 times more active on single-stranded DNA than on double-stranded DNA and 3 times more active on single-stranded DNA than on single-stranded RNA. At neutral pH the RNase activity of M1 exceeds the DNase activity. M1 nicks supercoiled RF-I plasmid DNA and rapidly cuts the phosphodiester bond across from the nick in the resultant relaxed RF-II plasmid DNA. Therefore, M1 represents an active bacterial S1 homolog in spite of great sequence divergence. The biochemical characterization of M1 nuclease supports our sequence alignment that reveals the minimal 21 amino acid residues that are necessarily conserved for the structure and functions of this enzyme family. The ability of M1 to degrade RNA at neutral pH implies previously unappreciated roles of these nucleases in biological systems.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2006; 343(1):77-84. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutation is as necessary for life as fidelity is in DNA replication. The study of mutations reveals the normal functions of genes, messages, proteins, the causes of many diseases, and the variability of responses among individuals. Indeed, recent mutations that have not yet become polymorphisms are often deleterious and pertinent to the disease history of afflicted individuals. This review discusses the principles behind a variety of methods for the detection of mutations and factors that should be considered in future methods design. One enzymatic approach in particular using orthologs of the CEL I nuclease that show high specificity for all mismatches, appears to be easy and robust. Further developments of this and other methods will allow mutation detection to become an integral component of individualized medicine.
    BioTechniques 06/2005; 38(5):749-58. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inherently complex signaling networks of tumors result from genetic and epigenetic alterations that occur during cancer initiation and progression. In an attempt to identify early molecular changes associated with dominantly inherited predisposition to "two-hit" renal tumors, the expression profiles of primary cultures of phenotypically normal renal epithelial cells from individuals bearing a germline mutation in either the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) or the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) gene were compared to that of renal epithelial cells from control nonmutation carriers by microarray analysis. Reliability of the microarray data from pooled samples was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Principal Component Analysis revealed substantial differences in the gene expression profiles of the renal epithelial cells from VHL and TSC mutation carriers. In several instances, the microarray data confirm our present knowledge of the cellular pathways affected by biallelic VHL and TSC mutations. These findings demonstrate that heterozygosity for a mutant tumor suppressor gene may alter the expression profiles of phenotypically normal epithelial cells in a gene-specific manner. Detectable effects of "one-hit" represent early molecular changes in tumorigenesis that may serve as targets for chemopreventive intervention.
    Cancer biology & therapy 01/2005; 3(12):1313-21. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Real-time PCR technology using dual-labeled fluorescent oligonucleotide probes allows for sensitive, specific, and quantitative determination of mRNA or DNA targets. Historically, dual-labeled probes have been the most expensive reagent in real-time PCR because of the postsynthesis high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and/or gel purification steps required due to limitations in traditional synthesis chemistry. The recent availability of quencher reagents that allow the 3' quencher incorporation as part of the on-machine synthesis has presented the possibility that probes, when carefully synthesized, may be used without extensive postsynthesis purification. This would substantially reduce cost, making the synthesis of dual-labeled fluorescent probes affordable to any DNA synthesis laboratory. The Nucleic Acids Research Group (NARG) of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) (Santa Fe, NM, USA) tested the hypothesis that now any DNA synthesis laboratory is capable of making quality dual-labeled fluorescent probes suitable for real-time PCRs without the need for postsynthesis purification. Members of the DNA synthesis community synthesized dual-labeled human beta-actin probes and submitted them for quality and functional analysis. We found that probes that were at least 20% pure had the same efficiency as those near 100% purity, but the sensitivity of the assay was reduced as the level of purity decreased.
    BioTechniques 03/2004; 36(2):266-70, 272, 274-5. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    David P Turner, Anthony T Yeung, Alfonso Bellacosa
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2004; 285:133-7.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
206 Downloads
2k Views
186.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      • Institute for Cancer Research
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2003
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Molecular Virology & Microbiology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 1986–1990
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States