[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is an irreversible lung disease characterized by progressive fibrosis in the small airways with eventual occlusion of the airway lumens. OB is most commonly associated with lung transplant rejection; however, OB has also been diagnosed in workers exposed to artificial butter flavoring (ABF) vapors. Research has been limited by the lack of an adequate animal model of OB, and as a result the mechanism(s) is unclear and there are no effective treatments for this condition. Exposure of rats to the ABF component, 2,3-pentanedione (PD) results in airway lesions that are histopathologically similar to those in human OB. We used this animal model to evaluate changes in gene expression in the distal bronchi of rats with PD-induced OB. Male Wistar Han rats were exposed to 200 ppm PD or air 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 2-wks. Bronchial tissues were laser microdissected from serial sections of frozen lung. In exposed lungs, both fibrotic and non-fibrotic airways were collected. Following RNA extraction and microarray analysis, differential gene expression was evaluated. In non-fibrotic bronchi of exposed rats, 4683 genes were significantly altered relative to air-exposed controls with notable down-regulation of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In contrast, in fibrotic bronchi, 3807 genes were significantly altered with a majority of genes being up-regulated in affected pathways. Tgf-β2 and downstream genes implicated in fibrosis were significantly up-regulated in fibrotic lesions. Genes for collagens and extracellular matrix proteins were highly up-regulated. In addition, expression of genes for peptidases and peptidase inhibitors were significantly altered, indicative of the tissue remodeling that occurs during airway fibrosis. Our data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of OB. This new information is of potential significance with regard to future therapeutic targets for treatment.
PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0118459. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118459 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A majority (∼80%) of human malignant mesotheliomas are asbestos-related. However, non-asbestos risk factors (radiation, chemicals, and genetic factors) account for up to 30% of cases. A recent 2-year National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity bioassay showed that male F344/N rats exposed to the industrial toxicant vinylidene chloride (VDC) resulted in a marked increase in malignant mesothelioma. Global gene expression profiles of these tumors were compared to spontaneous mesotheliomas and the F344/N rat mesothelial cell line (Fred-PE) in order to characterize the molecular features and chemical-specific profiles of mesothelioma in VDC-exposed rats. As expected, mesotheliomas from control and VDC-exposed rats shared pathways associated with tumorigenesis, including cellular and tissue development, organismal injury, embryonic development, inflammatory response, cell cycle regulation, and cellular growth and proliferation, while mesotheliomas from VDC-exposed rats alone showed overrepresentation of pathways associated with pro-inflammatory pathways and immune dysfunction such as the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling pathway, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-12 signaling, interleukin responses, Fc receptor signaling, and natural killer and dendritic cells signaling, as well as overrepresentation of DNA damage and repair. These data suggest that a chronic, pro-inflammatory environment associated with VDC exposure may exacerbate disturbances in oncogene, growth factor, and cell cycle regulation, resulting in an increased incidence of mesothelioma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aged male Fischer 344/N rats are prone to developing spontaneous peritoneal mesotheliomas that arise predominantly from the tunica vaginalis of the testes. A definitive cause for the predominance of this neoplasm in F344/N rats is unknown. Investigation of the molecular alterations that occur in spontaneous rat mesotheliomas may provide insight into their pathogenesis as well enable a better understanding regarding the mechanisms underlying chemically induced mesothelioma in rodents. Mesothelial cell function represents a complex interplay of pathways related to host defense mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Global gene expression profiles of spontaneous mesotheliomas from vehicle control male F344/N rats from 2-year National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity bioassays were analyzed to determine the molecular features of these tumors and elucidate tumor-specific gene expression profiles. The resulting gene expression pattern showed that spontaneous mesotheliomas are associated with upregulation of various growth factors, oncogenes, cytokines, pattern recognition response receptors, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns receptors, and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as downregulation of apoptosis pathways. Alterations in these pathways in turn trigger molecular responses that stimulate cell proliferation and promote tumor survival and progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE) has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine and today is used as an herbal supplement touted for improving neural function and for its antioxidant and anticancer effects. Herbal supplements have the potential for consumption over extended periods of time, with a general lack of sufficient data on long-term carcinogenicity risk. Exposure of B6C3F1 mice to GBE in the 2-year National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity bioassay resulted in a dose-dependent increase in hepatocellular tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We show that the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in GBE exposed animals is complex, involving alterations in H-ras and Ctnnb1 mutation spectra, WNT pathway dysregulation, and significantly altered gene expression associated with oncogenesis, HCC development, and chronic xenobiotic and oxidative stress compared to spontaneous HCC. This study provides a molecular context for the genetic changes associated with hepatocarcinogenesis in GBE exposed mice and illustrates the marked differences between these tumors and those arising spontaneously in the B6C3F1 mouse. The molecular changes observed in HCC from GBE-treated animals may be of relevance to those seen in human HCC and other types of cancer, and provide important data on potential mechanisms of GBE hepatocarcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in people and is mainly due to environmental factors such as smoking and radon. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) tests various chemicals and mixtures for their carcinogenic hazard potential. In the NTP chronic bioassay using B6C3F1 mice, the incidence of lung tumors in treated and control animals is second only to the liver tumors. In order to study the molecular mechanisms of chemically induced lung tumors, an understanding of the genetic changes that occur in spontaneous lung (SL) tumors from untreated control animals is needed. The authors have evaluated the differential transcriptomic changes within SL tumors compared to normal lungs from untreated age-matched animals. Within SL tumors, several canonical pathways associated with cancer (eukaryotic initiation factor 2 signaling, RhoA signaling, PTEN signaling, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling), metabolism (Inositol phosphate metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and purine and pyramidine metabolism), and immune responses (FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, interleukin 8 signaling, and CXCR4 signaling) were altered. Meta-analysis of murine SL tumors and human non-small cell lung cancer transcriptomic data sets revealed a high concordance. These data provide important information on the differential transcriptomic changes in murine SL tumors that will be critical to our understanding of chemically induced lung tumors and will aid in hazard analysis in the NTP 2-year carcinogenicity bioassays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used botanicals for various prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Recently, NTP/NCTR has demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in large intestinal tumors in F344 rats chronically exposed to Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) non-decolorized whole leaf extract (AVNWLE) in drinking water. The morphological and molecular pathways of AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in the F344 rats were compared to human colorectal cancer (hCRC) literature. Defined histological criteria were used to compare AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors with hCRC. The commonly mutated genes (Kras, Ctnnb1, and Tp53) and altered signaling pathways (MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β) important in hCRC were evaluated within AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors. Histological evaluation of the large intestinal tumors indicated eight of twelve adenomas (Ads) and four of twelve carcinomas (Cas). Mutation analysis of eight Ads and four Cas identified point mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the Kras gene (two of eight Ads, two of four Cas), and in exon 2 of the Ctnnb1 gene (three of eight Ads, one of four Cas). No Tp53 (exons 5-8) mutations were found in Ads or Cas. Molecular pathways important in hCRC such as MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β signaling were also altered in AVNWLE-induced Ads and Cas. In conclusion, the AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share several similarities with hCRC at the morphological and molecular levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an odorless gas that produces highly reproducible lesions in the central nervous system. In the present study, the time course for the development of the neurotoxicological lesions was defined and the gene expression changes occurring in the posterior colliculus upon exposure to COS were characterized. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0 or 500 ppm COS for one, two, three, four, five, eight, or ten days, six hours per day. On days 1 and 2, no morphological changes were detected; on day 3, 10/10 (100%) rats had necrosis in the posterior colliculi; and on day 4 and later, necrosis was observed in numerous areas of the brain. Important gene expression changes occurring in the posterior colliculi after one or two days of COS exposure that were predictive of the subsequent morphological findings included up-regulation of genes associated with DNA damage and G1/S checkpoint regulation (KLF4, BTG2, GADD45g), apoptosis (TGM2, GADD45g, RIPK3), and vascular mediators (ADAMTS, CTGF, CYR61, VEGFC). Proinflammatory mediators (CCL2, CEBPD) were up-regulated prior to increases in expression of the astrocytic marker GFAP and macrophage marker CSF2rb1. These gene expression findings were predictive of later CNS lesions caused by COS exposure and serve as a model for future investigations into the mechanisms of disease in the central nervous system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National Toxicology Program (NTP) inhalation studies demonstrated that cumene significantly increased the incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice. Cumene or isopropylbenzene is a component of crude oil used primarily in the production of phenol and acetone. The authors performed global gene expression analysis to distinguish patterns of gene regulation between cumene-induced tumors and normal lung tissue and to look for patterns based on the presence or absence of K-ras and p53 mutations in the tumors. Principal component analysis segregated the carcinomas into groups with and without K-ras mutations, but failed to separate the tumors based on p53 mutation status. Expression of genes associated with the Erk MAP kinase signaling pathway was significantly altered in carcinomas with K-ras mutations compared to tumors without K-ras mutations or normal lung. Gene expression analysis also suggested that cumene-induced carcinomas with K-ras mutations have greater malignant potential than those without mutations. In addition, significance analysis of function and expression (SAFE) demonstrated expression changes of genes regulated by histone modification in carcinomas with K-ras mutations. The gene expression analysis suggested the formation of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in cumene-exposed mice typically involves mutation of K-ras, which results in increased Erk MAP kinase signaling and modification of histones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in cumene-treated B6C3F1 mice were significantly greater than those of the control animals. We evaluated these lung neoplasms for point mutations in the K-ras and p53 genes that are often mutated in humans. K-ras and p53 mutations were detected by cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 87% of cumene-induced lung neoplasms, and the predominant mutations were exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions and exon 2 codon 61 A to G transitions. P53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 56% of cumene-induced neoplasms, and mutations were detected in 52% of neoplasms. The predominant mutations were exon 5, codon 155 G to A transitions, and codon 133 C to T transitions. No p53 mutations and one of seven (14%) K-ras mutations were detected in spontaneous neoplasms. Cumene-induced lung carcinomas showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 4 near the p16 gene (13%) and on chromosome 6 near the K-ras gene (12%). No LOH was observed in spontaneous carcinomas or normal lung tissues examined. The pattern of mutations identified in the lung tumors suggests that DNA damage and genomic instability may be contributing factors to the mutation profile and development of lung cancer in mice exposed to cumene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1,3-Butadiene and chloroprene are multisite carcinogens in B6C3F1 mice with the strongest tumor response being the induction of lung neoplasms in females. Incidence of brain tumors in mice exposed to 1,3-butadiene was equivocal. This article reviews the efforts of our laboratory and others to uncover the mechanisms of butadiene and chloroprene induced lung and brain tumor responses in the B6C3F1 mouse. The formation of lung tumors by these chemicals involved mutations in the K-ras cancer gene and loss of heterozygosity in the region of K-ras on distal chromosome 6, while alterations in p53 and p16 were implicated in brain tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethylene oxide is a multisite carcinogen in rodents and classified as a human carcinogen by the National Toxicology Program. In 2-year mouse studies, ethylene oxide (EO) induced lung, Harderian gland (HG), and uterine neoplasms. We evaluated representative EO-induced and equivalent spontaneous neoplasms for K-ras mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61. K-ras mutations were identified in 100% (23/23) of the EO-induced lung neoplasms and 25% (27/108) of the spontaneous lung neoplasms. Codon 12 G to T transversions were common in EO-induced lung neoplasms (21/23) but infrequent in spontaneous lung neoplasms (1/108). K-ras mutations were found in 86% (18/21) of the EO-induced HG neoplasms and 7% (2/27) of the spontaneous HG neoplasms. Codon 13 G to C and codon 12 G to T transversions were predominant in the EO-induced HG neoplasms but absent in spontaneous HG neoplasms (0/27). K-ras mutations occurred in 83% (5/6) of the EO-induced uterine carcinomas and all were codon 13 C to T transitions. These data show a strong predilection for development of K-ras mutations in EO-induced lung, Harderian gland, and uterine neoplasms. This suggests that EO specifically targets the K-ras gene in multiple tissue types and that this event is a critical component of EO-induced tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo arrays, with over 20,000 target genes, were used to evaluate o-NT- and BCA-induced RPMs, when compared to a non-transformed mesothelial cell line (Fred-PE). Analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software revealed 169 cancer-related genes that were categorized into binding activity, growth and proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and invasion and metastasis. The microarray data were validated by positive correlation with quantitative real-time RT-PCR on 16 selected genes including igf1, tgfb3 and nov. Important carcinogenic pathways involved in RPM formation included insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), p38 MAPkinase, Wnt/beta-catenin and integrin signaling pathways. This study demonstrated that mesotheliomas in rats exposed to o-NT- and BCA were similar to mesotheliomas in humans, at least at the cellular and molecular level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benzene and ethylene oxide are multisite carcinogens in rodents and classified as human carcinogens by the National Toxicology Program. In 2-year mouse studies, both chemicals induced mammary carcinomas. We examined spontaneous, benzene-, and ethylene oxide-induced mouse mammary carcinomas for p53 protein expression, using immunohistochemistry, and p53 (exons 5-8) and H-ras (codon 61) mutations using cycle sequencing techniques. p53 protein expression was detected in 42% (8/19) of spontaneous, 43% (6/14) of benzene-, and 67% (8/12) of ethylene oxide-induced carcinomas. However, semiquantitative evaluation of p53 protein expression revealed that benzene- and ethylene oxide-induced carcinomas exhibited expression levels five- to six-fold higher than spontaneous carcinomas. p53 mutations were found in 58% (7/12) of spontaneous, 57% (8/14) of benzene-, and 67% (8/12) of ethylene oxide-induced carcinomas. H-ras mutations were identified in 26% (5/19) of spontaneous, 50% (7/14) of benzene-, and 33% (4/12) of ethylene oxide-induced carcinomas. When H-ras mutations were present, concurrent p53 mutations were identified in 40% (2/5) of spontaneous, 71% (5/7) of benzene-, and 75% (3/4) of ethylene oxide-induced carcinomas. Our results demonstrate that p53 and H-ras mutations are relatively common in control and chemically induced mouse mammary carcinomas although both chemicals can alter the mutational spectra and more commonly induce concurrent mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and ultraviolet radiation (primarily UVA), called PUVA therapy, has been used to treat different chronic skin diseases but led to a significant increased risk for skin cancer. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) performed a study in mice treated with PUVA that showed a significant increase in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. In the present study, we evaluated the protein expression of p53 and PCNA and DNA mutations of p53 and H-ras genes in both hyperplastic and neoplastic squamous cell lesions from the NTP study. By immunohistochemical staining, protein expression of both p53 and PCNA was detected in 3/16 (19%) of hyperplastic lesions and 14/17 (82%) of SCCs in groups treated with both 8-MOP and UVA. The mutation frequency of p53 in SCCs from mice administered 8-MOP plus UVA was 15/17 (88%) with a predominant distribution of mutations in exon 6 (14/15 - 93%). No H-ras mutations were detected in the hyperplastic lesions/tumors. The mutagenic effect of PUVA on the p53 tumor suppressor gene may lead to a conformational modification and inactivation of the p53 protein, which are considered critical steps in PUVA-induced skin carcinogenesis. The p53 mutational frequency and patterns from our study were different from those reported in human PUVA-type tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in B6C3F1 mice conducted by the National Toxicology Program, 2,2-Bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP) and tetranitromethane (TNM) have been identified as carcinogens. Following 2 yr of exposure to 312, 625, or 1,250 ppm BMP in feed, or exposure to 0.5 or 2 ppm TNM by inhalation, increased incidences of lung neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations compared to unexposed mice. The present study characterizes genetic alterations in the K-ras protooncogene in BMP- and TNM-induced lung neoplasms, respectively, and compares the findings to spontaneous lung neoplasms from corresponding control mice. The frequencies of the K-ras mutations were 57% (29/51) in BMP-induced lung neoplasms compared to 15% (3/20) in lung neoplasms from dosed feed control mice, and 54% (14/26) in TNM-induced lung neoplasms compared to 60% (3/5) in lung neoplasms from inhalation control mice. G --> A transitions at the second base of the K-ras codon 12 (GGT --> GAT) were the most frequent pattern of K-ras mutations identified in BMP-induced (20/29) and TNM-induced lung neoplasms (13/14), which differed from the mutational patterns identified in the lung neoplasms from unexposed control mice. These results indicate that mutations in the K-ras gene are involved in B6C3F1 lung carcinogenesis following BMP- and TNM-exposure, and the high frequency and specificity of the ras mutation profile in lung neoplasms (G --> A transition) may be due to in vivo genotoxicity by the parent compounds or their metabolites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone (ADBAQ) is an anthraquinone-derived vat dye, and a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. In a 2-year study with dietary exposure to 10,000 or 20,000 ppm ADBAQ, increased incidence of forestomach and lung tumors were observed in B6C3F1 mice. The present study indentified genetic alterations in H-ras and K-ras proto-oncogenes in ADBAQ-induced tumors. Point mutations in ras proto-oncogenes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism, single-stranded conformational polymorphis m analysis and cycle sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas in the forestomach, and alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in the lung. A higher frequency of ras mutations was identified in ADBAQ-induced forestomach (23/32, 72%) and lung tumors (16/23, 70%) than in spontaneous forestomach (4/11, 36%) and lung tumors (26/86, 30%). H-ras codon 61 CTA mutations were detected in (4/8, 50%) ADBAQ-induced forestomach squamous cell papillomas and (10/24, 42%) squamous cell carcinomas, but not in the spontaneous forestomach tumors examined. H-ras codon 61 CGA mutation (6/24, 25%) was also detected in ADBAQ-induced forestomach squamous cell carcinomas. K-ras codon 61 A to T transversions and A to G transitions were prominent in ADBAQ-induced lung alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas. The major finding of A to T transversions or A to G transitions in forestomach and lung tumors suggests that ADBAQ or its metabolites target adenine bases in the ras proto-oncogene s and that these mutations play a dominant role in multi-organ carcinogenesi s in the B6C3F1 mouse.