Emma Saavedra

Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico

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Publications (42)157.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd(2+)) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5×10(6)cellsmL(-1)) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O2, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25-33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd(2+) which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd(2+) induced a higher MDA production. Cd(2+) stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd(2+) from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd(2+) under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O2 concentration is particularly low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 05/2015; 288. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.02.027 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4-1% O2 (atmospheric) for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells). In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i) the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii) the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide) and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days) of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117331. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117331 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adhesion to cells, cytotoxicity and proteolysis are functions required for virulence and pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica. However, there was no correlation between these in vitro functions and the early elimination of non-pathogenic E. dispar and non-virulent E. histolytica (nvEh) in experimental amoebic liver abscesses developed in hamsters. Thus, additional functions may be involved in amoebic pathogenicity and virulence. In the present study, an integral experimental assessment, including innovative technologies for analyses of amoebal pathophysiology, cell biology, biochemistry and transcriptomics, was carried out to elucidate whether other cellular processes are involved in amoebal pathogenicity and virulence. In comparison with virulent E. histolytica, the data indicated that the main reasons for the early clearance of nvEh from hamster liver are decreased intracellular H2O2 detoxification rate and deficient heat-shock protein expression, whereas for E. dispar, it is a relatively lower capacity for O2 reduction. Therefore, maintenance of an intracellular hypoxic environment combined with the induction of an adequate parasite response to oxidative stress are essential requirements for Entamoeba survival in the liver, and therefore for pathogenicity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Cellular Microbiology 01/2015; 17(7). DOI:10.1111/cmi.12419 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The principal oxidative-stress defense in the human parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the tryparedoxin-dependent peroxide detoxification pathway, constituted by trypanothione reductase (TryR), tryparedoxin (TXN), tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx) and tryparedoxin-dependent glutathione peroxidase A (GPxA). Here, Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) was applied to quantitatively prioritize drug target(s) within the pathway by identifying its flux-controlling enzymes.Methods The recombinant enzymes were kinetically characterized at physiological pH/temperature. Further, the pathway was in vitro reconstituted using enzyme activity ratios and fluxes similar to those observed in the parasites; then, enzyme and substrate titrations were performed to determine their degree of control on flux. Also, kinetic characterization of the whole pathway was performed.ResultsAnalyses of the kinetic properties indicated that TXN is the less efficient pathway enzyme derived from its high Kmapp for trypanothione and low Vmax values within the cell. MCA established that the TXN–TXNPx and TXN–GPxA redox pairs controlled by 90–100% the pathway flux, whereas 10% control was attained by TryR. The Kmapp values of the complete pathway for substrates suggested that the pathway flux was determined by the peroxide availability, whereas at high peroxide concentrations, flux may be limited by NADPH.Conclusion These quantitative kinetic and metabolic analyses pointed out to TXN as a convenient drug target due to its low catalytic efficiency, high control on the flux of peroxide detoxification and role as provider of reducing equivalents to the two main peroxidases in the parasite.General SignificanceMCA studies provide rational and quantitative criteria to select enzymes for drug-target development.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 10/2014; 1850(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.10.029 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The steps that control the Entamoeba histolytica glycolytic flux were here identified by elasticity analysis, an experimental approach of Metabolic Control Analysis. The concentrations of glycolytic metabolites were gradually varied in live trophozoites by (i) feeding with different glucose concentrations and (ii) inhibiting the final pathway steps; in parallel, the changes in the pathway flux were determined. From the metabolite concentration-flux relationship, the elasticity coefficients of individual or groups of pathway reactions were determined and used to calculate their respective degrees of control on the glycolytic flux (flux control coefficients). The results indicated that the pathway flux was mainly controlled (72-86%) by the glucose transport/ hexokinase/glycogen degradation group of reactions, and by the bifunctional aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE; 18%). Further, inhibition of the first pathway reactions with 2-deoxyglucose (2DOG) decreased the glycolytic flux and ATP content by 75% and 50%, respectively. Cell viability was also decreased by 2DOG (25%) and more potently by 2DOG plus the ADHE inhibitor disulfiram (50%). Biosate as an alternative carbon (amino acid) source was unable to replace glucose for ATP supply, which indicated that glucose was the main nutrient for amebal ATP synthesis and survival. These results indicated that glycolysis in the parasite is mainly controlled by the initial pathway reactions and that their inhibition can decrease the parasite energy load and survival.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEBS Journal 10/2014; 282(2). DOI:10.1111/febs.13131 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics 07/2014; 1837:e127. DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2014.05.036 · 4.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of hypoglycemia on the contents of glycolytic proteins, activities of enzymes/transporters and flux of HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cells was experimentally analyzed and in silico modeled. After 24 h hypoglycemia (2.5 mM initial glucose), significant increase in the glucose transporters (GLUT) 1 and 3 (3.4 and 2.1-fold, respectively) and hexokinase I (HK; 2.3-fold) protein levels were observed compared to the hyperglycemic standard cell culture condition (25 mM initial glucose). However, these changes did not bring about a significant increase in the total activities (i.e. Vmax) of GLUT and HK; instead, increased affinity of these proteins for glucose surged, which may explain the 2-fold increased glycolytic flux under hypoglycemia. Therefore, a change towards greater catalytically efficient isoforms of two of the main controlling steps sufficed to induce increased flux. Further, a previous kinetic model of tumor glycolysis was updated by including the ratios of GLUT and HK isoforms, modified pyruvate kinase kinetics and an oxidative phosphorylation reaction. The updated model was robust in simulating most of the metabolite levels and fluxes of the cells exposed to different glycemia conditions. Model simulations indicated that the main controlling steps were glycogen degradation > HK > hexosephosphate isomerase under hyper- and normo-glycemia, and GLUT > HK > glycogen degradation under hypoglycemia. These predictions were experimentally evaluated: the glycolytic flux of hypoglycemic cells was more sensitive to cytochalasin B (a GLUT inhibitor) than that of hyperglycemic cells. The results indicated that cancer glycolysis should be inhibited at multiple controlling sites, notwithstanding the external glucose levels, to effectively block the pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEBS Journal 06/2014; DOI:10.1111/febs.12864 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Applying basic biochemical principles, this review analyzes data that contrasts with the Warburg hypothesis that glycolysis is the exclusive ATP provider in cancer cells. Although disregarded for many years, there is increasing experimental evidence demonstrating that oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) makes a significant contribution to ATP supply in many cancer cell types and under a variety of conditions. Substrates oxidized by normal mitochondria such as amino acids and fatty acids are also avidly consumed by cancer cells. In this regard, the proposal that cancer cells metabolize glutamine for anabolic purposes without the need for a functional respiratory chain and OxPhos is analyzed considering thermodynamic and kinetic aspects for the reductive carboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase. In addition, metabolic control analysis (MCA) studies applied to energy metabolism of cancer cells are reevaluated. Regardless of the experimental/environmental conditions and the rate of lactate production, the flux-control of cancer glycolysis is robust in the sense that it involves the same steps: glucose transport, hexokinase, hexosephosphate isomerase and glycogen degradation, all at the beginning of the pathway; these steps together with phosphofructokinase 1 control glycolysis in normal cells. The respiratory chain complexes exert significantly higher flux-control on OxPhos in cancer cells than in normal cells. Thus, determination of the contribution of each pathway to ATP supply and/or the flux-control distribution of both pathways in cancer cells is necessary in order to identify differences from normal cells which may lead to the design of rational alternative therapies that selectively target cancer energy metabolism.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 05/2014; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2014.01.025 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phytochelatin synthase from photosynthetic Euglena gracilis (EgPCS) was analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic, functional, and phylogenetic levels. Recombinant EgPCS was a monomeric enzyme able to synthesize, in the presence of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+), phytochelatin2-phytochelatin4 (PC2-PC4) using GSH or S-methyl-GS (S-methyl-glutathione), but not γ-glutamylcysteine or PC2 as a substrate. Kinetic analysis of EgPCS firmly established a two-substrate reaction mechanism for PC2 synthesis with Km values of 14-22 mM for GSH and 1.6-2.5 μM for metal-bis-glutathionate (Me-GS2). EgPCS showed the highest Vmax and catalytic efficiency with Zn-(GS)2, and was inactivated by peroxides. The EgPCS N-terminal domain showed high similarity to that of other PCSases, in which the typical catalytic core (Cys-70, His-179 and Asp-197) was identified. In contrast, the C-terminal domain showed no similarity to other PCSases. An EgPCS mutant comprising only the N-terminal 235 amino acid residues was inactive, suggesting that the C-terminal domain is essential for activity/stability. EgPCS transcription in Euglena cells was not modified by Cd(2+), whereas its heterologous expression in ycf-1 yeast cells provided resistance to Cd(2+) stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the N-terminal domain showed that EgPCS is distant from plants and other photosynthetic organisms, suggesting that it evolved independently. Although EgPCS showed typical features of PCSases (constitutive expression; conserved N-terminal domain; kinetic mechanism), it also exhibited distinct characteristics such as preference for Zn-(GS)2 over Cd-(GS)2 as a co-substrate, a monomeric structure, and ability to solely synthesize short-chain PCs, which may be involved in conferring enhanced heavy-metal resistance.
    Metallomics 01/2014; DOI:10.1039/c3mt00313b · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Application of Systems Biology approaches to energy metabolism of cancer cells help in the understanding of their controlling and regulatory mechanisms and identification of new drug targets. Our group built and validated a kinetic model of tumor glycolysis based on the experimental determination of all the enzyme/transporter kinetic parameters, metabolite concentrations, and fluxes in tumor cells. Model predictions enabled to understand how glycolysis is controlled and allowed identification of the main controlling steps which can be the most promising therapeutic targets. In this chapter, the model was extended to determine the contribution on the pathway function of the expression of different glycolytic isoforms displaying different catalytic properties, a feature commonly observed in tumor cells subjected to hypoxia. Model predictions now indicated that, by fully changing the glucose transporter (GLUT), hexokinase (HK), or both, from low- to high affinity isoforms, the glycolytic flux can be increased (GLUT+HK>GLUT>>HK); however, this concurred with a marked deregulation of the adenine nucleotides concentration. To gradually increase glycolytic flux with no alteration of adenine nucleotides homeostasis, which is closer to the physiological response of tumor cells, the model indicated that simultaneous expression in different ratios of GLUT and HK isoforms with different affinities should be accomplished. Mitochondrial metabolism is also active and essential for cancer cells. Therefore, a cancer energy metabolism model, including glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (Krebs cycle, respiratory chain, Pi/ADP transport, ATP synthase), should identify the most appropriate sites for successful multi-target therapies.
    Systems Biology of Metabolic and Signaling Networks, 01/2014: pages 213-239;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the extent to which the supply of the precursor 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) controls the synthesis of lysine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing exponentially in high glucose, top-down elasticity analysis was used. Three groups of reactions linked by 2-OG were defined. The 2-OG supply group comprised all metabolic steps leading to its formation, and the two 2-OG consumer groups comprised the enzymes and transporters involved in 2-OG transformation into lysine and glutamate and their further utilization for protein synthesis and storage. Various 2-OG steady-state concentrations that produced different fluxes to lysine and glutamate were attained using yeast mutants with increasing activities of Krebs cycle enzymes and decreased activities of Lys synthesis enzymes. The elasticity coefficients of the three enzyme groups were determined from the dependence of the amino acid fluxes on the 2-OG concentration. The respective degrees of control on the flux towards lysine (flux control coefficients) were determined from their elasticities, and were 1.1, 0.41 and -0.52 for the 2-OG producer group and the Lys and Glu branches, respectively. Thus, the predominant control exerted by the 2-OG supply on the rate of lysine synthesis suggests that over-expression of 2-OG producer enzymes may be a highly effective strategy to enhance Lys production.
    FEBS Journal 08/2013; DOI:10.1111/febs.12490 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By applying metabolic control analysis and inhibitor titration we determined the degree of control (flux control coefficient) of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and bifunctional aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) over the fluxes of fermentative glycolysis of Entamoeba histolytica subjected to aerobic conditions. The flux-control coefficients towards ethanol and acetate formation determined for PFOR titrated with diphenyleneiodonium were 0.07 and 0.09, whereas for ADHE titrated with disulfiram were 0.33 and -0.19, respectively. ADHE inhibition induced significant accumulation of glycolytic intermediates and lower ATP content. These results indicate that ADHE exerts significant flux-control on the carbon end-product formation of amoebas subjected to aerobic conditions.
    FEBS letters 11/2012; 587(2). DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2012.11.020 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfate uptake was analyzed in photosynthetic Euglena gracilis grown in sulfate sufficient or sulfate deficient media, or under Cd(2+) exposure or Cys overload, to determine its regulatory mechanisms and contribution to Cys homeostasis. In control and sulfate deficient or Cd(2+)-stressed cells, one high affinity and two low affinity sulfate transporters were revealed, which were partially inhibited by photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors and ionophores, as well as by chromate and molybdate; H(+) efflux also diminished in presence of sulfate. In both sulfate deficient and Cd(2+)-exposed cells, the activity of the sulfate transporters was significantly increased. However, the content of thiol-metabolites was lower in sulfate-deficient cells, and higher in Cd(2+)-exposed cells, in comparison to control cells. In cells incubated with external Cys, sulfate uptake was strongly inhibited correlating with 5-times increased intracellular Cys. Re-supply of sulfate to sulfate deficient cells increased the Cys, γ-glutamylcysteine and GSH pools, and to Cys-overloaded cells resulted in the consumption of previously accumulated Cys. In contrast, in Cd(2+) exposed cells none of the already elevated thiol-metabolites changed. (i) Sulfate transport is an energy-dependent process; (ii) sulfate transporters are over-expressed under sulfate deficiency or Cd(2+) stress and their activity can be inhibited by high internal Cys; and (iii) sulfate uptake exerts homeostatic control of the Cys pool.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2012; 1820(10):1567-75. DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.05.002 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A kinetic model of trypanothione [T(SH)(2)] metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi was constructed based on enzyme kinetic parameters determined under near-physiological conditions (including glutathione synthetase), and the enzyme activities, metabolite concentrations and fluxes determined in the parasite under control and oxidizing conditions. The pathway structure is characterized by a T(SH)(2) synthetic module of low flux and low catalytic capacity, and another more catalytically efficient T(SH)(2) -dependent antioxidant/regenerating module. The model allowed quantification of the contribution of each enzyme to the control of T(SH)(2) synthesis and concentration (flux control and concentration control coefficients, respectively). The main control of flux was exerted by γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γECS) and trypanothione synthetase (TryS) (control coefficients of 0.58-0.7 and 0.49-0.58, respectively), followed by spermidine transport (0.24); negligible flux controls by trypantothione reductase (TryR) and the T(SH)(2)-dependent antioxidant machinery were determined. The concentration of reduced T(SH)(2) was controlled by TryR (0.98) and oxidative stress (-0.99); however, γECS and TryS also exerted control on the cellular level of T(SH(2)) when they were inhibited by more than 70%. The model predicted that in order to diminish the T(SH)(2) synthesis flux by 50%, it is necessary to inhibit γECS or TryS by 58 or 63%, respectively, or both by 50%, whereas more than 98% inhibition was required for TryR. Hence, simultaneous and moderate inhibition of γECS and TryS appears to be a promising multi-target therapeutic strategy. In contrast, use of highly potent and specific inhibitors for TryR and the antioxidant machinery is necessary to affect the antioxidant capabilities of the parasites.
    FEBS Journal 03/2012; 279(10):1811-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2012.08557.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Endoplasmic Reticulum stores calcium and is a site of protein synthesis and modification. Changes in ER homeostasis lead to stress responses with an activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The Entamoeba histolytica endomembrane system is simple compared to those of higher eukaryotes, as a canonical ER is not observed. During amoebiasis, an infection of the human intestine and liver by E. histolytica, nitric oxide (NO) triggers an apoptotic-like event preceded by an impairment of energy production and a loss of important parasite pathogenic features. We address the question of how this ancient eukaryote responds to stress induced by immune components (i.e. NO) and whether stress leads to ER changes and subsequently to an UPR. Gene expression analysis suggested that NO triggers stress responses marked by (i) dramatic up-regulation of hsp genes although a bona fide UPR is absent; (ii) induction of DNA repair and redox gene expression and iii) up-regulation of glycolysis-related gene expression. Enzymology approaches demonstrate that NO directly inhibits glycolysis and enhance cysteine synthase activity. Using live imaging and confocal microscopy we found that NO dramatically provokes extensive ER fragmentation. ER fission in E. histolytica appears as a protective response against stress, as it has been recently proposed for neuron self-defense during neurologic disorders. Chronic ER stress is also involved in metabolic diseases including diabetes, where NO production reduces ER calcium levels and activates cell death. Our data highlighted unique cellular responses of interest to understand the mechanisms of parasite death during amoebiasis.
    PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e31777. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031777 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Trichomonas vaginalis 120 kDa protein adhesin (AP120) is induced under iron-rich conditions and has sequence homology with pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase A (PFO A), a hydrogenosomal enzyme that is absent in humans. This homology raises the possibility that, like AP120, PFO might be localized to the parasite surface and participate in cytoadherence. Here, the cellular localization and function of PFO that was expressed under various iron concentrations was investigated using a polyclonal antibody generated against the 50 kDa recombinant C-terminal region of PFO A (anti-PFO50). In Western blot assays, this antibody recognized a 120 kDa protein band in total protein extracts, and proteins with affinity to the surface of HeLa cells from parasites grown under iron-rich conditions. In addition to localization that is typical of hydrogenosomal proteins, PFOs that were expressed under iron-rich conditions were found to localize at the surface. This localization was demonstrated using immunofluorescence and co-localization assays, as well as immunogold transmission electron microscopy. In addition to describing its enzyme activity, we describe a novel function in trichomonal host interaction for the PFO localized on the parasite surface. The anti-PFO50 antibody reduced the levels of T. vaginalis adherence to HeLa cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, T. vaginalis PFO is an example of a surface-associated cell-binding protein that lacks enzyme activity and that is involved in cytoadherence. Additionally, PFO behaves like AP120 in parasites grown under iron-rich conditions. Therefore, these data suggest that AP120 and PFO A are encoded by the same gene, namely pfo a.
    Microbiology 12/2011; 157(Pt 12):3469-82. DOI:10.1099/mic.0.053033-0 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first committed step in the lysine (Lys) biosynthetic pathway is catalysed by the Lys20 and Lys21 homocitrate synthase (HCS) isoforms. Overexpression of Lys20 resulted in eightfold increased Lys, as well as 2-oxoglutarate pools, which were not attained by overexpressing Lys21 or other pathway enzymes (Lys1, Lys9 or Lys12). A metabolic control analysis-based strategy, by gradually and individually manipulating the Lys20 and Lys21 activities demonstrated that the cooperative and strongly feedback-inhibited Lys21 isoform exerted low control of the pathway flux whereas most of the control resided on the non-cooperative and weakly feedback-inhibited Lys20 isoform. Therefore, the higher control of Lys20 over the Lys flux represents an exception to the dogma of higher pathway control by the strongest feedback-inhibited enzyme and points out to multi-site engineering (HCS isoforms and supply of precursors) to increase Lys synthesis.
    Molecular Microbiology 09/2011; 82(3):578-90. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07832.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kinetic analysis of PFK-1 from rodent AS-30D, and human HeLa and MCF-7 carcinomas revealed sigmoidal [fructose 6-phosphate, Fru6P]-rate curves with different V(m) values when varying the allosteric activator fructose 2,6 bisphosphate (Fru2,6BP), AMP, Pi, NH(4)(+), or K(+). The rate equation that accurately predicted this behavior was the exclusive ligand binding concerted transition model together with non-essential hyperbolic activation. PFK-1 from rat liver and heart also exhibited the mixed cooperative-hyperbolic kinetic behavior regarding activators. Lowering pH induced decreased affinity for Fru6P, Fru2,6BP, citrate, and ATP (as inhibitor); as well as decreased V(m) and increased content of inactive (T) enzyme forms. High K(+) prompted increased (Fru6P) or decreased (activators) affinities; increased V(m); and increased content of active (R) enzyme forms. mRNA expression analysis and nucleotide sequencing showed that the three PFK-1 isoforms L, M, and C are transcribed in the three carcinomas. However, proteomic analysis indicated the predominant expression of L in liver, of M in heart and MCF-7 cells, of L>M in AS-30D cells, and of C in HeLa cells. PFK-1M showed the highest affinities for F6P and citrate and the lowest for ATP (substrate) and F2,6BP; PFK-1L showed the lowest affinity for F6P and the highest for F2,6BP; and PFK-1C exhibited the highest affinity for ATP (substrate) and the lowest for citrate. Thus, the present work documents the kinetic signature of each PFK-1 isoform, and facilitates the understanding of why this enzyme exerts significant or negligible glycolysis flux-control in normal or cancer cells, respectively, and how it regulates the onset of the Pasteur effect.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 01/2011; 113(5):1692-703. DOI:10.1002/jcb.24039 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diseases caused by the trypanosomatid parasites Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania are widely distributed throughout the world. Because of the toxic side-effects and the economically unviable cost of the currently used pharmaceutical treatments, the search for new drug targets continues. Since the antioxidant metabolism in these parasites relies on trypanothione [T(SH)(2)], a functional analog of glutathione, most of the pathway enzymes involved in its synthesis, utilization and reduction have been proposed as drug targets for therapeutic intervention. In the present review, the antioxidant metabolism and the phenotypic effects of inhibiting by genetic (RNA interference, knock-out) or chemical approaches, the T(SH)(2) and polyamine pathway enzymes in the parasites are analyzed. Although the genetic strategies are helpful in identifying essential genes for parasite survival/infectivity, they are less useful for drug-target validation. The effectiveness of targeting each pathway enzyme was evaluated by considering (i) the enzyme kinetic properties and antioxidant metabolite concentrations and (ii) the current knowledge and experimental approaches to the study of the control of fluxes and intermediary concentrations in metabolic pathways. The metabolic control analysis indicates that highly potent and specific inhibitors have to be designed for trypanothione reductase and the peroxide detoxification system, and hence other enzymes emerge (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, trypanothione synthetase, ornithine decarboxylase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and polyamine transporters) as alternative more suitable and effective drug targets in the antioxidant metabolism of trypanosomatids.
    Current drug targets 12/2010; 11(12):1614-30. DOI:10.2174/1389450111009011614 · 3.60 Impact Factor