Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij

Ghent University, Gand, Flemish, Belgium

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Publications (479)1251.8 Total impact

  • Cyberbullying. From theory to intervention., 1 edited by Trijntje Völlink, Francine Dehue, Conor Mc Guckin, 01/2016: chapter 6: pages 93-109; Routledge., ISBN: 978-1-848-72339-9
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    Benedicte Deforche · Delfien Van Dyck · Tom Deliens · Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij ·
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    ABSTRACT: The transition to higher education involves a significant life change and might be accompanied with less healthy behaviours. However, the only longitudinal study that spanned the period from high school to college/university was limited to self-reported weight. Other studies assessed objective weight, but only at the start of the first semester at college/university and used retrospective questionnaires to asses health behaviours in high school. This study investigated changes in objectively assessed weight and prospective health behaviours during the transition from high school to college/university in Belgian students and examined which health behaviour changes were related to weight change. A sample of 291 students was followed from the final year of high school until the second year of college/university. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured objectively. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary intake were estimated using validated questionnaires. In order to study changes in BMI and health behaviours, 2 × 2 (time × gender) Repeated Measures ANOVA analyses were conducted. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was executed to investigate the association between changes in health behaviours and BMI changes, and the moderating effect of gender. On average students gained 2.7 kg with a greater increase in boys (boys: 4.2 kg, girls: 1.9 kg). Active transportation and sport participation decreased. Some sedentary behaviours (watching TV/DVD, playing computer games) decreased, while others (internet use, studying) increased. Consumption of different foods decreased, while alcohol consumption increased. A higher decrease in sport participation, a higher increase in internet use and a lower increase in studying were related to a greater increase in BMI. An increase in alcohol consumption only contributed to weight gain in boys, whereas a decrease in fruit/vegetable intake only contributed to weight gain in girls. We can conclude that the transition to higher education is an at risk period for weight gain and unfavourable changes in health behaviours. Interventions to prevent weight gain in college/university students should therefore already start in high school with a somewhat different focus in boys versus girls.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0173-9 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    Tom Deliens · Benedicte Deforche · Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij · Peter Clarys ·
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    ABSTRACT: College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.
    BMC Public Health 12/2015; 15(1):1553. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1553-4 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Increasing participation in transportation cycling represents a useful strategy for increasing children’s physical activity levels. Knowledge on how to design environments to encourage adoption and maintenance of transportation cycling is limited and relies mainly on observational studies. The current study experimentally investigates the relative importance of micro-scale environmental factors for children’s transportation cycling, as these micro-scale factors are easier to change within an existing neighborhood compared to macro-scale environmental factors (i.e. connectivity, land-use mix, ..). Methods: Researchers recruited children and their parents (n=1232) via 45 randomly selected schools across Flanders and completed an online questionnaire which consisted of 1) demographic questions; and 2) a choice-based conjoint (CBC) task. During this task, participants chose between two photographs which we had experimentally manipulated in seven micro-scale environmental factors: type of cycle path; evenness of cycle path; traffic speed; traffic density; presence of speed bumps; environmental maintenance; and vegetation. Participants indicated which route they preferred to (let their child) cycle along. To find the relative importance of these micro-scale environmental factors, we conducted Hierarchical Bayes analyses. Results: Type of cycle path emerged as the most important factor by far among both children and their parents, followed by traffic density and maintenance, and evenness of the cycle path among children. Among parents, speed limits and maintenance emerged as second most important, followed by evenness of the cycle path, and traffic density. Conclusion: Findings indicate that improvements in micro-scale environmental factors might be effective for increasing children’s transportation cycling, since they increase the perceived supportiveness of the physical environment for transportation cycling. Investments in creating a clearly designated space for the young cyclist, separated from motorized traffic, appears to be the most effective way to increase perceived supportiveness. Future research should confirm our laboratory findings with experimental on-site research.
    PLoS ONE 12/2015; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0143302 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Sara D'Haese · Delfien Van Dyck · Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij · Benedicte Deforche · Greet Cardon ·
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    ABSTRACT: A Play Street is a street that is reserved for children’s safe play for a specific period during school vacations. It was hypothesized that a Play Street near children’s home can increase their moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and decrease their sedentary time. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Play Streets on children’s MVPA and sedentary time. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used to determine the effects of Play Streets on children’s MVPA and sedentary time. Data were collected in Ghent during July and August 2013. The study sample consisted of 126 children (54 from Play streets, 72 from control streets). Children wore an accelerometer for 8 consecutive days and their parents fill out a questionnaire before and after the measurement period. During the intervention, streets were enclosed and reserved for children’s play. Four-level (neighborhood – household – child – time of measurement (no intervention or during intervention)) linear regression models were conducted in MLwiN to determine intervention effects. Positive intervention effects were found for sedentary time (β = -0.76 ± 0.39; χ2 = 3.9; p = 0.05) and MVPA (β = 0.82 ± 0.43; χ2 = 3.6; p = 0.06). Between 14h00 and 19h00, MVPA from children living in Play Streets increased from 27 minutes during normal conditions to 36 minutes during the Play Street intervention, whereas control children’s MVPA decreased from 27 to 24 minutes. Sedentary time from children living in the Play Street decreased from 146 minutes during normal conditions to 138 minutes during the Play Street intervention, whereas control children’s sedentary time increased from 156 minutes to 165 minutes. The intervention effects on MVPA (β = -0.62 ± 0.25; χ2 = 6.3; p = 0.01) and sedentary time (β = 0.85 ± 0.0.33; χ2 = 6.6; p = 0.01) remained significant when the effects were investigated during the entire day, indicating that children did not compensate for their increased MVPA and decreased sedentary time, during the rest of the day. Creating a safe play space near urban children’s home by the Play Street intervention is effective in increasing children’s MVPA and decreasing their sedentary time.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12/2015; 12(1):171. DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0171-y · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational sitting can be the largest contributor to overall daily sitting time in white-collar workers. With adverse health effects in adults, intervention strategies to influence sedentary time on a working day are needed. Therefore, the present aim was to examine employees' and executives' reflections on occupational sitting and to examine the potential acceptability and feasibility of intervention strategies to reduce and interrupt sedentary time on a working day. Seven focus groups (four among employees, n = 34; three among executives, n = 21) were conducted in a convenience sample of three different companies in Flanders (Belgium), using a semi-structured questioning route in five themes [personal sitting patterns; intervention strategies during working hours, (lunch) breaks, commuting; and intervention approach]. The audiotaped interviews were verbatim transcribed, followed by a qualitative inductive content analysis in NVivo 10. The majority of participants recognized they spend their working day mostly sitting and associated this mainly with musculoskeletal health problems. Participants suggested a variety of possible strategies, primarily for working hours (standing during phone calls/meetings, PC reminders, increasing bathroom use by drinking more water, active sitting furniture, standing desks, rearranging the office) and (lunch) breaks (physical activity, movement breaks, standing tables). However, several barriers were reported, including productivity concerns, impracticality, awkwardness of standing, and the habitual nature of sitting. Facilitating factors were raising awareness, providing alternatives for simply standing, making some strategies obligatory and workers taking some personal responsibility. There are some strategies targeting sedentary time on a working day that are perceived to be realistic and useful. However several barriers emerged, which future trials and practical initiatives should take into account.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0177-5 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women living in deprived neighborhoods are a risk group for overweight and obesity, particularly during the childbearing years. Several socio-demographic characteristics may compound this risk, but little is known about why this might be the case. Sedentary behaviors are emerging as a socio-demographically patterned risk factor for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to assess socio-demographic differences in sedentary behaviors, and to examine whether these behaviors could explain the relation between socio-demographic variables and BMI (BMI) in this risk group. Women aged 18-46 years were recruited from 40 urban and 40 rural deprived neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. In total, 3879 women reported socio-demographic variables (age, educational level, employment status, marital status, number of children, residential location and country of birth), sedentary behaviors (television time, computer time, total screen time and total sedentary time), physical activity, and height and weight, which were used to calculate BMI. For each socio-demographic variable, four single mediation models were conducted using two-level mixed-models regression analyses. Mediating effects were examined using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients procedure and the Sobel test. All socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with sedentary behaviors. Single mediation analyses revealed that television time (αβ = 0.017, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.030) and total screen time (αβ = 0.006, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.012) mediated 14.1% and 4.9% of the relationship between educational level and BMI, respectively. Total screen time mediated 45.1% of the relationship between employment status and BMI (αβ = -0.020, 95% CI = -0.033, -0.006), and television time mediated 8.2% of the relationship between country of birth and BMI (αβ = -0.008, 95% CI = -0.016, -0.001). Sedentary behaviors differed depending on socio-demographic characteristics, and partly explained the relationship between socio-demographic factors and BMI in this sample of women. Both television time and total screen time are potential behaviors to target in future programs aimed at reducing socio-demographic disparities in overweight and obesity.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0209-1 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to air pollution can have severe health impacts, especially for the elderly. To estimate the inhaled dose of air pollution, traditionally only the air pollution concentration at the home location is considered, without incorporating individual travel behavior and physical activity. This can lead to bias in health impact assessment and epidemiological studies, possibly underestimating exposure to air pollution and misinforming policy makers. Our paper addresses this issue using accurate 7-day GPS and accelerometer data on 180 participants aged between 58 and 65 living in Ghent (Belgium). NO 2 concentration for Belgium is available from a land-use regression model. Three methods are used to calculate the inhaled dose of NO 2. The first method is the traditional static method, using only the NO 2 concentration at the home location. The second method incorporates travel behavior using GPS data, thus looking at the NO 2 concentration at the exact location of the participant. The third method additionally incorporates accelerometer data and estimates the transport mode used and physical activity to calculate the ventilation rate. When incorporating geographical location, differences in inhaled dose of NO 2 depend on the NO 2 concentration at the home location and the individual travel behavior. When additionally incorporating ventilation rate, the inhaled dose of NO 2 increases by more than 12%. In addition to comparing these three methods with each other, the influence of transport mode is tested. Cycling is associated with increased inhaled doses of NO 2 relative to other modes. It is important for health impact assessment and epidemiological studies to incorporate individual travel behavior and physical activity to measure the inhaled dose of air pollution, and this can be done accurately using GPS and accelerometer data.
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    ABSTRACT: School educators play an important role in cyberbullying management. Since scarce earlier research indicated low perceived competence of school educators in handling cyberbullying, more insight is needed in what determines their actions and how to improve these practices. This study assessed school educator practices, their perceptions and context factors from a behavior change theoretical framework, and investigated educator clusters related to this. An online survey was conducted among 451 secondary school educators (teachers, principals, school counselors). School educators mostly used recommended actions (i.e. conversations with pupils, enlisting professionals for support, parental involvement, providing supportive victim advice). Four educator clusters were identified: 'referrers' (65%), 'disengaged' educators (14%), 'concerned' educators (12%) and 'use all means' educators (9%). The first two clusters were less adept at handling cyberbullying and comprised mostly teachers, particularly indicating a need for training teachers. Our findings show a need for tailored educator training, e.g. by job position, gender, school size and grade. The behavior change theoretical framework can help target educators' particular needs.
    Computers & Education 10/2015; 88:192-201. DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2015.05.006 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part of a coordinated multi-country cross-sectional study. Age moderated the associations of perceived crime safety, and perceiving no major physical barriers to walking, with MVPA: positive associations were only found in older adults. Perceived land use mix-access was linearly (positive) associated with MVPA in men, and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults' perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings are encouraging, suggesting that efforts to optimize the perceived built and social environment may act in a socially-equitable manner to facilitate MVPA.
    Health & Place 10/2015; 36:65-73. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.09.007 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    Mathieu Marlier · Delfien Van Dyck · Greet Cardon · Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij · Kathy Babiak · Annick Willem ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium). Two hundred adults (aged 18-56) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Results: Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095) and not total physical activity (β = .027) was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009) or individual social capital (β = .045). Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114), individual social capital was not (β = -.013). In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152), community social capital was not (β = .070). Conclusion: This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another.
    PLoS ONE 10/2015; 10(10):e0140196. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0140196 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    BMJ Open 10/2015; 5(10):e008505. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008505 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The transfer of interventions to promote physical activity and a healthy diet after completion of effectiveness trials and the implementation of policies targeting these behaviors are processes not well understood. Qualitative case studies were conducted in five European countries to gain a better understanding of facilitators and barriers to a successful implementation and transfer. The study is being undertaken as part of the Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity Knowledge Hub (DEDIPAC KH). Methods: The focus here is on preliminary results from two case studies conducted in Germany. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven practitioners and researchers. Interview transcripts were coded using a deductive approach. The first case study investigated an intervention promoting physical activity and a healthy diet in school children. The second case study examined a national policy aimed at improving the quality of school catering. Results: Interviewees in the first case study described that an active participation of all relevant stakeholders at an early stage of intervention development and implementation and high-quality intervention materials were factors contributing to a successful implementation and transfer. Barriers included conflicting interests of stakeholders, lack of time among involved stakeholders to maintain the intervention, and a high documentation effort. Factors contributing to the success of the policy investigated in the second case study included staff expertise and close collaboration with stakeholders. Barriers included insufficient funding, dependence on political decisions, and stakeholders’ lack of interest for topics related to a healthy diet. Conclusions: Stakeholders’ active involvement at an early stage of both, intervention and policy implementation, as well as a general interest in health topics and sufficient time appear to be important factors contributing to a successful implementation and transfer. Main messages: 1. Stakeholders’ involvement at an early stage of intervention and policy development contributes to a successful implementation. 2. Close collaboration with stakeholders and sufficient funding appear to contribute to the maintenance of policies.
    8th European Public Health Conference (EUPHA), Milan, Italy; 10/2015
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    Katrien De Cocker · Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij · Greet Cardon · Corneel Vandelanotte ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Because of the adverse health effects in adults, interventions to influence workplace sitting, a large contributor to overall daily sedentary time, are needed. Computer-tailored interventions have demonstrated good outcomes in other health behaviours, though few have targeted sitting time at work. Therefore, the present aims were to (1) describe the development of a theory-driven, web-based, computer-tailored advice to influence sitting at work, (2) report on the feasibility of reaching employees, and (3) report on the acceptability of the advice. Methods: Employees from a public city service (n = 179) were invited by e-mail to participate. Employees interested to request the advice (n = 112) were sent the website link, a personal login and password. The online advice was based on different aspects of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Self-Determination Theory and Self-Regulation Theory. Logistic regressions were conducted to compare characteristics (gender, age, education, employment status, amount of sitting and psychosocial correlates of workplace sitting) of employees requesting the advice (n = 90, 80.4 %) with those who did not. Two weeks after visiting the website, 47 employees (52.2 %) completed an online acceptability questionnaire. Results: Those with a high education were more likely to request the advice than those with a low education (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.0-5.8), and those with a part-time job were more likely to request the advice compared to full-time employees (OR = 2.9, CI = 1.2-7.1). The majority found the advice interesting (n = 36/47, 76.6 %), relevant (n = 33/47, 70.2 %) and motivating (n = 29/47, 61.7 %). Fewer employees believed the advice was practicable (n = 15/47, 31.9 %). After completing the advice, 58.0 % (n = 25/43) reported to have started interrupting their sitting and 32.6 % (n = 17/43) additionally intended to do so; 14.0 % (n = 6/43) reported to have reduced their sitting and another 51.2 % (n = 22/43) intended to do so. Discussion: More efforts are needed to reach lower educated and full-time workers. Further research should examinethe effects of this intervention in a rigorous randomised controlled trial. Conclusions: It is feasible to reach employees with this tool. Most of the employees who requested the advice found itacceptable and reported they changed their behaviour or intended to change it. Interrupting sittingappeared more achievable than reducing workplace sitting.
    BMC Public Health 09/2015; 15(1):959. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-2288-y · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim was to investigate which individual and family environmental factors are related to television and computer time separately in 10- to-12-year-old children within and across five European countries (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Norway). Methods: Data were used from the ENERGY-project. Children and one of their parents completed a questionnaire, including questions on screen time behaviours and related individual and family environmental factors. Family environmental factors included social, political, economic and physical environmental factors. Complete data were obtained from 2022 child-parent dyads (53.8 % girls, mean child age 11.2 ± 0.8 years; mean parental age 40.5 ± 5.1 years). To examine the association between individual and family environmental factors (i.e. independent variables) and television/computer time (i.e. dependent variables) in each country, multilevel regression analyses were performed using MLwiN 2.22, adjusting for children's sex and age. Results and discussion: In all countries, children reported more television and/or computer time, if children and their parents thought that the maximum recommended level for watching television and/or using the computer was higher and if children had a higher preference for television watching and/or computer use and a lower self-efficacy to control television watching and/or computer use. Most physical and economic environmental variables were not significantly associated with television or computer time. Slightly more individual factors were related to children's computer time and more parental social environmental factors to children's television time. We also found different correlates across countries: parental co-participation in television watching was significantly positively associated with children's television time in all countries, except for Greece. A higher level of parental television and computer time was only associated with a higher level of children's television and computer time in Hungary. Having rules regarding children's television time was related to less television time in all countries, except for Belgium and Norway. Conclusions: Most evidence was found for an association between screen time and individual and parental social environmental factors, which means that future interventions aiming to reduce screen time should focus on children's individual beliefs and habits as well parental social factors. As we identified some different correlates for television and computer time and across countries, cross-European interventions could make small adaptations per specific screen time activity and lay different emphases per country.
    BMC Public Health 09/2015; 15(1):912. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-2276-2 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Reliable and valid measures of total sedentary time, context-specific sedentary behaviour (SB) and its potential correlates are useful for the development of future interventions. The purpose was to examine test-retest reliability and criterion validity of three newly developed questionnaires on total sedentary time, context-specific SB and its potential correlates in adolescents, adults and older adults. Methods: Reliability and validity was tested in six different samples of Flemish (Belgium) residents. For the reliability study, 20 adolescents, 22 adults and 20 older adults filled out the age-specific SB questionnaire twice. Test-retest reliability was analysed using Kappa coefficients, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and/or percentage agreement, separately for the three age groups. For the validity study, data were retrieved from 62 adolescents, 33 adults and 33 older adults, with activPAL™ as criterion measure. Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots (or non-parametric approach) were used to analyse criterion validity, separately for the three age groups and for weekday, weekend day and average day. Results: The test-retest reliability for self-reported total sedentary time indicated following values: ICC = 0.37-0.67 in adolescents; ICC = 0.73-0.77 in adults; ICC = 0.68-0.80 in older adults. Item-specific reliability results (e.g. context-specific SB and its potential correlates) showed good-to-excellent reliability in 67.94 %, 68.90 % and 66.38 % of the items in adolescents, adults and older adults respectively. All items belonging to sedentary-related equipment and simultaneous SB showed good reliability. The sections of the questionnaire with lowest reliability were: context-specific SB (adolescents), potential correlates of computer use (adults) and potential correlates of motorized transport (older adults). Spearman correlations between self-reported total sedentary time and the activPAL™ were different for each age group: ρ = 0.02-0.42 (adolescents), ρ = 0.06-0.52 (adults), ρ = 0.38-0.50 (older adults). Participants over-reported total sedentary time (except for weekend day in older adults) compared to the activPAL™, for weekday, weekend day and average day respectively by +57.05 %, +46.29 %, +53.34 % in adolescents; +40.40 %, +19.15 %, +32.89 % in adults; +10.10 %, -6.24 %, +4.11 % in older adults. Conclusions: The questionnaires showed acceptable test-retest reliability and criterion validity. However, over-reporting of total SB was noticeable in adolescents and adults. Nevertheless, these questionnaires will be useful in getting context-specific information on SB.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 09/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0277-2 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The school environment can play an important role in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. Photos of the school environment may contribute to more adequate measurement of the school environment, as photos can be rated by different assessors. We aimed to examine the inter-rater reliability for rating characteristics of primary school environments related to physical activity and eating. Methods: Photos taken at 172 primary schools in seven European countries were rated according to a standardized protocol. Briefly, after categorizing all photos in subsections of physical activity or eating opportunities, two researchers independently rated aspects of safety, functionality, aesthetics, type of food/drinks advertised, type/variety of foods provided. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa. Results: Six subsections of the photo-rating instrument showed excellent (ICC or Cohen's kappa ≥0.81) or good (ICC or Cohen's kappa 0.61-0.80) inter-rater reliability. Outdoor physical activity facilities (ICC = 0.54) showed moderate, and school canteens (Cohen's kappa = 0.05) and vending machines showed poor (Cohen's kappa = 0.16) inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: Inter-rater reliability of the ENERGY photo-rating instrument was good-to-excellent for six out of nine characteristics of primary school environment components related to physical activity and eating.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1123/jpah.2015-0025 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    Sara De Lepeleere · Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij · Greet Cardon · Maïté Verloigne ·
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To assess the association between specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's physical activity (PA) and screen time. Parental body mass index (BMI), family socioeconomic status (SES), and child's age and gender were examined as possible influencing factors. Design Cross-sectional. Setting January 2014, Flanders (Belgium). Participants 207 parents (87.4% mothers) of children aged 6–12 years. Outcome measures Specific parenting practices, related parental self-efficacy, and children's PA and screen time. Results The majority of investigated parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were not significantly associated with children's PA or screen time. However, children were more physically active if sports equipment was available at home (p<0.10) and if parents did not find it difficult to motivate their child to be physically active (p<0.05). Children had a lower screen time if parents limited their own gaming (p<0.01). The associations between parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's PA or screen time were significant for parents with a normal BMI, for medium-high SES families and for parents of younger children. Furthermore, the association between the parenting relating factors and children's PA and screen time differed for boys and girls. Conclusions In contrast to what we expected, the findings of the current study show that only a very few specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were associated with children's PA and screen time. It was expected that parental self-efficacy would play a more important role. This can be due to the fact that parental self-efficacy was already high in this group of parents. Therefore, it is possible that parents do not realise how difficult it is to perform certain parenting practices until they are faced with it in an intervention. Trial registration number EC/2012/317.
    BMJ Open 09/2015; 5(9):e007209. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007209 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Characteristics of the physical environment can be classified into two broad categories: macro- ("raw" urban planning features influenced on a regional level) and micro- (features specifically within a streetscape influenced on a neighborhood level) environmental factors. In urban planning applications, it is more feasible to modify conditions at the neighborhood level than at the regional level. Yet for the promotion of bicycle transport we need to know whether relationships between micro-environmental factors and bicycle transport depend on different types of macro-environments. This study aimed to identify whether the effect of three micro-environmental factors (i.e., evenness of the cycle path surface, speed limits and type of separation between cycle path and motorized traffic) on the street's appeal for adults' bicycle transport varied across three different macro-environments (i.e., low, medium and high residential density street). Methods: In total, 389 middle-aged adults completed a web-based questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic characteristics and a series of choice tasks with manipulated photographs, depicting two possible routes to cycle along. Conjoint analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Although the magnitude of the overall effects differed, in each macro-environment (i.e., low, medium and high residential density), middle-aged adults preferred a speed limit of 30 km/h, an even cycle path surface and a hedge as separation between motorized traffic and the cycle path compared to a speed limit of 50 or 70 km/h, a slightly uneven or uneven cycle path surface and a curb as separation or no separation between motorized traffic and the cycle path. Conclusions: Our results suggest that irrespective of the macro-environment, the same micro-environmental factors are preferred in middle-aged adults concerning the street's appeal for bicycle transport. The controlled environment simulations in the experimental choice task have the potential to inform real life environmental interventions and suggest that micro-environmental changes can have similar results in different macro-environments.
    PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0136715. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0136715 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Tom Deliens · Peter Clarys · Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij · Benedicte Deforche ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students' soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students' beverage choices.
    Nutrients 08/2015; 7(8):6550-66. DOI:10.3390/nu7085298 · 3.27 Impact Factor

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10k Citations
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  • 1997-2015
    • Ghent University
      • • Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology
      • • Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
      • • Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences
      Gand, Flemish, Belgium
  • 2012
    • University of Antwerp
      • Department of Communication Studies
      Antwerpen, Flemish, Belgium
  • 2011
    • University of Zaragoza
      • Department of Pediatrics, Radiology and Physical Medicine
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
    • University of Granada
      • Department of Medicine
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2010
    • University of Applied Sciences Coburg
      Landkreis Coburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2007
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Public Health (MGZ)
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005
    • University of Oslo
      • Department of Nutrition
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway