Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij

Ghent University, Gand, Flemish, Belgium

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Publications (423)1081.12 Total impact

  • Nicole Gunther, Ann DeSmet, Niels Jacobs, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter describes the current research on the negative outcomes of traditional and cyberbullying concerning psychological health, physical health, social functioning, and behaviour problems. They explore these problems from the perspective of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and bystanders, and discuss whether the impact of cyberbullying compared to traditional bullying on the outcomes is equal, less, or more severe. Furthermore, they discuss the interrelatedness between (cyber-)bullying and negative (health) outcomes.
    Cyberbullying: From Theory to Interventions, Edited by Trijntje Vollinck, Francine Dehue, Connar McGuckin, 07/2015: chapter 4: pages 54-81; Psychology Press.
  • Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte 03/2015; 8(1):43.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the magnitude and country-specific differences in underestimation of children's weight status by children and their parents in Europe and to further explore its associations with family characteristics and sociodemographic factors. Children's weight and height were objectively measured. Parental anthropometric and sociodemographic data were self-reported. Children and their parents were asked to comment on children's weight status based on five-point Likert-type scales, ranging from 'I am much too thin' to 'I am much too fat' (children) and 'My child's weight is way too little' to 'My child's weight is way too much' (parents). These data were combined with children's actual weight status, in order to assess underestimation of children's weight status by children themselves and by their parents, respectively. Chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the aims of the current study. Eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. A school-based survey among 6113 children aged 10-12 years and their parents. In the total sample, 42·9 % of overweight/obese children and 27·6 % of parents of overweight/obese children underestimated their and their children's weight status, respectively. A higher likelihood for this underestimation of weight status by children and their parents was observed in Eastern and Southern compared with Central/Northern countries. Overweight or obese parents (OR=1·81; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·35 and OR=1·78, 95 % CI 1·22, 2·60), parents of boys (OR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·67) and children from overweight/obese (OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·29, 1·98 and OR=1·76; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·41) or unemployed parents (OR=1·53; 95 % CI 1·22, 1·92) were more likely to underestimate children's weight status. Children of overweight or obese parents, those from Eastern and Southern Europe, boys, younger children and children with unemployed parents were more likely to underestimate their actual weight status. Overweight or obese parents and parents of boys were more likely to underestimate the actual weight status of their children. In obesity prevention such underestimation may be a barrier for behavioural change.
    Public Health Nutrition 02/2015; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As cyberbullying is a phenomenon that is inherently social, the normative social influence of significant others can play an important role in the behaviour of adolescents involved in cyberbullying incidents. Using data from 525 Flemish adolescent bystanders of cyberbullying we created a path model in order to investigate whether injunctive and descriptive norms of certain reference groups can cause bystanders to experience social pressure and join in cyberbullying. The results showed that social pressure fully mediated the relationship between the injunctive norm of friends approving of cyberbullying and joining in cyberbullying as a bystander. Furthermore, both the injunctive norm of parents approving of cyberbullying and bystanders’ involvement in cyberbullying perpetration were related to joining in cyberbullying as a bystander. Limitations of the study and recommendations for school programs and interventions on cyberbullying are provided.
    Etmaal van de Communicatiewetenschap, Antwerp, Belgium; 02/2015
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    ABSTRACT: To examine tracking of weekday and weekend screen time (ST; i.e., television [TV] and computer [PC] time) from early adolescence to early adulthood and to identify social ecological predictors of weekday and weekend ST among boys and girls separately. Data were retrieved from elementary schools (n = 59) in Flanders (Belgium). At baseline, 1,957 children (age, 9.9 ± .43 years) and one of the parents filled out a questionnaire on sedentary behavior and individual, social, and environmental variables. After a 10-year follow-up period, six hundred fifty-five 20-year-olds (age, 19.9 ± .43 years) filled out an adapted questionnaire on sedentary behavior, of which 593 contained full data at baseline and follow-up. Multiple regressions were performed to examine predictors (baseline) of ST (follow-up), and logistic regressions were used to analyze tracking of ST. For boys, a consistent positive predictor of weekday and weekend TV and PC time at follow-up was ST at baseline (p < .01). For girls, drinking more soda at baseline predicted more weekday and weekend TV and PC time at follow-up (p ≤ .02). Some other individual variables also predicted ST in both boys and girls. Tracking was only found among boys; those exceeding the ST guideline at baseline were three to five times more likely to exceed this guideline at follow-up (p ≤ .001). Tracking was not present among girls. To minimize TV and PC time during early adulthood, interventions for adolescent boys should focus on minimizing ST. For girls, focus should be on healthy eating. However, more research is warranted to confirm these conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: AimThis study evaluated the effects of a 10-month multi-disciplinary residential treatment programme on the perceptual-motor function of obese children and compared them to children with a healthy weight.Methods We studied 26 obese Belgian children (10 girls and 16 boys) with a mean age of 10.1 years (± 1.4 years), who followed a residential treatment programme consisting of moderate dietary restriction, psychological support and physical activity. The results were compared with 26 healthy weight children matched for age and gender. The anthropometrics and performance of both groups were assessed on two occasions, 10 months apart, based on simple and choice reaction time tasks and a tracking task using a stylus and tablet. Time by body mass index group interactions were investigated using repeated measure ANCOVAs, with age included as a covariate.ResultsNo significant interaction effect occurred in either task. In contrast, the obese participants showed a significant improvement in tracking performance over time during the stylus and tablet tests, demonstrating mean deviation from the ideal curve. No difference in performance between baseline and follow-up was observed in the healthy weight controls.Conclusion Taking part in a multi-disciplinary residential treatment programme improved the perceptual-motor function of obese children.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Paediatrica 01/2015; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic diseases may be prevented through programmes that promote physical activity and healthy nutrition. Computer-tailoring programmes are effective in changing behaviour in the short- and long-term. An important issue is the implementation of these programmes in general practice. However, there are several barriers that hinder the adoption of eHealth programmes in general practice. This study explored the feasibility of an eHealth programme that was designed, using self-regulation principles.Methods Seven focus group interviews (a total of 62 GPs) were organized to explore GPs¿ opinions about the feasibility of the eHealth programme for prevention in general practice. At the beginning of each focus group, GPs were informed about the principles of the self-regulation programme `My Plan¿. Open-ended questions were used to assess the opinion of GPs about the content and the use of the programme. The focus groups discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and thematically analysed via NVivo software.ResultsThe majority of the GPs was positive about the use of self-regulation strategies and about the use of computer-tailored programmes in general practice. There were contradictory results about the delivery mode of the programme. GPs also indicated that the programme might be less suited for patients with a low educational level or for old patients.Conclusions Overall, GPs are positive about the adoption of self-regulation techniques for health promotion in their practice. However, they raised doubts about the adoption in general practice. This barrier may be addressed (1) by offering various ways to deliver the programme, and (2) by allowing flexibility to match different work flow systems. GPs also believed that the acceptability and usability of the programmes was low for patients who are old or with low education. The issues raised by GPs will need to be taken into account when developing and implementing an eHealth programme in general practice.
    BMC Family Practice 01/2015; 16(1):3. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background This umbrella review aimed at eliciting good practice characteristics of interventions and policies aiming at healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and lowering sedentary behaviors. Applying the World Health Organization¿s framework, we sought for 3 types of characteristics, reflecting: (1) main intervention/policy characteristics, referring to the design, targets, and participants, (2) monitoring and evaluation processes, and (3) implementation issues. This investigation was undertaken by the DEDPIAC Knowledge Hub (the Knowledge Hub on the DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity), which is an action of the European Union¿s joint programming initiative.MethodsA systematic review of reviews and stakeholder documents was conducted. Data from 7 databases was analyzed (99 documents met inclusion criteria). Additionally, resources of 7 major stakeholders (e.g., World Health Organization) were systematically searched (10 documents met inclusion criteria). Overall, the review yielded 74 systematic reviews, 16 position review papers, and 19 stakeholders¿ documents. Across characteristics, 25% were supported by¿¿¿4 systematic reviews. Further, 25% characteristics were supported by¿¿¿3 stakeholders¿ documents. If identified characteristics were included in at least 4 systematic reviews or at least 3 stakeholders¿ documents, these good practice characteristics were classified as relevant.ResultsWe derived a list of 149 potential good practice characteristics, of which 53 were classified as relevant. The main characteristics of intervention/policy (n¿=¿18) fell into 6 categories: the use of theory, participants, target behavior, content development/management, multidimensionality, practitioners/settings. Monitoring and evaluation characteristics (n¿=¿18) were grouped into 6 categories: costs/funding, outcomes, evaluation of effects, time/effect size, reach, the evaluation of participation and generalizability, active components/underlying processes. Implementation characteristics (n¿=¿17) were grouped into eight categories: participation processes, training for practitioners, the use/integration of existing resources, feasibility, maintenance/sustainability, implementation partnerships, implementation consistency/adaptation processes, transferability.Conclusions The use of the proposed list of 53 good practice characteristics may foster further development of health promotion sciences, as it would allow for identification of success vectors in the domains of main characteristics of interventions/policies, their implementation, evaluation and monitoring processes.
    BMC Public Health 01/2015; 15(1):19. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computer-tailored physical activity (PA) interventions delivered through the Internet represent a promising and appealing method to promote PA at a population level. However, personalized advice is mostly provided based on subjectively measured PA, which is not very accurate and might result in the delivery of advice that is not credible or effective. Therefore, an innovative computer-tailored PA advice was developed, based on objectively pedometer-measured PA. The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-tailored, pedometer-based PA intervention in working adults. Participants (≥18 years) were recruited between May and December 2012 from eight Flemish workplaces. These workplaces were allocated randomly to an intervention or control group. Intervention group participants (n=137) received (1) a booklet with information on how to increase their steps, (2) a non-blinded pedometer, and (3) an Internet link to request computer-tailored step advice. Control group participants (n=137) did not receive any of the intervention components. Self-reported and pedometer-based PA were assessed at baseline (T0), and 1 month (T1) and 3 months (T2) months post baseline. Repeated measures analyses of covariance were used to examine intervention effects for both the total sample and the at-risk sample (ie, adults not reaching 10,000 steps a day at baseline). The recruitment process resulted in 274 respondents (response rate of 15.1%) who agreed to participate, of whom 190 (69.3%) belonged to the at-risk sample. Between T0 and T1 (1-month post baseline), significant intervention effects were found for participants' daily step counts in both the total sample (P=.004) and the at-risk sample (P=.001). In the at-risk sample, the intervention effects showed a daily step count increase of 1056 steps in the intervention group, compared to a decrease of 258 steps in the control group. Comparison of participants' self-reported PA revealed a significant intervention effect for time spent walking in the at-risk sample (P=.02). Intervention effects were still significant 3 months post baseline for participants' daily step counts in both the total sample (P=.03) and the at-risk sample (P=.02); however, self-reported PA differences were no longer significant. A computer-tailored, pedometer-based PA intervention was effective in increasing both pedometer-based and self-reported PA levels, mainly in the at-risk participants. However, more effort should be devoted to recruit and retain participants in order to improve the public health impact of the intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02080585; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02080585 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VvQnRQSy).
    Journal of Medical Internet Research 01/2015; 17(2):e38. · 4.67 Impact Factor
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    Games for Health Journal. 01/2015; 4(2).
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    ABSTRACT: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/J3vbfqIaimAhBKuhkZY5/full
    Behaviour and Information Technology 12/2014; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the occurrence and duration of sedentary bouts and explored the cross-sectional association with health indicators in children applying various operational definitions of sedentary bouts. Accelerometer data of 647 children (10-13 years old) were collected in five European countries. We analyzed sedentary time (<100cpm) accumulated in bouts of at least 5, 10, 20 or 30minutes based on four operational definitions, allowing zero, 30 or 60sec ≥100cpm within bouts. Health indicators included anthropometrics (i.e. waist circumference and body mass index (BMI)) and in a subsample from two European countries (n=112) fasting capillary blood levels of glucose, C-peptide, high-density- and low-density cholesterol, and triglycerides. Data collection took place from March to July 2010. Associations were adjusted for age, gender, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, total wear time and country. Occurrence of sedentary bouts varied largely between the various definitions. Children spent most of their sedentary time in bouts of ≥5min while bouts of ≥20min were rare. Linear regression analysis revealed few significant associations of sedentary time accumulated in bouts of ≥5-30 minutes with health indicators. Moreover, we found that more associations became significant when allowing no tolerance time within sedentary bouts. Despite a few significant associations, we found no convincing evidence for an association between sedentary time accumulated in bouts and health indicators in 10-13 year olds. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 12/2014; 71. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Television viewing is highly prevalent in preschoolers (3-5 years). Because of the adverse health outcomes related to this behavior, it is important to investigate associations and mediators of young children's television viewing time. This study investigated whether parental rules regarding television viewing time and parental concerns about screen viewing activities mediated the association between parents' and preschoolers' television viewing time. Mediation analyses were performed with the product-of-coefficient test on data derived from the Australian HAPPY study (n=947) and the Belgian sample of the ToyBox-study (n=1527). Parents reported their own and their child's television viewing time, their rules regarding television viewing and concerns about their child's screen viewing activities. Parents' television viewing time was directly associated with preschoolers' television viewing time and parental rule for television viewing time mediated this association in both samples (14.4% and 8.1% in the Australian and Belgian samples, respectively). This study is unique in examining the mediating pathway of parental television viewing and a rule limiting TV viewing time and whether this is consistent in different samples. Due to the consistent importance, both parents' television viewing time and rules should be targeted in interventions to decrease preschoolers' television viewing time.
    Journal of physical activity & health 12/2014; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study aimed at translating the physical activity (PA) guideline (180 min of total PA per day) into a step count target in preschoolers. 535 Flemish preschoolers (mean age: 4.41 ± 0.58) wore an ActiGraph accelerometer (GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+) - with activated step count function - for four consecutive days. The step count target was calculated from the accelerometer output using a regression equation, applying four different cut-points for light-to-vigorous PA: Pate, Evenson, Reilly, and Van Cauwenberghe. The present analysis showed that 180 min of total PA per day is equivalent to the following step count targets: 5,274 steps/day using the Pate cut-point, 4,653 steps/day using the Evenson cut-point, 11,379 steps/day using the Reilly cut-point and 13,326 steps/day using the Van Cauwenberghe cut-point. Future studies should focus on achieving consensus on which cut-points to use in preschoolers before a definite step count target in preschoolers can be proposed. Until then, we propose to use a provisional step count target of 11,500 steps/day as this step count target is attainable, realistic and helpful in promoting preschoolers' PA.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 12/2014; · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background This systematic literature review describes the potential public health impact of evidence-based multi-level interventions to improve obesity-related behaviours in adults, using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework.Methods Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library) were searched to identify intervention studies published between January 2000 and October 2013. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) the study included at least one outcome measure assessing obesity-related behaviours (i.e. diet, physical activity or sedentary behaviour), (2) the study collected data over at least one year and (3) the study¿s intervention targeted adults, was conducted in a specified geographical area or worksite, and was multi-level (i.e. targeting both individual and environmental level). Evidence of RE-AIM of the selected interventions was assessed. Potential public health impact of an intervention was evaluated if information was provided on at least four of the five RE-AIM dimensions.ResultsThirty-five multi-level interventions met the inclusion criteria. RE-AIM evaluation revealed that the included interventions generally had the potential to: reach a large number of people (on average 58% of the target population was aware of the intervention); achieve the assumed goals (89% found positive outcomes); be broadly adopted (the proportion of intervention deliverers varied from 9% to 92%) and be sustained (sixteen interventions were maintained). The highest potential public health impact was found in multi-level interventions that: 1) focused on all levels at the beginning of the planning process, 2) guided the implementation process using diffusion theory, and 3) used a website to disseminate the intervention.Conclusions Although most studies underreported results within the RE-AIM dimensions, the reported Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance were positively evaluated. However, more information on external validity and sustainability is needed in order to take informed decisions on the choice of interventions that should be implemented in real-world settings to accomplish long-term changes in obesity-related behaviours.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12/2014; 11(1):147. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: we assessed whether differences in children's sport participation and TV time according to parental education were mediated by parental modeling. Moreover, we explored the differences between parental and child reports on parental sports participation and TV time as potential mediators. 5729 children and 5183 parents participating in the ENERGY-project during 2010 in seven European countries provided information on sports participation and TV time using validated self-report questionnaires. Multilevel country-specific mediation models analyzed the potential mediation effect of parental self-reports and child-reports on parental sports participation and TV time. Significant mediation effect was found for parental self-reported TV time in four countries (Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands and Slovenia), with the highest proportion for Slovenia (40%) and the lowest for Greece (21%). Child-reported parental TV time showed mediation effect in Greece only. Parental self-reported sports participation showed significant mediation effect only in Greece. With child-reported parental sports participation, significant mediation was observed in Greece and Norway. Parental behaviors appear to be important in explaining parental educational differences in children's sports participation and TV time. However, child reports on parental behavior appear to be more relevant than parents' self-reports as correlates of children's own sports participation and TV time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 12/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several systematic reviews have described health-promoting effects of serious games but so far no meta-analysis has been reported. This paper presents a meta-analysis of 54 serious digital game studies for healthy lifestyle promotion, in which we investigated the overall effectiveness of serious digital games on healthy lifestyle promotion outcomes and the role of theoretically and clinically important moderators. Findings showed serious games have small positive effects on healthy lifestyles (g = 0.252, 95% CI 0.146; 0.358) and their determinants (g = 0.334, 95% CI 0.260; 0.407), especially for knowledge. Effects on clinical outcomes were significant, but much smaller (g = 0.079, 95% CI 0.038; 0.120). Long-term effects were maintained for all outcomes except for behavior. Serious games are best individually tailored to both socio-demographic and change need information, and benefit from a strong focus on game theories or a dual theoretical foundation in both behavioral prediction and game theories. They can be effective either as a stand-alone or multi-component programs, and appeal to populations regardless of age and gender. Given that effects of games remain heterogeneous, further exploration of which game features create larger effects are needed.
    Preventive Medicine 12/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental evidence of environmental features important for physical activity is challenging to procure in real world settings. The current study aimed to investigate the causal effects of environmental modifications on a photographed street's appeal for older adults' walking for transport. Secondly, we examined whether these effects differed according to gender, functional limitations, and current level of walking for transport. Thirdly, we examined whether different environmental modifications interacted with each other. Qualitative responses were also reported to gain deeper insight into the observed quantitative relationships. Two sets of 16 panoramic photographs of a streetscape were created, in which six environmental factors were manipulated (sidewalk evenness, traffic level, general upkeep, vegetation, separation from traffic, and benches). Sixty older adults sorted these photographs on appeal for walking for transport on a 7-point scale and reported qualitative information on the reasons for their rankings. Sidewalk evenness appeared to have the strongest influence on a street's appeal for transport-related walking. The effect of sidewalk evenness was even stronger when the street's overall upkeep was good and when traffic was absent. Absence of traffic, presence of vegetation, and separation from traffic also increased a street's appeal for walking for transport. There were no moderating effects by gender or functional limitations. The presence of benches increased the streetscape's appeal among participants who already walked for transport at least an hour/week. The protocols and methods used in the current study carry the potential to further our understanding of environment-PA relationships. Our findings indicated sidewalk evenness as the most important environmental factor influencing a street's appeal for walking for transport among older adults. However, future research in larger samples and in real-life settings is needed to confirm current findings.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112107. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are currently no studies available reporting intervention effects on breaking up children's sedentary time. This study examined the UP4FUN intervention effect on objectively measured number of breaks in sedentary time, number of sedentary bouts (≥10 mins) and total and average amount of time spent in those sedentary bouts among 10- to 12- year-old Belgian children. The total sample included 354 children (mean age: 10.9±0.7 years; 59% girls) with valid ActiGraph accelerometer data at pre- and post-test. Only few and small intervention effects were found, namely on total time spent in sedentary bouts immediately after school hours (4-6PM; ß=-3.51mins) and on average time spent in sedentary bouts before school hours (6-8.30AM; ß=-4.83mins) and immediately after school hours in favour of children from intervention schools (ß=-2.71mins). Unexpectedly, girls from intervention schools decreased the number of breaks during school hours (8.30AM-4PM; ß=-23.45breaks) and increased the number of sedentary bouts on a weekend day (ß=+0.90bouts), whereas girls in control schools showed an increase in number of breaks and a decrease in number of bouts. In conclusion, UP4FUN did not have a consistent or substantial effect on breaking up children's sedentary time and these data suggest that more intensive and longer lasting interventions are needed.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To design interventions that target energy balance-related behaviours, knowledge of primary schoolchildren's perceptions regarding soft drink intake, fruit juice intake, breakfast consumption, TV viewing and physical activity (PA) is essential. The current study describes personal beliefs and attitudes, home- and friend-related variables regarding these behaviours across Europe.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111775. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,081.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2015
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
      Gand, Flemish, Belgium
  • 2013
    • Universitetet i Agder
      • Department of Public Health, Sports and Nutrition
      Kristiansand, Vest-Agder Fylke, Norway
  • 2012–2013
    • Harokopion University of Athens
      • Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
    • University of Maiduguri
      • Department of Physiotherapy
      Maidugari, Borno, Nigeria
    • University of Antwerp
      • Department of Communication Studies
      Antwerpen, Flemish, Belgium
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Zaragoza
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
  • 2009–2013
    • Free University of Brussels
      • • Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy
      • • Biomechanics and Human Biometry (BIOM)
      Brussels, BRU, Belgium
  • 2011
    • Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital, Belgium
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Granada
      • Department of Medicine
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
    • Universiteit Hasselt
      • Faculty of Business Economics (BEW)
      Flanders, Belgium
  • 2008–2011
    • VU University Medical Center
      • • Department of Public and Occupational Health
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007–2008
    • University of Queensland 
      • Cancer Prevention Research Centre
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Public Health (MGZ)
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2008
    • University of Leuven
      • • Department of Human Kinesiology
      • • Department of Biomedical Kinesiology
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2005–2007
    • University of Oslo
      • Department of Nutrition
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 2005–2006
    • Erasmus MC
      • Research Group for Public Health
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands