[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined as ventricular dysfunction initiated by alterations in cardiac energy substrates in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. In addition to the demonstrated burden of cardiovascular events associated with diabetes, diabetic cardiomyopathy partly explains why diabetic patients are subject to a greater risk of heart failure and a worse outcome after myocardial ischemia. The raising prevalence and accumulating costs of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients underscore the deficiencies of tertiary prevention and call for a shift in medical treatment. It is becoming increasingly clearer that the effective prevention and treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy require measures to regulate the metabolic derangement occurring in the heart rather than merely restoring suitable systemic parameters. Recent research has provided deeper insight into the metabolic etiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy and numerous heart-specific targets that may substitute or reinforce current strategies. From both experimental and translational perspectives, in this review we first discuss the progress made with conventional therapies, and then focus on the need for prospective metabolic targets that may avert myocardial vulnerability and functional decline in next-generation diabetic care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of mitochondria-targeted nephroprotective agents suggest a key role of mitochondrial injury in AKI. Here we tested whether an improved perception of factors responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis may provide clues to novel therapeutic approaches to AKI. TWEAK is an inflammatory cytokine which is upregulated in AKI. Transcriptomic analysis of TWEAK-stimulated cultured murine tubular epithelial cells and folic acid-induced AKI in mice identified downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivador-1α (PGC-1α) and its target genes (mitochondrial proteins Ndufs1, Sdha, and Tfam) as a shared feature. Neutralizing anti-TWEAK antibodies prevented the decrease in kidney PGC-1α and its targets during AKI. TWEAK stimulation decreased kidney PGC-1α expression in healthy mice and decreased expression of PGC-1α and its targets as well as mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured tubular cells. Adenoviral-mediated PGC-1α overexpression prevented TWEAK-induced downregulation of PGC-1α-dependent genes and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. TWEAK promoted histone H3 deacetylation at the murine PGC-1α promoter. TWEAK-induced downregulation of PGC-1α was prevented by histone deacetylase or NF-κB inhibitors. Thus, TWEAK decreases PGC-1α and target gene expression in tubular cells in vivo and in vitro. Approaches that preserve mitochondrial function during kidney injury may be therapeutic for AKI.Kidney International advance online publication, 4 November 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.332.
Kidney International 11/2015; DOI:10.1038/ki.2015.332 · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome caused by injury to skeletal muscle that usually leads to acute kidney injury (AKI). Rhabdomyolysis has been linked to different conditions, including severe trauma and intense physical exercise. Myoglobin-induced renal toxicity plays a key role in rhabdomyolysis-associated kidney damage by increasing oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, vasoconstriction, and apoptosis. New drugs that target the harmful effects of myoglobin have been recently developed, and some have been proven to be successful in animal models of acute renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and updated overview of the pathological mechanisms of renal damage and describes new therapeutic approaches to this condition based on novel compounds that target key pathways involved in myoglobin-mediated kidney damage.
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 10/2015; 40(5):520-532. DOI:10.1159/000368528 · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA), a component of some dialysis membranes, accumulates in CKD. Observational studies have linked BPA exposure to kidney and cardiovascular injury in humans, and animal studies have described a causative link. Normal kidneys rapidly excrete BPA, but insufficient excretion may sensitize patients with CKD to adverse the effects of BPA. Using a crossover design, we studied the effect of dialysis with BPA-containing polysulfone or BPA-free polynephron dialyzers on BPA levels in 69 prevalent patients on hemodialysis: 28 patients started on polysulfone dialyzers and were switched to polynephron dialyzers; 41 patients started on polynephron dialyzers and were switched to polysulfone dialyzers. Results were grouped for analysis. Mean BPA levels increased after one hemodialysis session with polysulfone dialyzers but not with polynephron dialyzers. Chronic (3-month) use of polysulfone dialyzers did not significantly increase predialysis serum BPA levels, although a trend toward increase was detected (from 48.8±6.8 to 69.1±10.1 ng/ml). Chronic use of polynephron dialyzers reduced predialysis serum BPA (from 70.6±8.4 to 47.1±7.5 ng/ml, P<0.05). Intracellular BPA in PBMCs increased after chronic hemodialysis with polysulfone dialyzers (from 0.039±0.002 to 0.043±0.001 ng/10(6) cells, P<0.01), but decreased with polynephron dialyzers (from 0.045±0.001 to 0.036±0.001 ng/10(6) cells, P<0.01). Furthermore, chronic hemodialysis with polysulfone dialyzers increased oxidative stress in PBMCs and inflammatory marker concentrations in circulation. In vitro, polysulfone membranes released significantly more BPA into the culture medium and induced more cytokine production in cultured PBMCs than did polynephron membranes. In conclusion, dialyzer BPA content may contribute to BPA burden in patients on hemodialysis.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2015; DOI:10.1681/ASN.2015030312 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Patients with primary membranous nephropathy (MN) and persistent nephrotic syndrome have a high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. The Ponticelli protocol (steroids with alkylating agents) is the most effective immunosuppressive therapy for this condition, but it has severe adverse effects. Tacrolimus and rituximab have demonstrated efficacy for remission of nephrotic syndrome in MN with a safer profile. However, the published evidence is largely based on small or short-term observational studies, historical cohorts, comparisons with conservative therapy or clinical trials without appropriate control groups, and there is no head-to-head comparison with the Ponticelli protocol.
The STARMEN randomized clinical trial will compare the efficacy of sequential tacrolimus-rituximab therapy with a modified Ponticelli protocol (steroids plus cyclophosphamide). The trial will also evaluate the role of antibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) and other antibodies as markers of response to treatment and long-term prognosis.
The trial has already started with 23 patients having been enrolled as of 1 April 2015, an estimated 21.7% of the estimated sample.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is characterized by increased circulating levels of parathormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), bone disease, and vascular calcification, and is associated with adverse outcomes. We studied the prevalence of mineral metabolism disorders, and the potential relationship between decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD-MBD in coronary artery disease patients in a cross-sectional study of 704 outpatients 7.5 ± 3.0 months after an acute coronary syndrome. The mean eGFR (CKD Epidemiology Collaboration formula) was 75.8 ± 19.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Our patients showed lower calcidiol plasma levels than a healthy cohort from the same geographical area. In the case of men, this finding was present despite similar creatinine levels in both groups and older age of the healthy subjects. Most patients (75.6 %) had an eGFR below 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (eGFR categories G2-G5), with 55.3 % of patients exhibiting values of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (G2). PTH (r = -0.3329, p < 0.0001) and FGF23 (r = -0.3641, p < 0.0001) levels inversely correlated with eGFR, whereas calcidiol levels and serum phosphate levels did not. Overall, PTH levels were above normal in 34.9 % of patients. This proportion increased from 19.4 % in G1 category patients, to 33.7 % in G2 category patients and 56.6 % in G3-G5 category patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, eGFR and calcidiol levels were the main independent determinants of serum PTH. The mean FGF23 levels were 69.9 (54.6-96.2) relative units (RU)/ml, and 33.2 % of patients had FGF23 levels above 85.5 RU/ml (18.4 % in G1 category patients, 30.0 % in G2 category patients, and 59.2 % in G3-G5 category patients; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, eGFR was the main predictor of FGF23 levels. Increased phosphate levels were present in 0.7 % of the whole sample: 0 % in G1 category patients, 0.3 % in G2 category patients, and 2.8 % in G3-G5 category patients (p = 0.011). Almost 90 % of patients had calcidiol insufficiency without significant differences among the different degrees of eGFR. In conclusion, in patients with coronary artery disease there is a large prevalence of increased FGF23 and PTH levels. These findings have an independent relationship with decreased eGFR, and are evident at an eGFR of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Then, mild decreases in eGFR must be taken in consideration by the clinician because they are associated with progressive abnormalities of mineral metabolism.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00774-015-0706-y · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic kidney disease is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. This implies failure of current therapeutic approaches based on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. Recent phase 3 clinical trials of paricalcitol in early diabetic kidney disease and bardoxolone methyl in advanced diabetic kidney disease failed to meet the primary endpoint or terminated on safety concerns, respectively. However, various novel strategies are undergoing phase 2 and 3 randomized controlled trials targeting inflammation, fibrosis and signaling pathways. Among agents currently undergoing trials that may modify the clinical practice on top of RAS blockade in a 5-year horizon, anti-inflammatory agents currently hold the most promise while anti-fibrotic agents have so far disappointed. Pentoxifylline, an anti-inflammatory agent already in clinical use, was recently reported to delay estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3-4 diabetic kidney disease when associated with RAS blockade and promising phase 2 data are available for the pentoxifylline derivative CTP-499. Among agents targeting chemokines or chemokine receptors, the oral small molecule C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) inhibitor CCX140 decreased albuminuria and eGFR loss in phase 2 trials. A dose-finding trial of the anti-IL-1β antibody gevokizumab in diabetic kidney disease will start in 2015. However, clinical development is most advanced for the endothelin receptor A blocker atrasentan, which is undergoing a phase 3 trial with a primary outcome of preserving eGFR. The potential for success of these approaches and other pipeline agents is discussed in detail.
Journal of Clinical Medicine 08/2015; 4(6):1325-47. DOI:10.3390/jcm4061325
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease is characterized by Vitamin D deficiency and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Increasing data show that vitamin D receptor agonists (VDRAs) exert beneficial effects in renal disease and possess anti-inflammatory properties, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that “a disintegrin and metalloproteinase” (ADAM)/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling axis contributes to renal damage. Aldosterone induces EGFR transactivation regulating several processes including cell proliferation and fibrosis. However, data on tubular epithelial cells is scarce. We have found that, in cultured tubular epithelial cells, aldosterone induced EGFR transactivation via TGF-α/ADAM17. Blockade of the TGF-α/ADAM17/EGFR pathway inhibited aldosterone-induced proinflammatory gene upregulation. Moreover, among the potential downstream mechanisms, we found that TGF-α/ADAM17/EGFR inhibition blocked ERK and STAT-1 activation in response to aldosterone. Next, we investigated the involvement of TGF-α/ADAM17/EGFR axis in VDRA anti-inflammatory effects. Preincubation with the VDRA paricalcitol inhibited aldosterone-induced EGFR transactivation, TGF-α/ADAM-17 gene upregulation, and downstream mechanisms, including proinflammatory factors overexpression. In conclusion, our data suggest that the anti-inflammatory actions of paricalcitol in tubular cells could depend on the inhibition of TGF-α/ADAM17/EGFR pathway in response to aldosterone, showing an important mechanism of VDRAs action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Several papers have reported elevated plasma levels of natriuretic peptides in patients with a previous diagnosis of cancer. We have explored whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) plasma levels predict a future diagnosis of cancer in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
We studied 699 patients with CAD free of cancer. At baseline, NT-proBNP, galectin-3, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I plasma levels were assessed. The primary outcome was new cancer diagnosis. The secondary outcome was cancer diagnosis, heart failure requiring hospitalization, or death.
After 2.15±0.98 years of follow-up, 24 patients developed cancer. They were older (68.5 [61.5, 75.8] vs 60.0 [52.0, 72.0] years; p=0.011), had higher NT-proBNP (302.0 [134.8, 919.8] vs 165.5 [87.4, 407.5] pg/ml; p=0.040) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (3.27 [1.33, 5.94] vs 1.92 [0.83, 4.00] mg/L; p=0.030), and lower triglyceride (92.5 [70.5, 132.8] vs 112.0 [82.0, 157.0] mg/dl; p=0.044) plasma levels than those without cancer. NT-proBNP (Hazard Ratio [HR]=1.030; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.008-1.053; p=0.007) and triglyceride levels (HR=0.987; 95%CI=0.975-0.998; p=0.024) were independent predictors of a new cancer diagnosis (multivariate Cox regression analysis). When patients in whom the suspicion of cancer appeared in the first one-hundred days after blood extraction were excluded, NT-proBNP was the only predictor of cancer (HR=1.061; 95%CI=1.034-1.088; p<0.001). NT-proBNP was an independent predictor of cancer, heart failure, or death (HR=1.038; 95%CI=1.023-1.052; p<0.001) along with age, and use of insulin and acenocumarol.
NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of malignancies in patients with CAD. New studies in large populations are needed to confirm these findings.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0126741. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0126741 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haematuria has been traditionally considered as a benign hallmark of some glomerular diseases; however new studies show that haematuria may decrease renal function.
To determine the influence of haematuria on the rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in 71 proteinuric patients with advanced CKD (baseline eGFR <30 mL/min) during 12 months of follow-up.
The mean rate of decline in eGFR was higher in patients with both haematuria and proteinuria (haemoproteinuria, HP, n=31) than in patients with proteinuria alone (P patients, n=40) (-3.8±8.9 vs 0.9±9.5 mL/min/1.73m2/year, p<0.05, respectively). The deleterious effect of haematuria on rate of decline in eGFR was observed in patients <65 years (-6.8±9.9 (HP) vs. 0.1±11.7 (P) mL/min/1.73m2/year, p<0.05), but not in patients >65 years (-1.2±6.8 (HP) vs. 1.5±7.7 (P) mL/min/1.73m2/year). Furthermore, the harmful effect of haematuria on eGFR slope was found patients with proteinuria >0.5 g/24 h (-5.8±6.4 (HP) vs. -1.37± 7.9 (P) mL/min/1.73m2/year, p<0.05), whereas no significant differences were found in patients with proteinuria < 0.5 g/24 h (-0.62±7.4 (HP) vs. 3.4±11.1 (P) mL/min/1.73m2/year). Multivariate analysis reported that presence of haematuria was significantly and independently associated with eGFR deterioration after adjusting for traditional risk factors, including age, serum phosphate, mean proteinuria and mean serum PTH (β=-4.316, p=0.025).
The presence of haematuria is closely associated with a faster decrease in renal function in advanced proteinuric CKD patients, especially in younger CKD patients with high proteinuria levels; therefore this high risk subgroup of patients would benefit of intensive medical surveillance and treatment.
PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0128575. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128575 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haematuria has long been considered to be a benign condition associated with glomerular diseases. However, new evidences suggest that haematuria has a pathogenic role in promoting kidney disease progression. An increased risk for end-stage renal disease has been reported in adolescents and young adults with persistent microscopic haematuria. A persistent impairment of renal function has been also reported following macroscopic haematuria-associated acute kidney injury in immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Haematuria-induced renal damage has been related to oxidant, cytotoxic and inflammatory effects induced by haemoglobin or haem released from red blood cells. The pathophysiological origin of haematuria may be due to a more fragile and easily ruptured glomerular filtration barrier, as reported in several glomerular diseases. In this review we describe a number of the key issues associated with the epidemiology and pathogenesis of haematuria-associated diseases, provide an update of recent knowledge on the role of haematuria on renal function outcome and discuss specific therapeutic approaches in this setting. 1. Glomerular haematuria is a common observation in a number of renal diseases that may lead to persistent renal injury. 2. Haematuria in children differs from that in adults in specific aspects, particularly in the frequency of glomerular diseases and renal disease outcome. 3. Regular follow-up of renal function in children with isolated microhaematuria may be recommended.