Jesús Egido

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (652)2890.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined as ventricular dysfunction initiated by alterations in cardiac energy substrates in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. In addition to the demonstrated burden of cardiovascular events associated with diabetes, diabetic cardiomyopathy partly explains why diabetic patients are subject to a greater risk of heart failure and a worse outcome after myocardial ischemia. The raising prevalence and accumulating costs of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients underscore the deficiencies of tertiary prevention and call for a shift in medical treatment. It is becoming increasingly clearer that the effective prevention and treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy require measures to regulate the metabolic derangement occurring in the heart rather than merely restoring suitable systemic parameters. Recent research has provided deeper insight into the metabolic etiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy and numerous heart-specific targets that may substitute or reinforce current strategies. From both experimental and translational perspectives, in this review we first discuss the progress made with conventional therapies, and then focus on the need for prospective metabolic targets that may avert myocardial vulnerability and functional decline in next-generation diabetic care.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 12/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.1186/s12933-015-0173-8 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haematuria has long been considered to be a benign condition associated with glomerular diseases. However, new evidences suggest that haematuria has a pathogenic role in promoting kidney disease progression. An increased risk for end-stage renal disease has been reported in adolescents and young adults with persistent microscopic haematuria. A persistent impairment of renal function has been also reported following macroscopic haematuria-associated acute kidney injury in immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Haematuria-induced renal damage has been related to oxidant, cytotoxic and inflammatory effects induced by haemoglobin or haem released from red blood cells. The pathophysiological origin of haematuria may be due to a more fragile and easily ruptured glomerular filtration barrier, as reported in several glomerular diseases. In this review we describe a number of the key issues associated with the epidemiology and pathogenesis of haematuria-associated diseases, provide an update of recent knowledge on the role of haematuria on renal function outcome and discuss specific therapeutic approaches in this setting. 1. Glomerular haematuria is a common observation in a number of renal diseases that may lead to persistent renal injury. 2. Haematuria in children differs from that in adults in specific aspects, particularly in the frequency of glomerular diseases and renal disease outcome. 3. Regular follow-up of renal function in children with isolated microhaematuria may be recommended.
    Pediatric Nephrology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00467-015-3119-1 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the prognostic value of high-sensitive troponin (hs-cTn) I in stable coronary artery disease. In total, we studied 705 patients. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of: (1) acute ischemic events and (2) heart failure or death. The primary outcome was the composite of them. Patients with hs-cTnI >0 ng/ml (62.1%) were older, had a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, more frequent a history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, ejection fraction <40%, and therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics and acenocumarol. The follow-up period was 2.2 ± 0.99 years. Fifty-three patients suffered an acute ischemic event, 33 died or suffered heart failure and 78 developed the primary outcome. By univariate Cox's regression analysis, hs-cTnI >0 was associated with a higher risk of developing the primary outcome [relative risk = 2.360 (1.359-4.099); p = 0.001] and heart failure or death [relative risk = 5.932 (1.806-19.482); p < 0.001], but not with acute ischemic events. Statistical significance was lost after controlling for age. By logistic regression analysis, age [relative risk = 1.026 (1.009-1.044); p = 0.003], ejection fraction <40% [relative risk = 4.099 (2.043-8.224); p < 0.001], use of anticoagulants [relative risk = 2.785 (1.049-7.395); p = 0.040] and therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [relative risk = 1.471 (1.064-2.034); p = 0.020], and estimated glomerular filtration rate [relative risk = 0.988 (0.977-0.999); p = 0.027] were associated with hs-cTnI >0. In stable coronary disease, hs-cTnI is associated with the incidence of heart failure or death, but this relationship depends on other variables. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cardiology 05/2015; 132(1):1-8. DOI:10.1159/000381259 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haematuria was known as a benign hallmark of some glomerular diseases, but over the last decade, new evidences pointed its negative implications on kidney disease progression. Cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress induced by hemoglobin, heme, or iron released from red blood cells may account for the tubular injury observed in human biopsy specimens. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for haematuria remain unclear. The presence of red blood cells (RBCs) with irregular contours and shape in the urine indicates RBCs egression from the glomerular capillary into the urinary space. Therefore glomerular haematuria may be a marker of glomerular filtration barrier dysfunction or damage. In this review we describe some key issues regarding epidemiology and pathogenesis of haematuric diseases as well as their renal morphological findings.
    05/2015; 4(2):185-95. DOI:10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.185
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) levels have been related with cardiovascular disease. However, there are no data on the relationship between sTWEAK and atherosclerotic burden in subjects with or without cardiovascular risk factors but free from clinical disease. We have analyzed the association between circulating sTWEAK levels and the presence of carotid and/or femoral atherosclerotic plaques in subjects without known vascular disease.
    Atherosclerosis 04/2015; 239(2). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.01.040 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway mediated by the inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK) regulates the transcription of inflammatory genes involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes, from the early phase to progression and final complications. The NF-κB essential modulator binding domain (NBD) contained in IKKα/β is essential for IKK complex assembly. We therefore investigated the functional consequences of targeting the IKK-dependent NF-κB pathway in the progression of diabetes-associated nephropathy and atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with diabetes induced by streptozotocin were treated with a cell-permeable peptide derived from the IKKα/β NBD region. Kidneys and aorta were analysed for morphology, leucocyte infiltrate, collagen, NF-κB activity and gene expression. In vitro studies were performed in renal and vascular cells. NBD peptide administration did not affect the metabolic severity of diabetes but resulted in renal protection, as evidenced by dose-dependent decreases in albuminuria, renal lesions (mesangial expansion, leucocyte infiltration and fibrosis), intranuclear NF-κB activity and proinflammatory and pro-fibrotic gene expression. Furthermore, peptide treatment limited atheroma plaque formation in diabetic mice by decreasing the content of lipids, leucocytes and cytokines and increasing plaque stability markers. This nephroprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effect was accompanied by a decline in systemic T helper 1 cytokines. In vitro, NBD peptide prevented IKK assembly/activation, p65 nuclear translocation, NF-κB-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation induced by either high glucose or inflammatory stimulation. Peptide-based inhibition of IKK complex formation attenuates NF-κB activation, suppresses inflammation and retards the progression of renal and vascular injury in diabetic mice, thus providing a feasible approach against diabetes inflammatory complications.
    Diabetologia 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00125-015-3596-6 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic cardiomyopathy entails a serious cardiac dysfunction induced by alterations in structure and contractility of the myocardium. This pathology is initiated by changes in energy substrates and occurs in the absence of atherothrombosis, hypertension, or other cardiomyopathies. Inflammation, hypertrophy, fibrosis, steatosis, and apoptosis in the myocardium have been studied in numerous diabetic experimental models in animals, mostly rodents. Type I and type II diabetes were induced by genetic manipulation, pancreatic toxins, and fat and sweet diets, and animals recapitulate the main features of human diabetes and related cardiomyopathy. In this review we update and discuss the main experimental models of diabetic cardiomyopathy, analysing the associated metabolic, structural, and functional abnormalities, and including current tools for detection of these responses. Also, novel experimental models based on genetic modifications of specific related genes have been discussed. The study of specific pathways or factors responsible for cardiac failures may be useful to design new pharmacological strategies for diabetic patients.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 04/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/656795 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) evolution is unpredictable, and there is no therapy except surgery for patients with an aortic size> 5 cm (large AAA). We aimed to identify new potential biomarkers that could facilitate prognosis and treatment of patients with AAA. A differential quantitative proteomic analysis of plasma proteins was performed in AAA patients at different stages of evolution [small AAA (aortic size=3-5cm) vs large AAA] using iTRAQ labelling, high-throughput nano-LC-MS/MS and a novel multi-layered statistical model. Among the proteins identified, ApoA-I was decreased in patients with large AAA compared to those with small AAA. These results were validated by ELISA on plasma samples from small (n=90) and large AAA (n=26) patients (150± 3 vs 133± 5 mg/dl, respectively, p< 0.001). ApoA-I levels strongly correlated with HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration (r=0.9, p< 0.001) and showed a negative correlation with aortic size (r=-0.4, p< 0.01) and thrombus volume (r=-0.3, p< 0.01), which remained significant after adjusting for traditional risk factors. In a prospective study, HDL-C independently predicted aneurysmal growth rate in multiple linear regression analysis (n=122, p=0.008) and was inversely associated with need for surgical repair (Adjusted hazard ratio: 0.18, 95 % confidence interval: 0.04-0.74, p=0.018). In a nation-wide Danish registry, we found lower mean HDL-C concentration in large AAA patients (n=6,560) compared with patients with aorto-iliac occlusive disease (n=23,496) (0.89± 2.99 vs 1.59± 5.74 mmol/l, p< 0.001). Finally, reduced mean aortic AAA diameter was observed in AngII-infused mice treated with ApoA-I mimetic peptide compared with saline-injected controls. In conclusion, ApoA-I/HDL-C systemic levels are negatively associated with AAA evolution. Therapies targeting HDL functionality could halt AAA formation.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2015; 113(6). DOI:10.1160/TH14-10-0874 · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a main feature of progressive kidney disease. Gremlin binds to bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), acting as an antagonist and regulating nephrogenesis and fibrosis among other processes. Gremlin also binds to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) in endothelial cells to induce angiogenesis. In renal cells, Gremlin regulates proliferation and fibrosis, but there are no data about inflammatory-related events. We have investigated the direct effects of Gremlin in the kidney, evaluating whether VEGFR2 is a functional Gremlin receptor. Administration of recombinant Gremlin to murine kidneys induced rapid and sustained activation of VEGFR2 signalling, located in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Gremlin bound to VEGFR2 in these cells in vitro, activating this signalling pathway independently of its action as an antagonist of BMPs. In vivo, Gremlin caused early renal damage, characterized by activation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway linked to up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors and infiltration of immune inflammatory cells. VEGFR2 blockade diminished Gremlin-induced renal inflammatory responses. The link between Gremlin/VEGFR2 and NF-κB/inflammation was confirmed in vitro. Gremlin overexpression was associated to VEGFR2 activation in human renal disease and in the unilateral ureteral obstruction experimental model, where VEGFR2 kinase inhibition diminished renal inflammation. Our data show that a Gremlin/VEGFR2 axis participates in renal inflammation and could be a novel target for kidney disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of Pathology 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/path.4537 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway contributes to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. We aimed to investigate whether enforced expression of negative regulators, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS1 and SOCS3), inhibits harmful JAK/STAT-mediated responses and affects atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Adenovirus-mediated SOCS1 transgene expression impaired the onset and progression of atherosclerosis without impact on lipid profile, whereas SOCS3 was only effective on early atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, SOCS gene delivery, primarily SOCS1, attenuated STAT1 and STAT3 activation and reduced the expression of STAT-dependent genes (chemokine/chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and scavenger receptors) in aortic tissue. Furthermore, atherosclerotic plaques exhibit a more stable phenotype characterized by lower lipids, T cells and M1 macrophages and higher M2 macrophages and collagen. Atheroprotection was accompanied by a systemic alteration of T helper- and T regulatory-related genes and a reduced activation state of circulating monocytes. In vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages, SOCS gene delivery inhibited cytokine-induced STAT activation, pro-inflammatory gene expression, cell migration and proliferation. In conclusion, targeting SOCS proteins, predominantly SOCS1, to suppress pathological mechanisms involved in atheroma plaque progression and destabilization could be an interesting anti-atherosclerotic strategy.
    Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 03/2015; 110(2):458. DOI:10.1007/s00395-014-0458-1 · 5.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Albuminuria promotes tubular injury and cell death, and is associated with faster progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating tubular cell death in response to albuminuria are not fully understood. Brain abundant signal protein 1 (BASP1) was recently shown to mediate glucose-induced apoptosis in tubular cells. We have studied the role of BASP1 in albumin-induced tubular cell death. BASP1 expression was studied in experimental puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome in rats and in human nephrotic syndrome. The role of BASP1 in albumin-induced apoptosis was studied in cultured human HK2 proximal tubular epithelial cells. Puromycin aminonucleoside induced proteinuria and increased total kidney BASP1 mRNA and protein expression. Immunohistochemistry localized the increased BASP1 to tubular cells. BASP1 expression colocalized with deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining for apoptotic cells. Increased tubular BASP1 expression was observed in human proteinuric nephropathy by immunohistochemistry, providing evidence for potential clinical relevance. In cultured tubular cells, albumin induced apoptosis and increased BASP1 mRNA and protein expression at 6-48 h. Confocal microscopy localized the increased BASP1 expression in albumin-treated cells mainly to the perinuclear area. A peripheral location near the cell membrane was more conspicuous in albumin-treated apoptotic cells, where it colocalized with actin. Inhibition of BASP1 expression by a BASP1 siRNA protected from albumin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, albumin-induced apoptosis in tubular cells is BASP1-dependent. This information may be used to design novel therapeutic approaches to slow CKD progression based on protection of tubular cells from the adverse consequences of albuminuria.
    Cell Death & Disease 02/2015; 6(2):e1644. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2015.1 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to many different pathologies, especially with morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. The progressive loss of renal function leads to calcitriol deficiency and homeostatic changes in calcium, phosphorus, FGF-23 and PTH, among others. All these changes can also influence vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation and the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The biologic actions of both vitamin D and its synthetic analogues are mediated by binding to the same VDR, acting on different genes. There is a narrow relationship between low levels of calcitriol and SHPT. The combined approach of VDR activation and phosphate restriction, among others, plays an important role in the early treatment of the chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The Spanish Society of Nephrology, in order to reduce the uniform and significant association with CKD-associated mortality, calcidiol and high phosphate levels suggests normalization of phosphate as well as calcidiol levels in both CKD and dialysis patients. Moreover, it considers that, in addition to selective/non selective activation of VDR for the prevention and treatment of SHPT, VDR could be activated in dialysis patients by native vitamin D or even low paricalcitol doses, independently of PTH levels, as some cohort studies and a recent metaanalysis have found an association between treatment with active vitamin D and decreased mortality in patients with CKD. In general it is considered reasonable to use all this information to individualise decision making.
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 01/2015; 35(1):28-41. DOI:10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2014.Sep.11796 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection.
    Vascular Health and Risk Management 01/2015; 11:35-48. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S65885
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to many different pathologies, especially with morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. The progressive loss of renal function leads to calcitriol deficiency and homeostatic changes in calcium, phosphorus, FGF-23 and PTH, among others. All these changes can also influence vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation and the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The biologic actions of both vitamin D and its synthetic analogues are mediated by binding to the same VDR, acting on different genes. There is a narrow relationship between low levels of calcitriol and SHPT. The combined approach of VDR activation and phosphate restriction, among others, plays an important role in the early treatment of the chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The Spanish Society of Nephrology, in order to reduce the uniform and significant association with CKD-associated mortality, calcidiol and high phosphate levels suggests normalization of phosphate as well as calcidiol levels in both CKD and dialysis patients. Moreover, it considers that, in addition to selective/non selective activation of VDR for the prevention and treatment of SHPT, VDR could be activated in dialysis patients by native vitamin D or even low paricalcitol doses, independently of PTH levels, as some cohort studies and a recent metaanalysis have found an association between treatment with active vitamin D and decreased mortality in patients with CKD. In general it is considered reasonable to use all this information to individualise decision making.
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 01/2015; 35(1):28-41. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A positive calcium balance may contribute to vascular calcification, while a negative balance increases iPTH. We explored the impact of different dialysate calcium concentrations on bone and mineral metabolism parameters according to pre-dialysis serum calcium levels. Results: Fifty-six hemodialysis patients were dialyzed with 3.0 or 2.5 mEq/l dialysate [calcium] in a crossover study of two weeks. Bone mineral metabolites were measured prior to and following the hemodialysis session. A 3.0 mEq/l dialysate [calcium] increased more post-dialysis total calcium and ionized calcium than 2.5 mEq/l dialysate [calcium]. The mildest dialysis-induced changes in calcium and PTH were observed in patients with pre-dialysis serum calcium <8.75 mg/dl dialyzed with 2.5 mEq/l dialysate [calcium] and in patients with pre-dialysis serum calcium >9.15 mg/dl dialyzed with 3.0 mEq/l calcium dialysate. Conclusion: In conclusion, the individualization of dialysate calcium concentration according to baseline pre-dialysis serum calcium may prevent major excursions in post-dialysis serum calcium and iPTH levels. Short Summary: High calcium dialysate may increase serum calcium in hemodialysis patients, while low dialysate calcium may increase PTH. Individualization of dialysate calcium according to predialysis serum calcium levels may prevent or decrease unwanted excursions of both serum calcium and PTH. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Blood Purification 12/2014; 38(3-4):224-233. DOI:10.1159/000366126 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) without classical cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) are uncommon, and their profile has not been thoroughly studied. In CHD patients, we have assessed the differences in several biomarkers between those with and without CRF. We studied 704 patients with CHD, analyzing plasma levels of biomarkers related to inflammation, thrombosis, renal damage, and heart failure: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), galectin-3, N-terminal fragment of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), calcidiol (vitamin D metabolite), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), parathormone, and phosphate. Twenty patients (2.8%) exhibited no CRFs. Clinical variables were well balanced in both groups, with the logical exceptions of no use of antidiabetic drugs, lower triglyceride and glucose, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in no-CRF patients. No-CRF patients showed lower hs-CRP (2.574±3.120 vs. 4.554±9.786mg/L; p=0.018), MCP-1 (114.75±36.29 vs. 143.56±65.37pg/ml; p=0.003), and FGF-23 (79.28±40.22 vs. 105.17±156.61RU/ml; p=0.024), and higher calcidiol (23.66±9.12 vs. 19.49±8.18ng/ml; p=0.025) levels. At follow-up, 10.0% vs. 11.0% patients experienced acute ischemic event, heart failure, or death in the non-CRF and CRF groups, respectively (p=0.815, log-rank test). The limited number of non-CRF patients may have influenced this finding. A Cox regression analysis in the whole population showed that high calcidiol, and low MCP-1 and FGF-23 plasma levels are associated with a better prognosis. CHD patients without CRFs show a favorable biomarker profile in terms of inflammation and mineral metabolism. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this difference translates into a better prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cardiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2014.11.006 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tubular epithelium may be intrinsically involved in promoting kidney injury by junctional instability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and extracellular matrix remodelling. In this work, we investigated whether the pleiotropic and proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), could be able to disturb junctional protein expression and to induce EMT of tubular cells. In cultured murine proximal tubular cells TWEAK induced phenotypic changes that were accompanied by F-actin redistribution, loss of epithelial adherent (E-cadherin, Cadherin-16, β-catenin) and tight junction (ZO-1) proteins, and re-expression of the mesenchymal protein Vimentin. The transcriptional repressors Snail and HNF1β were also modulated by TWEAK. In a murine model of obstructive renal pathology, TWEAK expression correlated with the appearance of the mesenchymal marker αSMA in kidney tubular cells. Mechanistically, the epithelial changes induced by TWEAK, including loss of epithelial integrity and EMT, via Fn14 were TGF-β1 independent, but mediated by several intracellular signaling systems, including the canonical NF-κB, ERK activation and the vitamin D receptor modulation.These results highlight potential contributions of TWEAK-induced inflammatory mechanisms that could unveil new pathogenic effects of TWEAK starting tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 12/2014; 230(7). DOI:10.1002/jcp.24905 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GLA p.(Arg118Cys) variant is associated with high residual enzyme activity•The p.(Arg118Cys) variant does not segregate with Fabry disease clinical phenotypes•The p.(Arg118Cys) variant might be a modulator of the multifactorial risk of cerebrovascular disease•The Cys118 allelic frequency in the Portuguese population has been estimated as 0.001
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 11/2014; 114(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.11.004 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important regulator of the inflammatory response. Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates the NF-κB pathway linked to renal inflammation. Although both AT1 and AT2 receptors are involved in Ang II-mediated NF-κB activation, the biological processes mediated by each receptor are not fully characterized. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is an important macrophage-derived cytokine that regulates immune and inflammatory processes, activating intracellular pathways shared with Ang II, including the NF-κB.
    Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 10/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1177/1470320314551564 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) conveys high mortality risk by complex mechanisms not fully elucidated but possibly linked to hormonal abnormalities, including cortisol. Whereas a high serum cortisol level has recently been linked with increased mortality in the general population, there is scarce information on the clinical associates and prognostic value of cortisol levels in ESRD. Patients and methods: Prospective study of prevalent hemodialysis patients (n = 75), mostly non-diabetic (76%), where cortisol levels were assessed and patients were afterwards followed for a median of 20 (interquartile range (IQR) 8 - 31) months. Results: Cortisol levels were negatively correlated with plasma sodium (Rho = -0.26. p < 0.025) and positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP; Rho = 0.26, p = 0.027). The association with CRP remained independent of multiple confounders. Baseline cortisol levels of those who died were higher than of those who survived (19.8 ± 6.9 vs. 15.3 ± 5.7 mcg/dL, p = 0.0083). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with cortisol levels within the highest tertile (≥ 18 mcg/dL) were at increased risk of death. Cortisol was associated with risk of death both in crude and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models (HR 1.09 (1.021 - 1.167) p = 0.011; and 1.16 (1.027 - 1.309), p = 0.01, respectively)). Conclusions: High serum concentrations of cortisol were associated with a state of inflammation and independently identified a subgroup of chronic hemodialysis patients at a high mortality risk.
    Clinical nephrology 10/2014; 82 (2014)(4):247-256. DOI:10.5414/CN108311 · 1.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
2,890.63 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014–2015
    • Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2004–2015
    • Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón
      • Department of Nephrology
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1982–2015
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      • Enfermería de la Fundación Jiménez Díaz
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1977–2015
    • Fundación Jiménez Díaz
      • Servicio de Nefrología e Hipertensión
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2013
    • Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova
      Lérida, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2003–2013
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2010
    • Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Hospital de Santa Maria
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2008
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2007
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2005
    • Klinički centar Niš
      Nisch, Central Serbia, Serbia
  • 2000–2003
    • Universidad Austral de Chile
      Ciudad de Valdivía, Los Ríos, Chile
  • 2001–2002
    • Hospital Clínico San Carlos
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Hospital Universitario Fundacion Alcorcon
      • Departamento de Cardiología
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1992
    • Spanish National Research Council
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1987–1989
    • Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain