[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Establishing Total Body Irradiation (TBI) using Helical Tomotherapy (HT) to gain better control over dose distribution and homogeneity and to individually spare organs at risk. Because of their limited body length the technique seems especially eligible in juvenile patients.Patients and methodsThe cohort consisted of 10 patients, 6 female and 4 male, aged 4 - 22y with acute lymphoblastic- (ALL) or acute myeloic leukemia (AML). All patients presented with high risk disease features. Body length in treatment position ranged from 110--180 cm. Two Gy single dose was applied BID to a total dose of 12 Gy. Dose volume constraint for the PTV was 95% dose coverage for 95% of the volume. The lungs were spared to a mean dose of [less than or equal to]10 Gy. Patients were positioned in a vac-loc bag in supine position with a 3-point head mask. RESULTS: Average D95 to the PTV was 11.7 Gy corresponding to a mean coverage of the PTV of 97.5%. Dmean for the lungs was 9.14 Gy. Grade 3--4 side effects were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: TBI using HT is feasible and well tolerated. A benefit could be demonstrated with regard to dose distribution and homogeneity and the selective dose-reduction to organs at risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A catheter lock solution containing 1.35% taurolidine and 4% citrate could potentially disrupt bacterial surface adherence and consecutive biofilm production due to the anti-adherence properties of taurolidine and the anticlotting and chelator activities of both compounds.
To compare the impact on microbial catheter colonization and infectious complications of heparin and taurolidine citrate as central venous catheter (CVC) lock solutions in paediatric patients with haematological malignancies.
Seventy-one patients aged 1.4-18 years were randomized to two treatment groups using either heparin (N = 36) or taurolidine citrate (N = 35). Infectious complications and clinical side-effects were prospectively monitored and microbial colonization of catheters was assessed at the time of removal.
There were two bloodstream infections in the taurolidine citrate group versus nine in the heparin group (0.3 vs 1.3 infections per 1000 catheter-days; P = 0.03). Fever of unknown origin and catheter occlusions were observed with a similar frequency in both groups. Microbial colonization was found in 25.4% catheters. The time of no-lock use, but not the type of lock solution or time of observation, was a significant predictor of catheter colonization (P = 0.004). Colonization was not observed in CVCs used immediately with taurolidine citrate lock. Seven patients in the taurolidine citrate group (20%) experienced side-effects (nausea, vomiting, abnormal taste sensations).
The use of taurolidine citrate lock solution was associated with a significant reduction in bloodstream infection in immunocompromised paediatric patients. Taurolidine citrate may prevent colonization of CVCs if used from the time of insertion, but not after a period of no-lock catheter use.
The Journal of hospital infection 02/2012; 80(4):304-9. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric patients with SCID constitute medical emergencies. In the absence of an HLA-identical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donor, mismatched related-donor transplantation (MMRDT) or unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) are valuable treatment options. To help transplantation centers choose the best treatment option, we retrospectively compared outcomes after 175 MMRDTs and 74 UCBTs in patients with SCID or Omenn syndrome. Median follow-up time was 83 months and 58 months for UCBT and MMRDT, respectively. Most UCB recipients received a myeloablative conditioning regimen; most MMRDT recipients did not. UCB recipients presented a higher frequency of complete donor chimerism (P = .04) and faster total lymphocyte count recovery (P = .04) without any statistically significance with the preparative regimen they received. The MMRDT and UCBT groups did not differ in terms of T-cell engraftment, CD4(+) and CD3(+) cell recoveries, while Ig replacement therapy was discontinued sooner after UCBT (adjusted P = .02). There was a trend toward a greater incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD (P = .06) and more chronic GVHD (P = .03) after UCBT. The estimated 5-year overall survival rates were 62% ± 4% after MMRDT and 57% ± 6% after UCBT. For children with SCID and no HLA-identical sibling donor, both UCBT and MMRDT represent available HSC sources for transplantation with quite similar outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosin deaminase (ADA) deficiency is the cause for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in about 15% of patients with SCID, often presenting as T (-)B (-)NK (-)SCID. Treatment options for ADA-SCID are enzyme replacement, bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. We here describe the first patient with ADA-SCID and fatal hepatic failure despite bone marrow transplantation from a 10/10 HLA identical related donor. As patients with ADA-SCID may be at yet underestimated increased risk for rapid hepatic failure we speculate whether hepatitis in ADA-SCID should lead to the immediate treatment with enzyme replacement by pegylated ADA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multicenter trial ALL-REZ BFM (ie, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Relapse Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) 90 was designed to improve prognosis for children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by time-to-relapse- and site-of-relapse-adapted stratification and by introduction of novel chemotherapy elements and to evaluate new prognostic parameters in a large, population-based cohort.
Five hundred twenty-five patients stratified into risk groups A (early bone marrow [BM] relapses), B (late BM relapses), and C (isolated extramedullary relapses) received alternating short-course intensive polychemotherapy (in blocks R1, R2, or R3) and cranial/craniospinal irradiation followed by maintenance therapy. Block R3 (high-dose cytarabine and etoposide) was introduced to improve the outcome compared with historical controls. Patients with early BM or T-ALL relapse (poor prognosis group [PPG]) were eligible for experimental regimens. One hundred seventeen patients received stem-cell transplantation (SCT).
The probabilities (and standard deviations) of event-free survival (pEFS) and overall survival (pOS) at 10 years were 0.30 +/- .02 and 0.36 +/- .02, respectively. Significant differences existed between strategic groups (pEFS(A) = .17 +/- .03; pEFS(B) = .43 +/- .04; pEFS(C) = .54 +/- .06; pEFS(PPG) = .15 +/- .03; log-rank P < .001). Patients of high-risk groups A plus PPG did better with SCT than with chemotherapy (pEFS = .33 +/- .05 v 0.20 +/- .05; P = .005). The pEFS was similar to trials ALL-REZ BFM 85/87 (.36 +/- .03. v 0.37 +/- .03; P = .419; PPG excluded). Time point, site of relapse, immunophenotype, and SCT were significant predictors of pEFS in multivariate analyses.
More than one third of patients in this large, population-based trial were cured. Neither R3 nor adaptation of chemotherapy intensity was capable of improving pEFS or of overcoming prognostic factors. In high-risk patients, remission induction regimens must be improved, and allogeneic SCT should be recommended in patients achieving second complete remission.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2010; 28(14):2339-47. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Usually IL-7 receptor deficiency presents as (T-B+NK+) (Severe) Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) within the first six months of life. All published IL-7R-deficient patients so far have been diagnosed and received stem cell transplantation within the first year of life.
We present a female patient born to non-consanguineous German parents with delayed manifestation. She presented with superinfected dermatitis at 6 months of life and developed a first pneumonia at age 9 months. On admission to our department at 22 months the patient presented with severe T cell lymphopenia. PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECI pneumonia was diagnosed from broncho-alveolar lavage fluid.
Sequencing of IL7RA in the patient revealed compound heterozygous mutations. FACS analysis showed no expression of IL-7 receptor alpha-chain on the patient's lympho- and monocytes. The patient successfully received haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a 9/10 matched unrelated donor at age 24 months. CONLUSION: Despite almost absent T cell functions clinical symptoms occurred late compared to previously published patients. Thus even in patients with moderate clinical symptoms and delayed onset a (T-B+NK+) (Severe) Combined Immunodeficiency ((S)CID)) due to missing IL-7 receptor signalling must be considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cell transplantation (SCT) can definitely cure chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a rare disease in childhood. We prospectively evaluated the results of early SCT in pediatric CML after standardized pretreatment with hydroxyurea+/-interferon.
Between 1995 and 2004, 200 children (median age: 12.4 years) were enrolled and stratified: given the availability of an HLA-matched related donor (MRD), SCT was scheduled within 6 months and otherwise from an unrelated donor (UD) within 12 months following diagnosis.
176 patients underwent SCT; from MRD within median 4 months and from UD within median 11 months after diagnosis. At SCT, 158 patients were in chronic phase (CP1 or CP2), 9 patients were in accelerated phase and 9 patients were in blast crisis (BC). The conditioning regimen - total body irradiation or busulfan - exerted no different impact on overall survival (OS). Probability of OS at 5 years was 87+/-11% if grafted from a sibling (n=41), 52+/-9% from matched UD (MUD, n=71), and 45+/-16% from mismatched donors (MMD, n=55), respectively. A trend for better OS in CP1 was observed if SCT was performed within 6 months (n=49; 74+/-9%), compared to 7-12 months (n=52; 62+/-15%), and >12 months (n=43; 62+/-17%) after diagnosis, respectively (p=0.157). Probability of relapse at 5 years was 20+/-12%. Transplant-related mortality and graft-versus-host disease mainly contributed to the inferior outcome in UD and HLA-mismatched SCT.
These data from the first prospective trial on CML restricted to children and adolescents might be considered for decision making when balancing the risks of SCT against the increasing use of imatinib as upfront treatment for CML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia is a recessively inherited disease that is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and a predisposition to develop cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the head and neck and anogenital regions. Previous studies of Fanconi anemia SCCs, mainly from US patients, revealed the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in 21 (84%) of 25 tumors analyzed. We examined a panel of 21 SCCs mainly from European Fanconi anemia patients (n = 19 FA patients; 16 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas [HNSCCs], 2 esophageal SCCs, and 3 anogenital SCCs) for their clinical and molecular characteristics, including patterns of allelic loss, TP53 mutations, and the presence of HPV DNA by GP5+/6+ polymerase chain reaction. HPV DNA was detected in only two (10%) of 21 tumors (both anogenital SCCs) but in none of the 16 HNSCCs. Of the 18 tumors analyzed, 10 contained a TP53 mutation. The patterns of allelic loss were comparable to those generally found in sporadic SCCs. Our data show that HPV does not play a major role in squamous cell carcinogenesis in this cohort of Fanconi anemia patients and that the Fanconi anemia SCCs are genetically similar to sporadic SCCs despite having a different etiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia is an inherited genomic instability syndrome associated with progressive bone marrow failure leading to death or the requirement for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. Prior epidemiological studies have quantified the risks of bone marrow failure, acute myeloid leukemia and solid tumors, but these estimates have not been replicated.
We assembled a cohort of 181 patients with Fanconi anemia mostly from Germany. We calculated the ratio of observed to expected cancers, and the risks of bone marrow failure, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors by age.
The first adverse event was bone marrow failure in 66 patients, acute meyloid leukemia in 14 patients and solid tumors in 10 patients. The ratio of observed to expected cancers was 44 for all cancers, 26 for all solid tumors, and 868 for acute myeloid leukemia; these increased risks were statistically significant. Significantly elevated ratios of observed to expected cancers were observed for esophageal (6281), vulvar (2411), head and neck (240), breast (34) and brain (23) tumors. Absent or abnormal radii, and a five-item congenital abnormality score, were significant risk factors for bone marrow failure. The cumulative incidence of bone marrow failure by the age of 10 years varied from 12.6% in the lowest bone marrow failure risk group to 84% in the highest. The relative hazard of bone marrow failure was significantly higher in complementation group G versus A (relative hazard=2.2) and in C versus A (relative hazard=5.4).
Findings from the German Fanconi Anemia Registry cohort validate prior risk estimates, and strongly support the concept that Fanconi anemia is a highly penetrant cancer susceptibility syndrome with early onset of acute myeloid leukemia and slightly later onset of specific solid tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare inherited chromosome instability disorder characterized by congenital anomalies and a high risk for bone marrow failure and cancer. Bleeding is a frequent complication in FA, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Thrombocytopenia is a major factor leading to this complication, but the bleeding tendency of FA patients often exceeds what one might expect based on their platelet counts. We therefore investigated if alterations of platelet function contribute to the bleeding tendency of FA patients. We assessed platelet function in 11 FA patients and 23 controls with whole blood flow cytometry. We analyzed the expression of platelet membrane glycoprotein receptors, reactivity of platelets to physiologic agonists and the proportion of young platelets. In FA patients platelet reactivity was decreased: Expression of P-selectin and binding of PAC-1 after stimulation with thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) were 15-70% lower than in controls. We found no or only minor differences of platelet glycoprotein receptor expression between groups. While the proportion of reticulated platelets was not different, the absolute number of reticulated platelets was markedly lower in FA patients. Our data show that FA is associated with reduced platelet reactivity, which may contribute to the high bleeding tendency in FA patients. Whole blood flow cytometry is a suitable method for analysis of platelet function in FA patients.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 01/2008; 98(6):1291-7. · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 13-year-old girl with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue. Fanconi anemia with a yet unknown complementation group had been diagnosed at the age of 5 years. Organ involvement included intestinal atresia, renal dysfunction due to crossed renal atopia, and tubular acidosis type II. Because of repeated bleeding complications frequent transfusions, and severe infections, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a matched unrelated donor was done at the age of 11 years. The girl did not suffer from graft-versus-host disease and had complete hematologic reconstitution after transplantation. Two years after BMT a SCC of the tongue developed without nodal or systemic metastasis. The tumor could be completely resected and no functional disturbances remained. No further treatment was given and the patient is in complete remission 6 months after diagnosis. This is one of the youngest children reported with SCC of the tongue after BMT for Fanconi anemia so far.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 08/2007; 29(7):488-91. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) in first complete remission (CR1) for children with very high-risk (VHR) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is still under critical discussion.
In the ALL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 90 and ALL-BFM 95 trials, 387 patients were eligible for SCT if there was a matched sibling donor (MSD). T-cell ALL (T-ALL) patients with poor in vivo response to initial treatment represented the largest homogeneous subgroup within VHR patients.
Of 191 high-risk (HR) T-ALL patients, 179 patients (94%) achieved CR1. Twenty-three patients received an MSD-SCT. Furthermore, in trial ALL-BFM 95, eight matched unrelated donors (MUDs) and five mismatched family donors (MMFDs) were used. The median time to SCT was 5 months (range, 2.4 to 10.8 months) from diagnosis. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 67% +/- 8% for 36 patients who received an SCT in CR1 and 42% +/- 5% for the 120 patients treated with chemotherapy alone having an event-free survival time of at least the median time to transplantation (Mantel-Byar, P = .01). Overall survival (OS) rate for the SCT group was 67% +/- 8% at 5 years, whereas patients treated with chemotherapy alone had an OS rate of 47% +/- 5% at 5 years (Mantel-Byar, P = .01). Outcome of patients who received MSD-SCT versus MUD-/MMFD-SCT was comparable (DFS, 65% +/- 10% v 69% +/- 13%, respectively). However, relapses only occurred after MSD-SCT (eight of 23 patients), whereas treatment-related mortality only occurred after MUD-/MMFD-SCT (four of 13 patients).
SCT in CR1 is superior to treatment with chemotherapy alone for childhood HR-T-ALL.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2007; 24(36):5742-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia patients have a high risk for bone marrow failure, aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia. Many FA patients acquire chromosomal aberrations in their bone marrow (BM) cells. The significance and predictive value of these somatic aberrations for hematopoietic function and malignant progress are not fully understood. Therefore, we initiated in cooperation with the ’Deutsche Fanconi-Anämie-Hilfe e.V.’ a prospective cytogenetic follow-up in BM cells of FA patients utilizing systematically molecular cytogenetic techniques. The most frequent clonal aberrations are gains of material of the long arm of chromosome 3, loss of most of the long arm of chromosome 7 or loss of one entire copy of chromosome 7, and gains of the long arm of chromosome 1. The available data suggest that these clonal chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells of FA patients represent an important step in the initiation of MDS and AML. Our data of patients with 3q aberrations revealed that gains of 3q are an adverse risk factor. The overall survival in the 3q group was extremely poor compared to FA patients without such aberrations. None of the FA patients with 3q gains survived without undergoing HSCT. Because of the high MDS/AML risk and the significantly higher mortality in the group of FA patients with 3q aberrations, we recommend a systematic evaluation of all FA patients by molecular cytogenetics in order to detect aberrations, including subtle aberrations, as early as possible. Such clonal aberrations are a very strong clinical warning sign. All available evidence suggests that the finding of any chromosomal abnormality in bone marrow cells, especially abnormalities involving chromosomes 3 and 7, warrant very close clinical follow-up, as they may signal the development of MDS or AML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the human telomerase RNA gene (TERC) cause autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita and have been detected in individuals with bone marrow failure. Here, we screened for TERC mutations in a cohort of 80 children with hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome and detected TERC alterations in two of them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hmorrhagische Diathesen durch Thrombozytopenien umfassen verschiedenste Krankheitsentitten. Genauso vielfltig wie die Ursachen sind die Blutungsmanifestationen. Nach deren Intensitt und nach der Grundkrankheit richtet sich die Indikation zur Behandlung und die Wahl der Mittel. Thrombozytentransfusionen sind heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil der Supportivtherapie in der pdiatrischen Onkologie, nach Stammzelltransplantationen und in der pdiatrischen Intensivmedizin. Man wei heute, dass die immunologisch bedingten Thrombozytopenien zwar phnotypisch gleichfrmig verlaufen, jedoch tiologisch sehr unterschiedlich sind. Dadurch erklrt sich der scheinbare Polypragmatismus und die Vielzahl der Behandlungsmethoden. Es ist ein unerreichtes Ziel, die Therapie ursachengerecht einzusetzen. Fortschritte in der molekularbiologischen Grundlagenforschung von Megakaryopoiese und Thrombozytopoiese lassen – trotz erlebter Rckschlge – hoffen, dass man mit Wachstumsfaktoren oder deren Analoga neue Mglichkeiten zur Behandlung angeborener oder erworbener Strungen der Megakaryopoiese erhlt.Haemorrhagic diatheses comprise very different nosological entities. The clinical bleeding patterns are as varied as the underlying causes. Therapy is directed to controlling both. Platelet transfusion is still an indispensible element of supportive care in paediatric oncology, after stem cell transplantation, and in paediatric intensive care. The phenotypes of immunologic thrombocytopenias are similar; however they have very different etiologies. This explains the apparent variety of methods and plethora of different therapeutic modalities. Direct therapy of the causes of the immunologic thrombocytopenias is still an unattained goal. Progress in molecular biologic research of megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis give hope – in spite of setbacks – that specific cytokines or their analogues might offer new approaches for the treatment of inborn or acquired errors of megakaryopoiesis.