[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a common cause of vision loss. OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene duplications in NTG to gain insights into the causes of glaucoma that occurs at low intraocular pressure (IOP). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this multicenter case-control study, we investigated patients who met the criteria for NTG, including glaucomatous optic neuropathy, visual field defects, and maximum recorded untreated IOP of 21 mm Hg or less, and matched controls. Participants (N = 755) were recruited from Southampton, United Kingdom (180 patients and 178 controls), Rochester, Minnesota (65 patients and 12 controls), New York, New York (96 patients and 16 controls), and Iowa City, Iowa (208 controls). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Detection of TBK1 gene duplications and comparison of the extent of the identified DNA that is duplicated with prior TBK1 copy number variations associated with NTG. RESULTS A TBK1 gene duplication was detected in 1 of 96 patients (1.0%) from New York and none of the controls. Analysis of duplication borders with comparative genome hybridization demonstrated that this patient has a novel duplication that has not been previously reported. No gene duplications were detected in any of the other cohorts of patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Duplication of the TBK1 gene is a rare cause of NTG. The identification of another case of NTG attributed to TBK1 gene duplication strengthens the case that this mutation causes glaucoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Choroideremia is an X-linked recessive disease that leads to blindness due to mutations in the CHM gene, which encodes the Rab escort protein 1 (REP1). We assessed the effects of retinal gene therapy with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector encoding REP1 (AAV.REP1) in patients with this disease.
In a multicentre clinical trial, six male patients (aged 35-63 years) with choroideremia were administered AAV.REP1 (0·6-1·0×10(10) genome particles, subfoveal injection). Visual function tests included best corrected visual acuity, microperimetry, and retinal sensitivity tests for comparison of baseline values with 6 months after surgery. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01461213.
Despite undergoing retinal detachment, which normally reduces vision, two patients with advanced choroideremia who had low baseline best corrected visual acuity gained 21 letters and 11 letters (more than two and four lines of vision). Four other patients with near normal best corrected visual acuity at baseline recovered to within one to three letters. Mean gain in visual acuity overall was 3·8 letters (SE 4·1). Maximal sensitivity measured with dark-adapted microperimetry increased in the treated eyes from 23·0 dB (SE 1·1) at baseline to 25·3 dB (1·3) after treatment (increase 2·3 dB [95% CI 0·8-3·8]). In all patients, over the 6 months, the increase in retinal sensitivity in the treated eyes (mean 1·7 [SE 1·0]) was correlated with the vector dose administered per mm(2) of surviving retina (r=0·82, p=0·04). By contrast, small non-significant reductions (p>0·05) were noted in the control eyes in both maximal sensitivity (-0·8 dB [1·5]) and mean sensitivity (-1·6 dB [0·9]). One patient in whom the vector was not administered to the fovea re-established variable eccentric fixation that included the ectopic island of surviving retinal pigment epithelium that had been exposed to vector.
The initial results of this retinal gene therapy trial are consistent with improved rod and cone function that overcome any negative effects of retinal detachment. These findings lend support to further assessment of gene therapy in the treatment of choroideremia and other diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, for which intervention should ideally be applied before the onset of retinal thinning.
UK Department of Health and Wellcome Trust.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the incremental cost and cost-effectiveness of continuous and discontinuous regimens of bevacizumab (Avastin) and ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective.
BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(7):e005094. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:Several lines of evidence suggest the involvement of antibodies and immune-complex inflammation in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a blinding disease with a strong inflammatory component. To examine this further, we developed a novel experimental mouse model of retinal inflammation and evaluated whether inflammation associated with immune-complex formation was present in eyes of AMD donors. Methods:A localised immune-complex mediated reaction was induced in the retina of wild-type (WT), Fcγ receptor γ chain deficient (γ-/-) and C1q deficient (C1q-/-) mice, and donor eyes were obtained post-mortem from donors with early or wet AMD and from healthy controls. The presence of immune-complexes, Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) and markers of macrophage/microglia activation was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results:In WT and C1q-/- mice, immune-complex deposition in the retina led to a robust inflammatory response with activation of microglia, recruitment of myeloid cells and increased expression of FcγRs I-IV and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II). This response was not observed in γ-/- mice, lacking activating FcγRs. We found that early AMD was associated with deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG), C1q and membrane-attack-complex (MAC) in the choroiocapillaris, and increased numbers of CD45+ cells expressing FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb. Further, FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb were observed in eyes of donors suffering from wet AMD. Conclusions:Our studies suggest that immune-complexes may contribute to AMD pathogenesis through interaction of IgG with FcγRs and might inform about possible side effects associated with therapeutic antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrospun fibrous matrices prepared from methacrylate-based copolymers are investigated as a tool for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplantation in the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases. Human RPE cells were used to probe the cell–surface interactions on these copolymer matrices. For the first time, simple changes in chemical functionality have been found to induce gel formation of these methacrylate backbone copolymers in vitro. This effect is shown to significantly improve RPE cell adhesion and survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if prespecified genetic polymorphisms influence responsiveness to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The objectives were to replicate 3 reported pharmacogenetic associations of response in nAMD and to test for novel associations.
Cohort study, combining information about patients' genotypes with information from a randomized controlled trial about responsiveness to anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD.
Five hundred nine participants with nAMD, enrolled in the Alternative Treatments to Inhibit VEGF in Patients with Age-Related Choroidal Neovascularisation (IVAN) trial.
Participants were classified as responders or nonresponders to VEGF inhibition based on the optical coherence tomography (OCT) metric of total retinal thickness (TRT). We computed the change in TRT from baseline to the latest time point for which OCT data were available (3, 6, 9, or 12 months). Eyes with changes in TRT greater than or equal to the 75th percentile or more were classified as responders, and those with changes less than or equal to the 25th percentile or lower were classified as non-responders. Three previously reported associations of response to VEGF inhibition in nAMD involving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the CFH, FZD4, and HTRA1/ARMS2 loci were tested for replication. An additional 482 SNPs also were tested using a candidate gene approach. Associations were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs).
The primary outcome was evidence of a genetic association with response to VEGF inhibition as measured by change in TRT.
One hundred twenty-six participants were classified as responders and 128 were classified as nonresponders. The SNP rs10490924 in HTRA1/ARMS2 showed a borderline association with responsiveness after Bonferroni correction (OR, 1.53; CI, 0.99-2.36; P = 0.055, Bonferroni correction). None of the other 484 additional SNPs tested for association was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The smallest corrected P value was 0.84 (P = 0.002, uncorrected) for rs9679290 in the EPAS1 (HIF2A) gene on chromosome 2. Four of the 10 most significant results were in this gene.
We estimated pharmacogenetic associations using high-quality phenotype data from a randomized controlled clinical trial of nAMD. No significant association or replication of previous associations were observed. Further investigation of the EPAS1 (HIF2A) gene, however, may, be merited.
Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate whether modification of liver complement factor H (CFH) production, by alteration of liver CFH Y402H genotype through liver transplantation (LT), influences the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Multicenter, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 223 Western European patients ≥55 years old who had undergone LT ≥5 years previously. METHODS: We determined AMD status using a standard grading system. Recipient CFH Y402H genotype was obtained from DNA extracted from recipient blood samples. Donor CFH Y402H genotype was inferred from recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype, measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This approach was verified by genotyping donor tissue from a subgroup of patients. Systemic complement activity was ascertained by measuring levels of plasma complement proteins using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, including substrates (C3, C4), activation products (C3a, C4a, and terminal complement complex), and regulators (total CFH, C1 inhibitor). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated AMD status and recipient and donor CFH Y402H genotype. RESULTS: In LT patients, AMD was associated with recipient CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.036; odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.4) but not with donor CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.626), after controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index. Recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype predicted donor CFH Y402H genotype with 100% accuracy (n = 49). Plasma complement protein or activation product levels were similar in LT patients with and without AMD. Compared with previously reported prevalence figures (Rotterdam Study), LT patients demonstrated a high prevalence of both AMD (64.6% vs 37.1%; OR, 3.09; P<0.001) and the CFH Y402H sequence variation (41.9% vs 36.2%; OR, 1.27; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of AMD is not associated with modification of hepatic CFH production. In addition, AMD is not associated with systemic complement activity in LT patients. These findings suggest that local intraocular complement activity is of greater importance in AMD pathogenesis. The high AMD prevalence observed in LT patients may be associated with the increased frequency of the CFH Y402H sequence variation. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate the understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genome-wide association study, including >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 loci associated at P < 5 × 10-8. These loci show enrichment for genes involved in the regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include seven loci with associations reaching P < 5 × 10-8 for the first time, near the genes COL8A1-FILIP1L, IER3-DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9 and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNP genotypes from all loci showed similar ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate and integrate the tomographic, angiographic and electrodiagnostic findings in pattern dystrophy. (2) To correlate visual acuity (VA) with central macular thickness (CMT), the electrooculogram (EOG) and pattern electroretinogram (PERG). DESIGN: A retrospective study of patients with pattern dystrophy. 52 eyes of 26 patients were examined. RESULTS: Thirty-three eyes had adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy, 8 had multifocal pattern dystrophy, 6 had butterfly pattern dystrophy and 2 had reticular pattern dystrophy. SD-OCT demonstrated hyperreflectivity between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/ Bruch's complex, and the junction of the inner and outer segments (IS/OS) of the photoreceptors. Disruption of the IS/OS was observed in 20, and disruption of the end tips of photoreceptors was clearly visible in eight eyes. 11 eyes showed abnormal focal hyper-reflectivity originating from the RPE towards the outer nuclear layer (ONL), and in two eyes this appeared to originate from the junction of the IS/OS towards the ONL. EDTs revealed borderline or a reduced EOG in 25 (51%) and a degraded PERG in 41eyes (83.6%) with the P50 component reduced in 23 and N95 in 18. CMT and Arden ratio did not show any significant correlation with VA. CONCLUSIONS: We observed relatively consistent features between different types of pattern dystrophies. In addition we observed novel findings on 3D-OCT. We also report 3D-OCT features of reticular, multifocal and butterfly pattern dystrophies. The degraded PERG results observed in our study indicate that the disease process in this condition is not limited to the RPE.
The British journal of ophthalmology 02/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central corneal thickness (CCT) is associated with eye conditions including keratoconus and glaucoma. We performed a meta-analysis on >20,000 individuals in European and Asian populations that identified 16 new loci associated with CCT at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). We further showed that 2 CCT-associated loci, FOXO1 and FNDC3B, conferred relatively large risks for keratoconus in 2 cohorts with 874 cases and 6,085 controls (rs2721051 near FOXO1 had odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-1.88, P = 2.7 × 10(-10), and rs4894535 in FNDC3B had OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.29-1.68, P = 4.9 × 10(-9)). FNDC3B was also associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (P = 5.6 × 10(-4); tested in 3 cohorts with 2,979 cases and 7,399 controls). Further analyses implicate the collagen and extracellular matrix pathways in the regulation of CCT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual loss in Western populations. Susceptibility is influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Known genetic risk loci do not account for all the heritability. We therefore carried out a genome-wide association study of AMD in the UK population with 893 cases of advanced AMD and 2199 controls. This showed an association with the well-established AMD risk loci ARMS2 (age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2)-HTRA1 (HtrA serine peptidase 1) (P =2.7 × 10(-72)), CFH (complement factor H) (P =2.3 × 10(-47)), C2 (complement component 2)-CFB (complement factor B) (P =5.2 × 10(-9)), C3 (complement component 3) (P =2.2 × 10(-3)) and CFI (P =3.6 × 10(-3)) and with more recently reported risk loci at VEGFA (P =1.2 × 10(-3)) and LIPC (hepatic lipase) (P =0.04). Using a replication sample of 1411 advanced AMD cases and 1431 examined controls, we confirmed a novel association between AMD and single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 6p21.3 at TNXB (tenascin XB)-FKBPL (FK506 binding protein like) [rs12153855/rs9391734; discovery P =4.3 × 10(-7), replication P =3.0 × 10(-4), combined P =1.3 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-1.6] and the neighbouring gene NOTCH4 (Notch 4) (rs2071277; discovery P =3.2 × 10(-8), replication P =3.8 × 10(-5), combined P =2.0 × 10(-11), OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2-1.4). These associations remained significant in conditional analyses which included the adjacent C2-CFB locus. TNXB, FKBPL and NOTCH4 are all plausible AMD susceptibility genes, but further research will be needed to identify the causal variants and determine whether any of these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD.
Human Molecular Genetics 06/2012; 21(18):4138-50. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the genetic cause of central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD) in a large Northern Irish family.
We previously reported linkage of the locus for CACD in this family to an interval of approximately 5 cM on chromosome 17p13 flanked by polymorphic markers D17S1810 and CHLC GATA7B03. We undertook sequence capture, massively parallel sequencing and computational alignment, base-calling and annotation to identify a causative mutation. Conventional sequencing was used to confirm the
Results. Deep sequencing identified a single-base substitution in guanylate cyclase 2D, membrane (retina-specific) gene (GUCY2D). The novel mutation segregated with the disease phenotype and resulted in substitution of valine by alanine at position 933, within the catalytic domain of the protein. It altered a motif that is strongly conserved in a large number of distantly related proteins across several species and was predicted to have a damaging effect on protein activity.
Mutations in GUCY2D have previously been associated with dominant cone-rod dystrophies (CORD6) and recessive forms of Leber's congenital amaurosis. This is the first report of a GUCY2D mutation causing CACD and adds to our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlation in this heterogeneous group of choroidoretinal dystrophies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab and bevacizumab intravitreal injections to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).
Multicenter, noninferiority factorial trial with equal allocation to groups. The noninferiority limit was 3.5 letters. This trial is registered (ISRCTN92166560).
People >50 years of age with untreated nAMD in the study eye who read ≥ 25 letters on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart.
We randomized participants to 4 groups: ranibizumab or bevacizumab, given either every month (continuous) or as needed (discontinuous), with monthly review.
The primary outcome is at 2 years; this paper reports a prespecified interim analysis at 1 year. The primary efficacy and safety outcome measures are distance visual acuity and arteriothrombotic events or heart failure. Other outcome measures are health-related quality of life, contrast sensitivity, near visual acuity, reading index, lesion morphology, serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, and costs.
Between March 27, 2008 and October 15, 2010, we randomized and treated 610 participants. One year after randomization, the comparison between bevacizumab and ranibizumab was inconclusive (bevacizumab minus ranibizumab -1.99 letters, 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.04 to 0.06). Discontinuous treatment was equivalent to continuous treatment (discontinuous minus continuous -0.35 letters; 95% CI, -2.40 to 1.70). Foveal total thickness did not differ by drug, but was 9% less with continuous treatment (geometric mean ratio [GMR], 0.91; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.97; P = 0.005). Fewer participants receiving bevacizumab had an arteriothrombotic event or heart failure (odds ratio [OR], 0.23; 95% CI, 0.05 to 1.07; P = 0.03). There was no difference between drugs in the proportion experiencing a serious systemic adverse event (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.80 to 2.27; P = 0.25). Serum VEGF was lower with bevacizumab (GMR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.54; P<0.0001) and higher with discontinuous treatment (GMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.42; P = 0.004). Continuous and discontinuous treatment costs were £9656 and £6398 per patient per year for ranibizumab and £1654 and £1509 for bevacizumab; bevacizumab was less costly for both treatment regimens (P<0.0001).
The comparison of visual acuity at 1 year between bevacizumab and ranibizumab was inconclusive. Visual acuities with continuous and discontinuous treatment were equivalent. Other outcomes are consistent with the drugs and treatment regimens having similar efficacy and safety.
Proprietary or commercial disclosures may be found after the references.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the developed world. There is currently no treatment for the cellular loss, which is characteristic of AMD. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells represents a potential therapy. Because of AMD-related pathology in the native support, Bruch's membrane, transplanted RPE cells require a scaffold to reside on. We present here the development of an electrospun fibrous scaffold derived from methyl methacrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) methacrylate for novel application as an RPE scaffold. Scaffolds were chemically modified to improve cell adhesion by functionalization not previously reported for this type of copolymer system. A human RPE cell line was used to investigate cell-scaffold interactions for up to two weeks in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the fibrous scaffolds and confirm cell attachment. By day 15, cell area was significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced on scaffolds with chemical modification of the PEG chain terminus. In addition, significantly, less-apoptotic cell death was demonstrable on these modified surfaces.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 04/2012; 100(9):2358-64. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical course, genetic etiology, and visual prognosis in patients with cone dystrophy (CD) and cone-rod dystrophy (CRD).
Clinic-based, longitudinal, multicenter study.
Consecutive probands with CD (N = 98), CRD (N = 83), and affected relatives (N = 41 and N = 17, respectively) from various ophthalmogenetic clinics in The Netherlands, Belgium, and the United Kingdom.
Data on best-corrected Snellen visual acuity, color vision, ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, Goldmann perimetry, and full-field standard electroretinogram (ERG) from all patients were registered from medical charts over a mean follow-up of 19 years. The ABCA4, CNGB3, KCNV2, PDE6C, and RPGR genes were analyzed by direct sequencing in autosomal recessive (AR) and X-linked (XL), respectively. Genotyping was not undertaken for autosomal-dominant cases.
The 10-year progression of all clinical parameters and cumulative lifetime risk of low vision and legal blindness were assessed.
The mean age onset for CD was 16 years (standard deviation, 11), and of CRD 12 years (standard deviation, 11; P = 0.02). The pattern of inheritance was AR in 92% of CD and 90% of CRD. Ten years after diagnosis, 35% of CD and 51% of CRD had a bull's eye maculopathy; 70% of CRD showed absolute peripheral visual field defects and 37% of CD developed rod involvement on ERG. The mean age of legal blindness was 48 (standard error [SE], 3.1) years in CD, and 35 (SE, 1.1; P<0.001) years in CRD. ABCA4 mutations were found in 8 of 90 (9%) of AR-CD, and in 17 of 65 (26%) of AR-CRD. Other mutations were detected in CNGB3 (3/90; 3%), KCNV2 (4/90; 4%), and in PDE6C (1/90; 1%). The RPGR gene was mutated in the 2 XL-CD and in 4 of 5 (80%) of XL-CRD. ABCA4 mutations as well as age of onset <20 years were significantly associated with a faster progression to legal blindness (P<0.001).
Although CD had a slightly more favorable clinical course than CRD, both disorders progressed to legal blindness in the majority of patients. Mutations in the ABCA4 gene and early onset of disease were independent prognostic parameters for visual loss. Our data may serve as an aid in counseling patients with progressive cone disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of incurable visual impairment in high-income countries. Previous studies report inconsistent associations between AMD and apolipoprotein E (APOE), a lipid transport protein involved in low-density cholesterol modulation. Potential interaction between APOE and sex, and smoking status has been reported. We present a pooled analysis (n = 21,160) demonstrating associations between late AMD and APOε4 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72 per haplotype; confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.74; P = 4.41×10(-11) ) and APOε2 (OR = 1.83 for homozygote carriers; CI: 1.04-3.23; P = 0.04), following adjustment for age group and sex within each study and smoking status. No evidence of interaction between APOE and sex or smoking was found. Ever smokers had significant increased risk relative to never smokers for both neovascular (OR = 1.54; CI: 1.38-1.72; P = 2.8×10(-15) ) and atrophic (OR = 1.38; CI: 1.18-1.61; P = 3.37×10(-5) ) AMD but not early AMD (OR = 0.94; CI: 0.86-1.03; P = 0.16), implicating smoking as a major contributing factor to disease progression from early signs to the visually disabling late forms. Extended haplotype analysis incorporating rs405509 did not identify additional risks beyond ε2 and ε4 haplotypes. Our expanded analysis substantially improves our understanding of the association between the APOE locus and AMD. It further provides evidence supporting the role of cholesterol modulation, and low-density cholesterol specifically, in AMD disease etiology.
Human Mutation 08/2011; 32(12):1407-16. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have revealed new insights into the genetic determinants of open-angle glaucoma (OAG). This study was performed to determine to what extent variants within established genes (MYOC, OPTN, and WDR36) and newly identified common genetic variants (ATOH7, CDKN2B, and SIX1) contribute to the risk of OAG.
Population-based setting, family-based setting, and a case-control study.
The Rotterdam Study I cohort (N = 5312; mean age±standard deviation [SD], 68.0±8.4 years). Findings were replicated in the Genetic Research in Isolated Populations combined with the Erasmus Rucphen Family study (N = 1750; mean age±SD, 48.3±15.2 years), and a cohort from Southampton (N = 702; mean age±SD, 72.5±10.7 years).
After identifying common variants associated with OAG within the established genes, the risk of OAG was analyzed using logistic regression. Discriminative accuracy was assessed by comparing the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for models, including the number of risk alleles, intraocular pressure, age, and gender, with the AUC for the same model but without the risk alleles.
Odds ratios and AUCs of individual and combined risk alleles.
No consistent significant associations for the established genes (MYOC, OPTN, and WDR36) with OAG were found. However, when comparing the load of risk variants between cases and controls, 2 of 3 studies showed a significant increased risk of OAG for participants carrying more risk alleles of the 3 established genes. When combining all 6 genes, participants carrying a high number of risk alleles (highest tertile) had a 2.29-fold to 3.19-fold increase in risk of OAG compared with those carrying only a few risk alleles. The addition of the newly identified genes to IOP, age, and gender resulted in a higher AUC compared with the AUC without the newly identified genes (P = 0.027).
A significant contribution to the risk of OAG was found for the new common variants identified by recent genome-wide association studies, but not for variants within the established genes. Participants carrying a high number of risk alleles had an approximately 3-fold increase in the risk of OAG compared with those with a low number of risk alleles.
The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variation in the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been reported to be associated with longevity in humans. The authors assessed the allelic distribution of APOE isoforms ε2, ε3, and ε4 among 10,623 participants from 15 case-control and cohort studies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in populations of European ancestry (study dates ranged from 1990 to 2009). The authors included only the 10,623 control subjects from these studies who were classified as having no evidence of AMD, since variation within the APOE gene has previously been associated with AMD. In an analysis stratified by study center, gender, and smoking status, there was a decreasing frequency of the APOE ε4 isoform with increasing age (χ(2) for trend = 14.9 (1 df); P = 0.0001), with a concomitant increase in the ε3 isoform (χ(2) for trend = 11.3 (1 df); P = 0.001). The association with age was strongest in ε4 homozygotes; the frequency of ε4 homozygosity decreased from 2.7% for participants aged 60 years or less to 0.8% for those over age 85 years, while the proportion of participants with the ε3/ε4 genotype decreased from 26.8% to 17.5% across the same age range. Gender had no significant effect on the isoform frequencies. This study provides strong support for an association of the APOE gene with human longevity.
American Journal of Epidemiology 06/2011; 173(12):1357-64. · 4.78 Impact Factor