[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as a proxy to assess wasting in children, its validity abounds in controversies. This study therefore assessed the validity of MUAC as a measure of nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in urban setting in western Nigeria. A cross sectional study of children aged 12-59 months in selected nursery schools in Moniya, Akinyele local government area, Oyo state was carried out between February to April 2010. The age, weight, length and MUAC, were obtained from the school children who were selected through total sampling. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of the MUAC were determined using weight for age as gold standard (underweight). Z-Scores for anthropometric indicators were calculated using EPI-NUT programme. Receivers operating curve was prepared to determine the optimal cut off of MUAC for the sensitivity and specificity. The overall prevalence of under nutrition among the respondents was 5.6%. The mean mid upper arm circumference was 15.47 ± 1.4 cm and appears to increase with age from 11.49 ± 3.0 at 12-23 months and peaks at age five with a value of 18.05 ± 3.5. At 13.5 cm cut off, the sensitivity of MUAC is 20%, and the specificity is 95.3%, with a Kappa of 16.7%. The receivers operating curve reveals an optimum cut off of 15.5 cm with optimal but improved MUAC sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 53.5%. Thus MUAC was a poorly sensitive indicator of under nutrition at a cut-off below 13.5 cm but highly sensitive at 15.5 cm. A higher cut off value is therefore for recommended for screening for acute malnutrition among under five children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. The objective of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of examination malpractice among medical students; its import on medical education and future doctors.
Structured questionnaires were administered to consenting medical students of participating four medical colleges in Nigeria. Data was collated and analysed using SPSS version 11.
Three hundred and eighty two students responded. There were 210 males and 172 females (M: F-1.2:1); age range 19-45 years, mean 24.86 ± SD. Majority 304(79.6%) were in the 5th and final years. At secondary and tertiary levels, 67(18.1%) and 79(22.2%) were respectively involved in cheating. Mode of cheating included seeking examination materials, 10(2.6%); copying answers between examination rooms, 18(4.8%); copying assignments, 290(77.7%) and copying laboratory results 206(56.6%). Clinical examinations not performed were described as "normal" by 206(56.6%). Motivation for cheating included previous failures and escape punishment in 6(3.3%) and 31(10.4%) respectively. While 46(12.8%) tried to induce lecturers to change grades, 97(25.8%) would not inform the authority if they suspected that examination leaked.
Examination malpractice in High schools and Tertiary institutions also includes the medical students. Educating pupils from the elementary schools on effects of cheating, inclusion of this practice in the medical curriculum as part of Medical Ethics and Institutional culture of Integrity among doctors are recommended. Stiffer punishment for offenders would reduce the practice among the students.
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal 09/2011; 18(3):191-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A descriptive cross-sectional study to assess adolescents' view of the practice and content of sex education within the family setting in a rural Nigerian community and explore whether there is any association between parental communication on sex and adolescents' sexual debut and habits. Simple random sampling was utilized, while a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 350 respondents. Data analysis was by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 11). Majority of the respondents (48.8%) were late adolescents, 291 (85.1%) had had sex education, most (45.7%) of whom were exposed between ages 10 and 14 years. The main content of parental sex education was HIV/AIDS prevention (51.9%), avoidance of pregnancy (40.9%), abstinence (38.1%), and basic information about reproduction and biology (35.4%). Poor attitude to parental communication on sex was associated with a higher likelihood of pre-marital sex (p = 0.001). Curiosity was the most common major reason for sexual debut. This emphasizes the importance of early sex education within the family setting and its possible impact in delaying sexual initiation. Promotion of parent-child communication about sexual issues is vital in order to improve the reproductive health of the adolescents in this environment. Community-based health education intervention programs for parents are recommended.
International Quarterly of Community Health Education 01/2011; 32(1):57-71. DOI:10.2190/IQ.32.1.f
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disease surveillance has been recognized as an effective strategy in the control and prevention of diseases most especially communicable diseases. An effective surveillance system allows early intervention for the prevention and reduction of the mortality and morbidity that may result from epidemics of communicable diseases. This study assesses the adequacy of training of disease surveillance and notification officers (DSN) officers and identifies the logistic factors that may hinder their effective functioning in the local government areas in the Ekiti and Osun States in Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive study of the disease surveillance and notification officers in Osun and Ekiti states of Nigeria was carried out. Total sampling was done. Questionnaires sought information on demographic data, regularity of reporting and the availability of logistic facilities in the respective local government areas (LGAs). Out of 42 DSN officers surveyed, 38 (90.5%) were medical records officers. 32 (76.2%) had appropriate training in disease surveillance and notification. Most had received training from the WHO. Over 90% knew the process of reporting. 45.8% reported that there were penalties for defaulting officers. Logistic support was inadequate in more than half of the local governments surveyed. Inadequate funds and lack of surveillance forms were significantly associated with reporting of outbreaks by the officers. Only 13 of the officers had ever recorded episodes of epidemics in their LGAs. Majority of DSN officers had appropriate training on disease surveillance, reporting and notification. However, logistics for effective functioning was poor. Local and state governments need to put more effort into provision of logistic support for their DSN Officers to sustain the apparent improvement in surveillance activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little efforts are geared towards prevention of CNS anomalies in the developing countries.
A 1-year prospective cross-sectional analysis of the cases of CNS congenital anomalies seen in a Nigerian neurosurgical unit. This included both the children's and parents' sociodemographics, the profiles of the CNS anomalies, and the maternal obstetric health behaviors toward primary and/or secondary prevention of the anomalies. Statistical analysis was done with the Pearson's chi-square (or Fishers' exact) test. Level of significance set at P < 0.05.
There were 54 cases of cranial and spinal gross CNS anomalies, including 32 neural tube defects; two thirds of the parents were low-income earners, and half had only basic education. Thirty percent of the pregnancies were unbooked; the mean gestational age (GA) at booking and commencement of obstetric micronutrient supplementation was 4.6 months. No case had periconceptional folic acid supplementation. Obstetric ultrasonography was performed late in pregnancy (mean GA 6 months), made positive diagnosis of CNS anomaly in only 14%, and was performed mainly in unsupervised private clinic settings in 98%.
Little or no attention is currently paid to the prevention of CNS congenital anomalies in much of the low- and middle-income countries of the world. There is a great need to regulate the practice of obstetric ultrasonography in Nigeria. There is even a much greater, more fiercely urgent need to ensure periconceptional folic acid supplementation for all women of childbearing age through appropriate food fortification in these societies.
Child s Nervous System 07/2010; 26(7):919-24. DOI:10.1007/s00381-009-1079-0 · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess knowledge, attitude and management practices on intimate partner violence (IPV) in primary care practice and determine barriers to screening, safety concerns and prior training of health workers.
Self administered questionnaire interview of 298 health workers from 104 health facilities in the 33 local government areas of Oyo state.
Health workers underestimated IPV, 80% estimated that less than 10% of women in their practice experience violence. Only 35% (105) screened routinely for IPV, while 43% (129) had ever identified a victim. Response of health workers when they found oppressed women were often (64.5%) limited to treatment of injuries. Many (66.1%) believed it was an intrusion into patient's private life to inquire about violence. Ninety per cent (270) expressed concern for their personal safety if they were to discuss with the oppressed or perpetrators. Many (74.8%) believed that they could assist men who perpetrate violence, while 92.3% believed they could assist abused women. Only 18.8% (56) had ever received training on violence. Health workers with previous training on IPV were three times more likely to screen (AOR 2.66; 95%CI: 1.52-4.63), while the more senior cadre were more likely (AOR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.13-2.81) to have identified an oppressed woman. Although not significant, females had better knowledge and attitudes than men (OR 0.67; 0.96-2.94 and 0.78; 0.44-1.40).
Health workers were willing to discuss IPV, but lacked fundamental knowledge on IPV. Training efforts that focus on screening and comprehensive management are urgently required.
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal 06/2010; 17(2):138-46.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of hypertensives may be influenced by blood pressure, adverse effects of drugs used to treat hypertension, or other factors, such as the labelling effect, or beliefs and attitudes about illness and treatment. There is paucity of information on the determinants of HRQOL among black hypertensives especially in the developing countries such as Nigeria. This study describes the HRQOL and its determinants among black patients diagnosed and treated for Hypertension in Nigeria.
The study was a cross sectional in design that involved 265 hypertensive patients receiving treatment at the medical outpatient unit of the Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta, Nigeria. They were all consecutive patients that presented at the hospital during the period of the study who meet the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study. Demographic data, disease characteristics such as symptoms and signs and recent drug history were obtained from the patients and their hospital records as documented by the physician. The SF-36 questionnaire was administered once by interview to the participants to measure their HRQOL. Descriptive statistics was used in summarizing the demographic data and hypertension related histories of the participants. Multiple linear regression was used to model for the influence of socio demographic and clinical variables of the hypertensives on their HRQOL.
Physical functioning domain mean score was far below average (33.53 +/- 29.65). Role physical and role emotional domains were a little above average (54.7 +/- 40.4, 51.1 +/- 40.6 respectively). Role Physical (p = 0.043), Role Emotional (p = 0.003), Vitality (p = 0.014) and Mental Health (p = 0.034) domain mean scores for patients with controlled BP were significantly higher than patients with uncontrolled BP. The overall HRQOL was significantly better in the group of hypertensives with controlled blood pressure (p = 0.014). Increasing blood pressure (p = 0.005) and symptom count (p < 0.001), the presence of stroke (p = 0.008) and visual impairment (p = 0.015) were significant negative predictors of the overall HRQOL.
This study provides evidence for a model that links patients' status with regard to biology (blood pressure), symptoms, and functionality (HRQOL) and may prove useful in guiding follow-up of patients who receive treatment for hypertension. Identification of patient's symptoms, blood pressure, complication/comorbidity and changes in functioning may help clinicians increase their effectiveness in helping patients maintain adherent behaviour with drug and non drug interventions in chronic diseases such as hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micronutrient deficiency affects about 2 billion people all over the world. The major micronutrient deficiencies which are of public health importance include vitamin A, iron and iodine deficiencies. The deficiencies of these micronutrients cause a variety of morbidities and increased mortality which are most severe in children, adolescent girls and pregnant women. Despite the magnitude of these deficiencies, research has shown that they are correctable using simple strategies. This review examines the strategies employed to reduce micronutrient deficiencies worldwide by reviewing bibliographic databases, monograms and journals up to the year 2007. These strategies include food based and micronutrient supplementation. Although micronutrient supplementation is widely embraced as a strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, they are most suitable when used as a measure to combat severe deficiencies. Food based strategies such as food fortification and dietary diversification are more effective than micronutrient supplementation which should only be used as a short term measure. Supplementation programmes should be evidence based, multi-nutrient in approach and backed up with other complementary public health interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that infants feel pain, and painful experiences may lead to subsequent increased pain sensitivity. Owing to concerns regarding the potential adverse effects of pharmacological interventions in newborns, effective alternatives for pain control are being sought.
The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) was used to determine the analgesic effect of breastfeeding during venepuncture.
The study was of cross-over design where each neonate served as his/her own control. Median pain scores during venepuncture when neonates were being breastfed (BF) were compared with those when neonates were not being breastfed (NBF). The site of venepuncture and number of previous venepunctures were noted. Pain was assessed using NIPS.
In all, 38 term neonates (25 male, 13 female) were recruited. Mean (SD) age and weight were 8.42 (8.74) days and 2.89 (0.67) kg, respectively. The median pain score (interquartile range) of the neonates when breastfed was 1.50 (1-2), and 4.00 (2-6) when not breastfed (p=0.0001). The Kruskal-Wallis H-test did not show statistically significant differences between the BF and NBF groups when the number of previous punctures (p=0.57, p=0.27) and site of venepuncture (p=0.71, p=0.77) were considered.
Using NIPS, it has been demonstrated that breastfeeding is analgesic in neonates during venepuncture and previous venepuncture/s and site of venepuncture do not seem to affect pain scores. Breastfeeding should be the first-choice analgesic during painful procedures in neonates.
Annals of Tropical Paediatrics International Child Health 10/2007; 27(3):201-5. DOI:10.1179/146532807X220316 · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed the nurse's involvement and role perception on informed consent in LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
The study aimed at determining the nurses' knowledge, attitude and perception of role in informed consent and the level of participation in the procedure.
A descriptive cross sectional study of the nurses in the medical and surgical units of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital was carried out using semi structured questionnaire.
Sixty five nurses participated in the study. A high proportion - 60 (92.3%) had heard of informed consent but only 26(40%) had correct and adequate knowledge of informed consent. Forty (61.5%) had participated as witnesses to the procedure of seeking informed consent. Participation was only sometimes in 38 (58.5%) of respondents. Forty seven (86.2%) nurses wanted nurses to be involved in obtaining informed consent because it improves quality of patient care while 38(58.5%) nurses believed that involvement of nurses should be because it is the nurses' statutory responsibility.
It would appear that the knowledge of informed consent among nurses was inadequate and nurses were not adequately carried along in the process. Training of nurses in this important procedure would greatly enhance the quality of patient care.
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal 10/2007; 14(3):209-12.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify specific fears being entertained about general anaesthesia.
People who do work in any medical facility were targeted in this prospective questionnaire-based study. All respondents were literate. The questionnaire was divided into two sections; (a) The baseline information, which included age, sex, marital status, occupation, previous exposure to anaesthesia and patient preference for anaesthesia technique. (b) Fear about risks associated with general anaesthesia; respondents were expected to pick one of four options (very concerned, somewhat concerned, not concerned and not sure), to indicate how they feel about each of the eight risks listed in the questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed using SSPS version 10 for Windows.
In a bivariate analysis, marital status, occupation and previous exposure to anaesthesia are not associated with the expressed fear by the respondents. Respondents had the highest concern for the fear of death (82%), followed by fear of postoperative pain (75.4%). Least concern was for awareness during anaesthesia (37.7%). The mean age of those who expressed concern about being aware during operation is 37.0 +/- 8.6 years while those not concerned is 31.8 +/- 8.5 years (p=0.034). More of those who are concerned with nakedness preferred general anaesthesia (p = 0.023). Also, more females (95.7%) than males (70.6%) expressed fear about pain during general anaesthesia (p = 0.019).
Fear of death is a great concern for our patients coming for general anaesthesia and it is followed closely by fear of postoperative pain, the later was of greater concern to females. Finally, more of those who were concerned about nakedness preferred general anaesthesia.
East African journal of public health 05/2007; 4(1):40-2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitude, and perception of teachers of their role in the sexuality education of secondary school students with a viewto suggesting strategies for improvement.
The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Information was collected from 305 secondary school teachers selected by multi-stage random sampling method from Osun state, Nigeria using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire.
Median age of respondents was 36 +/- 8.18 years. Male/female ratio was 1:1.2. Knowledge about key reproductive issues was poor and inadequate. Knowledge of more than one contraceptive method was low (39.0%), Condom was the most frequently mentioned (59.3%). The teachers exhibited poor perception of their role in sexuality education of their students. 52.8% placed the sole responsibility for sexuality education on parents and only 20.7% found that it should start before age 10 years. Mean menarcheal age was 13.1 +/- 1.7 y. A statistically significant association was found between respondents' gender and knowledge of menarcheal age (p = .03); and between class taught and knowledge of menarcheal age (p = .003). 86.90% had positive attitude towards inclusion of sexuality education in the school curriculum; however, 43.6% felt that contraceptive methods should not be part of the course content.
An urgent need exists for education and re-orientation of teachers through seminars and workshops, in-service training education program to equip them properly for the task. Policy makers need to formulate a definite, explicit, and workable sexuality education policy.
International journal of adolescent medicine and health 01/2007; 19(4):425-34. DOI:10.1515/IJAMH.2007.19.4.425
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy has irreversible negative consequence on infant cognitive development and increases maternal morbidity and mortality. Iron supplementation ameliorates this effect. The salutary effect of iron supplementation on improvement of haemoglobin levels in pregnancy has been documented in various studies. However factors affecting the compliance of women with prescribed iron supplements are yet to be well studied, particularly at primary care levels. This study describes the compliance rate and demographic factors influencing use of iron supplements among pregnant women at primary care level.
This is a cross sectional descriptive study. Five hundred and ninety seven women attending randomly selected primary care centres were studied. Demographic characteristics and information on use of iron supplements were collected. Haemoglobin level was also determined for each woman.
Compliance rate was 37.5%. Prevalence of anaemia was higher among noncompliant women than those complying (18% v 15%, chi2 7.5, p = 0.006). Haemoglobin level was higher among women complying with iron supplements compared with those not complying (11.4 g/dl v 11.0 g/dl, t = 9.3, p = 0.002). Single and teenage mothers and those aged 35 years and above were less likely to be compliant. Married women, those in urban location, and those aged 20-29 years were more compliant with iron supplementation.
Pregnancy among teenage and single mothers is associated with a significantly higher risk of non-compliance with iron supplementation. Further studies are recommended to understand the reasons for non-compliance among these groups of women.
Nigerian journal of medicine: journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria 01/2006; 15(3):241-4. DOI:10.4314/njm.v15i3.37221
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have constituted a major challenge and concern worldwide. This is especially true among health workers who have to take care of such patients. This paper is aimed at studying the attitude to HIV/AID burn patients of nurses working in a burn unit. The work was carried out at the burns unit of the National Orthopaedics Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 125 questionnaires were distributed among nurses working in the burn unit. All the 120 nurses who responded were aware of HIV/AIDS: 80.8% of them believed that the prevalence was high, 93.3% that they could be infected while taking care of the patients, 91.5% that all burn patients should be screened for HIV, and 41.4% that their knowledge of the patients' HIV status would affect their professional duty to them; 31.1% would not want to dress the wounds of known HIV/AIDS burn patients. We conclude that there is a need to educate nurses and indeed all health care workers on adherence to universal precaution rather than routine screening for HIV of all burn patients as knowledge of the patients' HIV status may lead to discrimination against them.
The Annals of Fires and Burn Disaster 09/2005; 18(3):157-60.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaemia in pregnancy has serious consequences including maternal morbidity and impairment of infant cognitive development. Several authors have however reported inconsistent findings on risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy. This study was carried out to determine risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy among women at primary care level and document the contribution of HIV/AIDS to anaemia in pregnancy in low risk pregnant women at primary care level. A prospective study carried out among pregnant women attending the booking clinics of primary health care centres in Ibadan, Nigeria. HIV positive and HIV negative mothers were followed throughout pregnancy till delivery of their babies. History of use of iron, folate, Vitamin B complex and daraprim were obtained. Haemoglobin, malaria parasitaemia, and HIV serostatus were determined. Use of iron (P < 0.006), folate (P = 0.032), vitamin B complex (P = 0.001) and treatment for malaria (P = 0.05) significantly reduced the risk for anaemia in pregnancy. Malaria parasitaemia (P = 0.0001) significantly increased the risk of anaemia. However, use of daraprim and HIV seropositivity increased the risk of anaemia in pregnancy but not significantly. In a logistic regression analysis, iron (P = 0.001) and folate supplementation (P = 0.015) significantly protected against anaemia in pregnancy while malaria parasitaemia (P = 0.006) and HIV seropositivity (P = 0.015) were significant adverse risk factors. HIV is an additional risk factor for anaemia in pregnancy. Voluntary counseling and testing of pregnant women for HIV is therefore also indicated at primary care level to detect asymptomatic anaemia in pregnancy that may be due to HIV.
African journal of medicine and medical sciences 09/2005; 34(3):275-9.