Hyuncheol Oh

Wonkwang University, Riri, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea

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Publications (127)286.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Studies have shown that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have anti- inflammatory effects. Soluble DPP-4 (sDPP-4) has been considered as an adipokine of which actions need to be further characterized. Methods. We investigated the pro-inflammatory actions of sDPP-4 and the anti- inflammatory effects of DPP-4 inhibition, using vildagliptin, as an enzymatic inhibitor, and mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) as a competitive binding inhibitor. Results. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, vildagliptin suppressed the increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and phosphorylated JNK (pJNK), activation of the NF-κB pathway, and the resultant NO and proinflammatory cytokine production. Although sDPP-4 alone did not affect the protein level of iNOS or pJNK or the production of NO in RAW264.7 cells, it did amplify iNOS expression, NO responses, and proinflammatory cytokine production in LPS-stimulated RAW264 cells. As a probable mechanism, we found that sDPP-4 caused dose-dependent increases in the expression levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 in RAW264.7 cells, and that these alterations were inhibited by vildagliptin, M6P, or bisindolylmaleimide II, a protein kinase C inhibitor. Either vildagliptin or M6P suppressed iNOS expression and NO and cytokine production in LPS + DPP-4-co-stimulated macrophages, while combined treatment of the co-stimulated cells with both agents had increased anti-inflammatory effects compared with either treatment alone. Intravenous injection of sDPP-4 to C57BL/6J mice increased the expression of both TLRs in kidney and white adipose tissues. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that sDPP-4 enhances inflammatory actions via TLR pathway, while DPP-4 inhibition with either an enzymatic or binding inhibitor has anti- inflammatory effects.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 02/2016; 65(2):89-101. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2015.10.002 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the effects of Gastrodiae rhizoma, a dried root of Gastrodia elata Blume, on proliferation and differentiation of human NSCs derived from embryonic stem cells. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of Gastrodiae rhizoma (EEGR) was estimated with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as a representative constituent by HPLC. Results: MTT assay showed that the treatment with EEGR increased the viability of NSCs in growth media. Compared to control, EEGR increased the number of dendrites and denritic spines extended from a differentiated NSC. Whereas EEGR decreased the mRNA expression of Nestin, it increased that of Tuj1 and MAP2 in NSCs grown in differentiation media. Immunocytochemical analysis using confocal microscopy also revealed the increased expression of MAP2 in dendrites of EEGR-treated NSCs. Furthermore, EEGR decreased mRNA expression of Sox2 in NSCs grown even in growth media. Conclusions: In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that EEGR induced proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs, suggesting its potential benefits on NSC-based therapies and neuroregeneration in various neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 11/2015; 8(10):792-7. DOI:10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.004 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the chemical investigation of marine-derived fungus, an unusual diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloid, haenamindole (1), was isolated from a culture of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KCB12F005. The structure of 1, which possesses benzyl-hydroxypiperazindione and phenyl-pyrimidoindole rings system in the molecule, was elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by ROESY and advanced Marfey's method.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 09/2015; 25(22). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.09.026 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the active compound in NJ is unknown. Therefore, here, we examined the effects of desoxo-narchinol-A (DN) isolated from NJ against LPS-induced inflammation. To demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of DN against LPS, we used two models; murine endotoxin shock model for in vivo model, and peritoneal macrophage responses for in vitro. In endotoxin shock model, DN was administrated intraperitoneally 1h before LPS challenge, then we evaluated mice survival rates and organ damages. Pretreatment with DN (0.05mg/kg, 0.1mg/kg, or 0.5mg/kg) dramatically reduced mortality in a murine LPS-induced endotoxin shock model. Furthermore, DN inhibited tissue injury and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in the liver and lung. In in vitro macrophage model, we examined the inflammatory mediators and regulatory mechanisms such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). DN inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its derivative nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and H3 protein acetylation in murine peritoneal macrophages. DN also inhibited p38 activation, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-κB. These results suggest that DN from NJ exhibits protective effects against LPS-induced endotoxin shock and inflammation through p38 deactivation.
    International immunopharmacology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2015.09.002 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two novel cyclic depsipeptides, ulleungamides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from cultures of terrestrial Streptomyces sp. Their structures were determined by analyses of spectroscopic data and various chemical transformations, including modified Mosher's method, advanced Marfey's method, PGME, GITC derivatizations, and Snatzke's method. Ulleungamides were determined to be a new class of peptides bearing unprecedented units, such as 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dehydropipecolic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dehydropipecolic acid, and amino-linked 2-isopropylsuccinic acid. Ulleungamide A displayed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium without cytotoxicity.
    Organic Letters 08/2015; 17(16). DOI:10.1021/acs.orglett.5b01969 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A chemical investigation of the methanol extract from the roots of Cudrania tricuspidata resulted in the isolation of 16 compounds, including prenylated xanthones 1-9 and flavonoids 10-16. Their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and comparisons with published data. Compounds 1-9 and 13-16 significantly inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose dependent manner, with IC50 values ranging from 1.9-13.6 μM. Prenylated xanthones showed stronger PTP1B inhibitory effects than the flavonoids, suggesting that they may be promising targets for the future discovery of novel PTP1B inhibitors. Furthermore, kinetic analyses indicated that compounds 1 and 13 inhibited PTP1B in a noncompetitive manner; therefore, they may be potential lead compounds in the development of anti-obesity and -diabetic agents.
    Molecules 06/2015; 20(6):11173-83. DOI:10.3390/molecules200611173 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Journal of Antibiotics, official journal of the Japan Antibiotics Research Association, is a print and online publication that focuses on research on antibiotics and related types of medicinal substances
    The Journal of Antibiotics 05/2015; DOI:10.1038/ja.2015.56 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The new tanzawaic acid derivative, 2E,4Z-tanzawaic acid D (I), is isolated along with four known analogues from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp.
    ChemInform 05/2015; 46(19). DOI:10.1002/chin.201519277
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    ABSTRACT: isolation and structure elucidation of a new sesquiterpene, longanone A (I), showing nitrite inhibitory effects
    ChemInform 01/2015; 46(3). DOI:10.1002/chin.201503196
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    ABSTRACT: Myrrh has been used since ancient times for the treatment of various diseases such as inflammatory diseases, gynecological diseases, and hemiplegia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of myrrh resin (AEM) on scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. AEM was estimated with (2 E ,5 E )-6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylhepta-2,4-dienal as a representative constituent by HPLC. The oral administration of AEM for 7 days significantly reversed scopolamine-induced reduction of spontaneous alternation in the Y -maze test. In the passive avoidance task, AEM also restored the decreased latency time of the retention trial by scopolamine treatment. In addition, Western blot analysis and Immunohistochemistry revealed that AEM reversed scopolamine-decreased phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Our study demonstrates for the first time that AEM ameliorates the scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice and increases the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in the hippocampus of mice brain. These results suggest that AEM has the therapeutic potential in memory impairments.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2015; 2015(12):1-9. DOI:10.1155/2015/925432 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical investigation on the methanol extract of the starfish Ctenodiscus crispatus resulted in the isolation of five steroids, (22E,24 xi)-26,27-bisnor-24-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-22-en-3 beta,5,6 beta,15 alpha,25-pentol 25-O-sulfate (1), (22E,24R,25R)-24-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-22-en-3 beta,5,6 beta,15 alpha,25,26-hexol 26-O-sulfate (2), (28R)-24-ethy1-5 alpha-cholesta-3 beta,5,6 beta,8,15 alpha,28,29-heptaol-24-sulfate (3), (25S)-5 alpha-cholestane-3 beta,5,6 beta,15 alpha,16 beta,26-hexaol (4), and Delta 7-sitosterol (5). Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D, 2D NMR and MS and chemical methods. Compound 4 showed cytotoxicity against human hepatoma HepG2 and glioblastoma U87MG cells via inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis by 4 was demonstrated by cell death, DNA fragmentation, increased Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).
    ChemInform 01/2015; 46(4). DOI:10.1002/chin.201504215
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical investigation of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. SF-6013 resulted in the discovery of a new tanzawaic acid derivative, 2E,4Z-tanzawaic acid D (1), together with four known analogues, tanzawaic acids A (2) and D (3), a salt form of tanzawaic acid E (4), and tanzawaic acid B (5). Their structures were mainly determined by analysis of NMR and MS data, along with chemical methods. Preliminary screening for anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial BV-2 cells showed that compounds 1, 2, and 5 inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) with IC50 values of 37.8, 7.1, and 42.5μM, respectively. Compound 2 also inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages with an IC50 value of 27.0μM. Moreover, these inhibitory effects correlated with the suppressive effect of compound 2 on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. In addition, compounds 2 and 5 significantly inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with the same IC50 value (8.2μM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 12/2014; 24(24). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.10.035 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The brain is vulnerable to oxidative stress and inflammation that can occur as a result of aging or neurodegenerative diseases. Our work has sought to identify natural products that regulate heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and to determine their mechanism of action in neurodegenerative diseases. KCHO-1 is a novel herbal therapeutic containing 30% ethanol (EtOH) extracts from nine plants. In this study, we investigated the antineuroinflammatory effects of KCHO-1 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated mouse BV2 microglia. KCHO-1 inhibited the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), iNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. It also reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 production. This effect was correlated with the suppression of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-α (IκB-α) phosphorylation and degradation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocation and DNA binding. Additionally, KCHO-1 upregulated HO-1 expression by promoting nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mouse BV2 microglia. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor, was used to verify the inhibitory effects of KCHO-1 on proinflammatory mediators and proteins associated with HO-1 expression. Our data suggest that KCHO-1 has therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases caused by neuroinflammation.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2014; 2014(4):357154. DOI:10.1155/2014/357154 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2014; 15(12):23749-65. DOI:10.3390/ijms151223749 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the course of a search for anti-neuroinflammatory metabolites from marine fungi, aurantiamide acetate (1) was isolated from marine-derived Aspergillus sp. as an anti-neuroinflammatory component. Compound 1 dose-dependently inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in BV2 microglial cells. It also attenuated inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In a further study designed to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-neuroinflammatory effect, compound 1 was shown to block the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the inhibitor kappa B-α (IκB)-α. In addition, compound 1 decreased the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These results suggest that compound 1 has an anti-neuroinflammatory effect on LPS stimulation through its inhibition of the NF-κB, JNK and p38 pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    International Immunopharmacology 12/2014; 23(2):568-74. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2014.10.006 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, 7β,16α,17-trihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), 7β,17-dihydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside ester (2), 7β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside ester (3) along with five known compounds, paniculoside IV (4), 16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane (5), 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane (6), 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-al (7), and 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (8) were isolated from the fruits of Annona glabra. Their chemical structures were elucidated by physical and chemical methods. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As the results, compound 3 showed potent inhibitory LPS-stimulated NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with the IC50 value of 0.01±0.01μM; compounds 1 and 7 showed significant inhibitory NO production with the IC50 values of 0.39±0.12μM and 0.32±0.04μM, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 11/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.11.059 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the course of a search for anti-inflammatory metabolites from marine-derived fungi, methylpenicinoline (1) was isolated from a marine isolate of Penicillin sp. Compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia. It also attenuated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a concentration-dependent manner (from 10 μM to 80 μM) without affecting cell viability. In addition, compound 1 reduced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In a further study designed to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effects, compound 1 was shown to block nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia by inhibiting the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B-α (IκB-α), thereby suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB dimers, namely p50 and p65, that are known to be crucial molecules associated with iNOS and COX-2 expression. In addition, compound 1 inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Taken together, the results suggest that compound 1 might be a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and anti-neuroinflammatory diseases.
    Molecules 11/2014; 19(11):18073-18089. DOI:10.3390/molecules191118073 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire, used as a spice in Asia, is an important source of Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicines. A. tsao-ko is reported to exert a variety of biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-proliferative, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, NNMBS227, consisting of the ethanol extract of A. tsao-ko, exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 macrophages. We investigated the effect of NNMBS227 in the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators, including pro-inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in LPS stimulated macrophages. NNMBS227 also inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, as well as the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 caused by stimulation with LPS. In addition, NNMBS227 induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression through the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in macrophages. Using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor, we confirmed an association between the anti-inflammatory effects of NNMBS227 and the up-regulation of HO-1. These findings suggest that Nrf2-dependent increases in the expression of HO-1 induced by NNMBS227 conferred anti-inflammatory activities in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 09/2014; 42(05):1-16. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X14500773 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Korea and China, the heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen is an important traditional medicine used to treat blood disorders, ischemia, swelling, and epigastric pain. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of latifolin, a major neoflavonoid component isolated from the MeOH extract of D. odorifera, on the inflammatory reaction of thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide, with a particular focus on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. Latifolin significantly inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX-2, reduced NO, prostaglandins E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β production in primary murine peritoneal macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Latifolin also suppressed inhibitor κB-α levels, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, latifolin upregulated HO-1 expression via nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of latifolin on the proinflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA-binding activity were associated with the HO-1 expression. These results suggested that the latifolin-mediated up-regulation of HO-1 expression played a critical role in anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. This study therefore identified potent therapeutic effects of latifolin, which warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 08/2014; 28(8). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5119 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rhizome of Alisma orientale (Alismatis rhizome) has been used in Asia for promoting diuresis to eliminate dampness from the lower-jiao and to expel heat. In this study, an ethanol extract of the rhizome of Alisma orientale (AOE) was prepared and its effects on adipocyte differentiation of OP9 cells were investigated. Treatment with AOE in a differentiation medium for 5 days resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of lipid droplet formation in OP9 cells. Furthermore, AOE significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation by downregulating the expression of the master transcription factor of adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor γ (PPAR γ ), and related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP β ), fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). AOE exerted its inhibitory effects primarily during the early adipogenesis stage (days 1-2), at which time it also exerted dose-dependent inhibition of the expression of C/EBP β , a protein related to the inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion. Additionally, AOE decreased the expression of autophagy-related proteins, including beclin 1, and the autophagy-related genes, (Atg) 7 and Atg12. Our results indicate that AOE's inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation of OP9 cells are mediated by reduced C/EBP β expression, causing inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and autophagy.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2014; 2014(11):415097. DOI:10.1155/2014/415097 · 1.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
286.04 Total Impact Points


  • 2001-2015
    • Wonkwang University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine
      Riri, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea
  • 2006-2012
    • Silla University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 1998-2010
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Chemistry
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 2004-2005
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB
      • Chemical Biology Research Center
      안산시, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea