[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ghrelin receptor is known from in vitro studies to signal in the absence of the hormone ghrelin at almost 50% of its maximal capacity. But, as for many other 7-transmembrane receptors, the in vivo importance of this ligand-independent signaling has remained unclear. In this issue of the JCI, Pantel et al. find that a natural mutation in the ghrelin receptor, Ala204Glu, which is associated with a selective loss of constitutive activity without affecting ghrelin affinity, potency, or efficacy, segregates in 2 families with the development of short stature (see the related article beginning on page 760). By combination of the observations from this study with those related to the phenotype of subjects carrying another natural ghrelin receptor mutation, Phe279Leu, having identical molecular-pharmacological properties, it is proposed that selective lack of ghrelin receptor constitutive signaling leads to a syndrome characterized not only by short stature, but also by obesity that apparently develops during puberty.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/2006; 116(3):637-41. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A majority of small molecule non-peptide ligands for chemokine receptors in general are characterized by the presence of one or two centrally located, positively charged nitrogen atoms and these compounds are also often of relatively similar elongated overall structure with terminal aromatic moieties. In the corresponding main ligand-binding crevice of the chemokine 7TM receptors is found a centrally located glutamic acid residue in position 6 of transmembrane segment VII in 74% of the chemokine receptors but only in approx. 1% of non-chemokine receptors. GluVII:06 has been demonstrated to be crucially important for the binding and action of a number of non-peptide ligands in for example the CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 receptors. It is proposed that in chemokine receptors in general GluVII:06 serves as a selective anchor point for the centrally located, positively charged nitrogen of the small molecule ligands and that the two peripheral chemical moieties of the ligands from this central point in the receptor structure explore each of the two halves of the main ligand binding pocket. It is envisioned that knowledge of this binding mode can be exploited in structure-based discovery and design of novel chemokine receptor ligands and especially ligands with specifically optimized properties.
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 02/2006; 6(13):1319-33. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventionally, an allosteric modulator is neutral in respect of efficacy and binds to a receptor site distant from the orthosteric site of the endogenous agonist. However, recently compounds being ago-allosteric modulators have been described i.e., compounds acting both as agonists on their own and as enhancers for the endogenous agonists in both increasing agonist potency and providing additive efficacy-superagonism. The additive efficacy can also be observed with agonists, which are neutral or even negative modulators of the potency of the endogenous ligand. Based on the prevailing dimeric concept for 7TM receptors, it is proposed that the ago-allosteric modulators bind in the orthosteric binding site, but-importantly-in the "other" or allosteric protomer of the dimer. Hereby, they can act both as additive co-agonists, and through intermolecular cooperative effects between the protomers, they may influence the potency of the endogenous agonist. It is of interest that at least some endogenous agonists can only occupy one protomer of a dimeric 7TM receptor complex at a time and thereby they leave the orthosteric binding site in the allosteric protomer free, potentially for binding of exogenous, allosteric modulators. If the allosteric modulator is an agonist, it is an ago-allosteric modulator; if it is neutral, it is a classical enhancer. Molecular mapping in hetero-dimeric class-C receptors, where the endogenous agonist clearly binds only in one protomer, supports the notion that allosteric modulators can act through binding in the "other" protomer. It is suggested that for the in vivo, clinical setting a positive ago-allosteric modulator should be the preferred agonist drug.
Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research 02/2006; 26(1-2):107-28. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multitude of chemically highly different agonists for 7TM receptors apparently do not share a common binding mode or active site but nevertheless act through induction of a common molecular activation mechanism. A global toggle switch model is proposed for this activation mechanism to reconcile the accumulated biophysical data supporting an outward rigid-body movement of the intracellular segments, as well as the recent data derived from activating metal ion sites and tethered ligands, which suggests an opposite, inward movement of the extracellular segments of the transmembrane helices. According to this model, a vertical see-saw movement of TM-VI-and to some degree TM-VII-around a pivot corresponding to the highly conserved prolines will occur during receptor activation, which may involve the outer segment of TM-V in an as yet unclear fashion. Small-molecule agonists can stabilize such a proposed active conformation, where the extracellular segments of TM-VI and -VII are bent inward toward TM-III, by acting as molecular glue deep in the main ligand-binding pocket between the helices, whereas larger agonists, peptides, and proteins can stabilize a similar active conformation by acting as Velcro at the extracellular ends of the helices and the connecting loops.
Annual Review of Pharmacology 02/2006; 46:481-519. · 21.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the rhodopsin-like 7TM receptors, the MC receptors are functionally unique because their high constitutive signaling activity is regulated not only by endogenous peptide agonists—MSH peptides—but also by endogenous inverse agonists, namely, the proteins agouti and AGRP. Moreover, the metal-ion Zn2+ increases the signaling activity of at least the MC1 and MC4 receptors in three distinct ways: (1) by directly functioning as an agonist; (2) by potentiating the action of the endogenous agonist; and (3) by inhibiting the binding of the endogenous inverse agonist. Structurally the MC receptors are part of a small subset of 7TM receptors in which the main ligand-binding crevice, and especially extracellular loops 2 and 3, appear to be specially designed for easy ligand access and bias towards an active state of the receptor—i.e., constitutive activity. Thus, in the MC receptors extracellular loop 2 is ultrashort because TM-IV basically connects directly into TM-V, whereas extracellular loop 3 appears to be held in a particular, constrained conformation by a putative, internal disulfide bridge. The interaction mode for the small and well-defined zinc-ion between a third, free Cys residue in extracellular loop 3 and conceivably an Asp residue located at the inner face of TM-III gives important information concerning the activation mechanism for the MC receptors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2006; 994(1):1 - 11. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 function as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are attractive targets for the development of anti-HIV drugs. The most potent CXCR4 antagonists described until today are the bicyclams. The prototype compound, AMD3100, exhibits potent and selective anti-HIV activity against CXCR4-using (X4) viruses and showed antiviral efficacy in X4 HIV-1-infected persons in a phase II clinical trial. However, AMD3100 lacks oral bioavailability due to its high overall positive charge. Initial structure-activity relationship studies with bicyclam analogues suggested that the bis-macrocyclic structure was a prerequisite for anti-HIV activity. Now, we report that the N-pyridinylmethylene cyclam AMD3465, which lacks the structural constraints mentioned above, fully conserves all the biological properties of AMD3100. Like AMD3100, AMD3465 blocked the cell surface binding of both CXCL12 (the natural CXCR4 ligand), and the specific anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody 12G5. AMD3465 dose-dependently inhibited intracellular calcium signaling, chemotaxis, CXCR4 endocytosis and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation induced by CXCL12. Compared to the bicyclam AMD3100, AMD3465 was even 10-fold more effective as a CXCR4 antagonist, while showing no interaction whatsoever with CCR5. As expected, AMD3465 proved highly potent against X4 HIV strains (IC50: 1-10 nM), but completely failed to inhibit the replication of CCR5-using (R5) viruses. In conclusion, AMD3465 is a novel, monomacrocyclic anti-HIV agent that specifically blocks the interaction of HIV gp120 with CXCR4. Although oral bioavailability is not yet achieved, the monocyclams, with their decreased molecular charge as compared to the bicyclams, embody an important step forward in the design of oral CXCR4 antagonists that can be clinically used as anti-HIV drugs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two nonpeptide (L692,429 and MK-677) and two peptide [GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 and ghrelin] agonists were compared in binding and in signal transduction assays: calcium mobilization, inositol phosphate turnover, cAMP-responsive element (CRE), and serum-responsive element (SRE) controlled transcription, as well as arrestin mobilization. MK-677 acted as a simple agonist having an affinity of 6.5 nm and activated all signal transduction systems with similar high potency (0.2-1.4 nm). L-692,429 also displayed a very similar potency in all signaling assays (25-60 nm) but competed with a 1000-fold lower apparent affinity for ghrelin binding and surprisingly acted as a positive allosteric receptor modulator by increasing ghrelin's potency 4- to 10-fold. In contrast, the potency of GHRP-6 varied 600-fold (0.1-61 nm) depending on the signal transduction assay, and it acted as a negative allosteric modulator of ghrelin signaling. Unexpectedly, the maximal signaling efficacy for ghrelin was increased above what was observed with the hormone itself during coadministration with the nonendogenous agonists. It is concluded that agonists for the ghrelin receptor vary both in respect of their intrinsic agonist properties and in their ability to modulate ghrelin signaling. A receptor model is presented wherein ghrelin normally only activates one receptor subunit in a dimer and where the smaller nonendogenous agonists bind in the other subunit to act both as coagonists and as either neutral (MK-677), positive (L-692,429), or negative (GHRP-6) modulators of ghrelin function. It is suggested that an optimal drug candidate could be an agonist that also is a positive modulator of ghrelin signaling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly conserved Arg in the so-called DRY motif (Asp-Arg-Tyr) at the intracellular end of transmembrane helix 3 is in general considered as an essential residue for G protein coupling in rhodopsin-like seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors. In the open reading frame 74 (ORF74) receptor encoded by equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV2), the DRY motif is substituted with a DTW motif. Nevertheless, this receptor signaled with high constitutive activity through Gi as determined by a receptor-mediated inhibition of forskolin-induced cAMP-production and by an induction of the serum response element-driven transcriptional activity through a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. Gs and Gq were not activated constitutively as determined by the lack of inositol phosphate turnover and activities of the three transcription factors: cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), nuclear factor-kappaB, and nuclear factor of activated T cells. Coexpression of the ORF74-EHV2 receptor with the promiscuous G protein Gqi4myr supported the constitutive Gi activation as determined by inositol phosphate turnover and CREB activation. The constitutive activity was inhibited by nonpeptide inverse agonists with micromolar potencies, and the chemokine CXCL6 acted as a high-affinity agonist. It is noteworthy that reconstitution of the DRY motif resulted in a 4- to 5-fold decrease of the constitutive activity. Both the wild type and the receptor with the reconstituted DRY motif were expressed at the cell surface as indicated by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. It is concluded that the Arg of the DRY motif in transmembrane helix 3 is not essential for G protein coupling based on the constitutive as well as the ligand-mediated activity observed for ORF74-EHV2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus or human herpes virus 8 is considered the etiological agent of KS, a highly vascularized neoplasm that is the most common tumor affecting HIV/AIDS patients. The KS-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 open reading frame 74 encodes a constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor known as vGPCR that binds CXC chemokines with high affinity. In this study, we show that conditional transgenic expression of vGPCR by cells of endothelial origin triggers an angiogenic program in vivo, leading to development of an angioproliferative disease that resembles KS. This angiogenic program consists partly in the expression of the angiogenic factors placental growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor B, and inducible NO synthase by the vGPCR-expressing cells. Finally, we show that continued vGPCR expression is essential for progression of the KS-like phenotype and that down-regulation of vGPCR expression results in reduced expression of angiogenic factors and regression of the lesions. Together, these findings implicate vGPCR as a key element in KS pathogenesis and suggest that strategies to block its function may represent a novel approach for the treatment of KS.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2005; 174(6):3686-94. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To dissect the interaction between beta-arrestin ((beta)arr) and family B G protein-coupled receptors, we constructed fusion proteins between the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor and (beta)arr2. The fusion constructs had an increase in apparent affinity selectively for glucagon, suggesting that (beta)arr2 interaction locks the receptor in a high-affinity conformation, which can be explored by some, but not all, ligands. The fusion constructs adopted a signaling phenotype governed by the tethered (beta)arr2 with an attenuated G protein-mediated cAMP signal and a higher maximal internalization compared with wild-type receptors. This distinct phenotype of the fusion proteins can not be mimicked by coexpressing wild-type receptor with (beta)arr2. However, when the wild-type receptor was coexpressed with both (beta)arr2 and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5, a phenotype similar to that observed for the fusion constructs was observed. We conclude that the glucagon-like peptide 1 fusion construct mimics the natural interaction of the receptor with (beta)arr2 with respect to binding peptide ligands, G protein-mediated signaling and internalization, and that this distinct molecular phenotype is reminiscent of that which has previously been characterized for family A G protein-coupled receptors, suggesting similarities in the effect of (beta)arr interaction between family A and B receptors also at the molecular level.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the causative agent of life-threatening systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients as well as a risk factor for vascular pathologies, like atherosclerosis, in immunocompetent individuals. HCMV encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), referred to as US28, that displays homology to the human chemokine receptor CCR1 and binds several chemokines of the CC family as well as the CX3C chemokine fractalkine with high affinity. Most importantly, following HCMV infection, US28 activates several intracellular pathways, either constitutively or in a chemokine-dependent manner. In this study, our goal was to understand the molecular interactions between chemokines and the HCMV-encoded US28 receptor. To achieve this goal, a double approach has been used, consisting in the analysis of both receptor and ligand mutants. This approach has led us to identify several amino acids located in the N terminus of US28 that differentially contribute to the high affinity binding of CC versus CX3C chemokines. Additionally, our results highlight the importance of secondary modifications occurring at US28, such as sulfation, for ligand recognition. Finally, the effects of chemokine dimerization and interaction with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on chemokine binding and activation of US28 were investigated as well using CCL4 as model ligand. In line with the two-state model describing chemokine/receptor interaction, we show that an aromatic residue in the N-loop region of CCL4 promotes tight binding to US28, whereas receptor activation depends on the presence of the N terminus of CCL4, as shown previously for CCR5.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(5):3275-85. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three members of the ghrelin receptor family were characterized in parallel: the ghrelin receptor, the neurotensin receptor 2 and the orphan receptor GPR39. In transiently transfected COS-7 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, all three receptors displayed a high degree of ligand-independent signaling activity. The structurally homologous motilin receptor served as a constitutively silent control; upon agonist stimulation, however, it signaled with a similar efficacy to the three related receptors. The constitutive activity of the ghrelin receptor and of neurotensin receptor 2 through the G(q), phospholipase C pathway was approximately 50% of their maximal capacity as determined through inositol phosphate accumulation. These two receptors also showed very high constitutive activity in activation of cAMP response element-driven transcription. GPR39 displayed a clear but lower degree of constitutive activity through the inositol phosphate and cAMP response element pathways. In contrast, GPR39 signaled with the highest constitutive activity in respect of activation of serum response element-dependent transcription, in part, possibly, through G(12/13) and Rho kinase. Antibody feeding experiments demonstrated that the epitope-tagged ghrelin receptor was constitutively internalized but could be trapped at the cell surface by an inverse agonist, whereas GPR39 remained at the cell surface. Mutational analysis showed that the constitutive activity of both the ghrelin receptor and GPR39 could systematically be tuned up and down depending on the size and hydrophobicity of the side chain in position VI:16 in the context of an aromatic residue at VII:09 and a large hydrophobic residue at VII:06. It is concluded that the three ghrelin-like receptors display an unusually high degree of constitutive activity, the structural basis for which is determined by an aromatic cluster on the inner face of the extracellular ends of TMs VI and VII.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2005; 279(51):53806-17. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor sequestration through interactions, mainly with the C-terminal intracellular tails of the receptors. A library of tails from 59 representative members of the super family of seven-transmembrane receptors was probed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins for interactions with four different adaptor proteins previously proposed to be involved in post-endocytotic sorting of receptors. Of the two proteins suggested to target receptors for recycling to the cell membrane, which is the route believed to be taken by a majority of receptors, ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin)-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) bound only a single receptor tail, i.e. the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, whereas N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor bound 11 of the tail-fusion proteins. Of the two proteins proposed to target receptors for lysosomal degradation, sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) bound 10 and the C-terminal domain of G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein bound 23 of the 59 tail proteins. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the binding kinetics of selected hits from the glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments, i.e. the tails of the virally encoded receptor US28 and the delta-opioid receptor, confirmed the expected nanomolar affinities for interaction with SNX1. Truncations of the NK(1) receptor revealed that an extended binding epitope is responsible for the interaction with both SNX1 and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein as well as with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. It is concluded that the tail library provides useful information on the general importance of certain adaptor proteins, for example, in this case, ruling out EBP50 as being a broad spectrum-recycling adaptor.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2005; 279(52):54291-303. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we report that the N-pyridinylmethyl cyclam analog AMD3451 has antiviral activity against a wide variety of R5, R5/X4, and X4 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] ranging from 1.2 to 26.5 microM) in various T-cell lines, CCR5- or CXCR4-transfected cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and monocytes/macrophages. AMD3451 also inhibited R5, R5/X4, and X4 HIV-1 primary clinical isolates in PBMCs (IC(50), 1.8 to 7.3 microM). A PCR-based viral entry assay revealed that AMD3451 blocks R5 and X4 HIV-1 infection at the virus entry stage. AMD3451 dose-dependently inhibited the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling induced by the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in T-lymphocytic cells and in CXCR4-transfected cells, as well as the Ca(2+) flux induced by the CCR5 ligands CCL5, CCL3, and CCL4 in CCR5-transfected cells. The compound did not interfere with chemokine-induced Ca(2+) signaling through CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR9, or CXCR3 and did not induce intracellular Ca(2+) signaling by itself at concentrations up to 400 microM. In freshly isolated monocytes, AMD3451 inhibited the Ca(2+) flux induced by CXCL12 and CCL4 but not that induced by CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CCL7. The CXCL12- and CCL3-induced chemotaxis was also dose-dependently inhibited by AMD3451. Furthermore, AMD3451 inhibited CXCL12- and CCL3L1-induced endocytosis in CXCR4- and CCR5-transfected cells. AMD3451, in contrast to the specific CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, did not inhibit but enhanced the binding of several anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibodies (such as clone 12G5) at the cell surface, pointing to a different interaction with CXCR4. AMD3451 is the first low-molecular-weight anti-HIV agent with selective HIV coreceptor, CCR5 and CXCR4, interaction.
Journal of Virology 01/2005; 78(23):12996-3006. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The virally encoded chemokine receptors US28 from human cytomegalovirus and ORF74 from human herpesvirus 8 are both constitutively active. We show that both receptors constitutively activate the transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and that both pathways are modulated by their respective endogenous receptor ligands. By addition of specific pathway modulators against the G protein subunit Galphai, phospholipase C, protein kinase C, calcineurin, p38 MAP kinase, and MEK1, we find that the constitutive and ligand-dependent inductions are mediated by multiple yet similar pathways in both receptors. The NFAT and CREB transcription factors and their upstream activators are known inducers of host and virally encoded genes. We propose that the activity of these virally encoded chemokine receptors coordinates host and potentially viral gene expression similarly. As ORF74 is a known inducer of neoplasia, these findings may have important implications for cytomegalovirus-associated pathogenicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Open reading frame 74 (ORF74) of many gamma(2)-herpesviruses encodes a CXC chemokine receptor. The molecular pharmacological profile of ORF74 from herpesvirus saimiri, ECRF3, is characterized here and compared with that of the well known ORF74 from human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). The ECRF3 receptor bound the so-called ELR (Glu-Leu-Arg) CXC chemokines (125)I-CXCL1/GRO alpha, (125)I-CXCL6/GCP-2, and (125)I-CXCL8/interleukin-8 with high affinity; but in contrast to ORF74 from HHV8, it did not bind the non-ELR CXC chemokine (125)I-CXCL10/IP10. Interestingly, the B(max) value for CXCL6/GCP-2 was 3-fold higher than the capacity for maximal binding of CXCL1/GRO alpha to ECRF3 and 85-fold higher than that of CXCL8/interleukin-8, despite similar affinities. Like ORF74 from HHV8, ECRF3 activated a broad range of pathways (G(q), G(i), and G(12/13) as well as the cAMP response element-binding protein, NF-kappa B, NFAT, and serum response element transcription factors) in a ligand-regulated manner, with CXCL6/GCP-2 being the most potent and efficacious agonist. ECRF3 signaled constitutively through G(i) and G(12/13), but surprisingly not through G(q). At the level of transcription factor activation, the serum response element was activated constitutively by ECRF3, whereas cAMP response element-binding protein, NFAT, and NF-kappa B were only ligand-regulated. The maximal signaling capacities were similar for the two receptors; however, the ligand-regulated signaling was responsible for the major part of the total ECRF3 signaling and only for a minor part of the total HHV8 ORF74 signaling. The activation pattern of ECRF3 with constitutive activation of some (but not all) of the employed pathways has not been seen before in endogenous or virus-encoded chemokine receptors. The results suggest that the unique ligand selectivity of ECRF3 among ORF74 receptors could reflect differences in the cellular tropism of the gamma(2)-herpesviruses.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2004; 279(31):32524-33. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghrelin plays a key role as the major orexigenic hormone from the gastrointestinal tract to the hypothalamic areas that govern food intake, balancing against a multitude of anorectic hormones, such as leptin, insulin and PYY3–36. Surprisingly, even in the absence of agonist, the ghrelin receptor signals with ∼50% activity. Thus, although ghrelin receptor antagonists are expected to reduce meal-associated food intake, inverse agonists of the ghrelin receptor, by blocking the constitutive receptor activity, might lower the set-point for hunger between meals, eliminating the craving for second orders, desserts and snacks.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 04/2004; 25(3):113-7. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying targeted sorting of endocytosed receptors for recycling to the plasma membrane or degradation in lysosomes are poorly understood. In this report, the C-terminal tails of the five dopamine receptors (D1-D5) were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and studied for their interaction with ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), which are known to be involved in post-endocytic recycling of receptors back to the plasma membrane, and with sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), known to be involved in targeting receptors to lysosomal degradation. EBP50 did not bind any of the dopamine receptor tails. NSF bound strongly to D1 and D5 and only weakly to D2, D3 and D4. However, SNX1 clearly distinguished between D1 and D5, as only D5 bound strongly to this protein. This report shows that there are distinct interaction patterns for NSF and SNX1 to the various dopamine receptor subtypes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AMD3100 is a symmetric bicyclam, prototype non-peptide antagonist of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. Mutational substitutions at 16 positions located in TM-III, -IV, -V, -VI, and -VII lining the main ligand-binding pocket of the CXCR4 receptor identified three acid residues: Asp(171) (AspIV:20), Asp(262) (AspVI:23), and Glu(288) (GluVII:06) as the main interaction points for AMD3100. Molecular modeling suggests that one cyclam ring of AMD3100 interacts with Asp(171) in TM-IV, whereas the other ring is sandwiched between the carboxylic acid groups of Asp(262) and Glu(288) from TM-VI and -VII, respectively. Metal ion binding in the cyclam rings of AMD3100 increased its dependence on Asp(262) and provided a tighter molecular map of the binding site, where borderline mutational hits became clear hits for the Zn(II)-loaded analog. The proposed binding site for AMD3100 was confirmed by a gradual build-up in the rather distinct CXCR3 receptor, for which the compound normally had no effect. Introduction of only a Glu at position VII:06 and the removal of a neutralizing Lys residue at position VII:02 resulted in a 1000-fold increase in affinity of AMD3100 to within 10-fold of its affinity in CXCR4. We conclude that AMD3100 binds through interactions with essentially only three acidic anchor-point residues, two of which are located at one end and the third at the opposite end of the main ligand-binding pocket of the CXCR4 receptor. We suggest that non-peptide antagonists with, for example, improved oral bioavailability can be designed to mimic this interaction and thereby efficiently and selectively block the CXCR4 receptor.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2004; 279(4):3033-41. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is a GH-releasing peptide that also has an important role as an orexigenic hormone-stimulating food intake. By measuring inositol phosphate turnover or by using a reporter assay for transcriptional activity controlled by cAMP-responsive elements, the ghrelin receptor showed strong, ligand-independent signaling in transfected COS-7 or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Ghrelin and a number of the known nonpeptide GH secretagogues acted as agonists stimulating inositol phosphate turnover further. In contrast, the low potency ghrelin antagonist, [D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]-substance P was surprisingly found to be a high potency (EC50 = 5.2 nm) full inverse agonist as it decreased the constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor down to that observed in untransfected cells. The homologous motilin receptor functioned as a negative control as it did not display any sign of constitutive activity; however, upon agonist stimulation the motilin receptor signaled as strongly as the unstimulated ghrelin receptor. It is concluded that the ghrelin receptor is highly constitutively active and that this activity could be of physiological importance in its role as a regulator of both GH secretion and appetite control. It is suggested that inverse agonists for the ghrelin receptor could be particularly interesting for the treatment of obesity.