ABSTRACT: Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru.
Journal of clinical microbiology 07/2009; 47(8):2560-3. · 4.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Definite diagnosis of Leishmania infections is based on demonstration of the parasite by microscopic analysis of tissue biopsy specimens or aspirate samples. However, microscopy generally shows low sensitivity and requires invasive sampling.
We describe here the development of a simple and rapid test for the detection of polymerase chain reaction-amplified Leishmania DNA. A phase 1 evaluation of the text was conducted in clinical samples from 60 nonendemic and 45 endemic control subjects and from 44 patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), 12 with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), and 43 with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) from Peru, Kenya, and Sudan.
The lower detection limits of the assay are 10 fg of Leishmania DNA and 1 parasite in 180 microL of blood. The specificity was 98.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.1%-99.7%) and 95.6% (95% CI, 85.2%-98.8%) for nonendemic and endemic control samples, respectively, and the sensitivity was 93.2% (95% CI, 81.8%-97.7%), 91.7% (95% CI, 64.6%-98.5%), and 86% (95% CI, 72.7%-93.4%) for lesions from patients with CL or MCL and blood from patients with VL, respectively.
The Leishmania OligoC-TesT showed high specificity and sensitivity in clinical samples and was able to detect the parasite in samples obtained by less invasive means, such as blood, lymph, and lesion scrapings. The assay is a promising new tool for simplified and standardized molecular detection of Leishmania parasites.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2008; 198(10):1565-72. · 6.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Pentavalent antimonials (SbV) are the first-line chemotherapy for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). There are, however, reports of the occurrence of treatment failure with these drugs. Few studies in Latin America have compared the response to SbV treatment in ATL caused by different Leishmania species.
Clinical parameters and response to SbV chemotherapy were studied in 103 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Peru. Leishmania isolates were collected before treatment and typed by multilocus polymerase-chain-reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis.
The 103 isolates were identified as L. (Viannia) peruviana (47.6%), L. (V.) guyanensis (23.3%), L. (V.) braziliensis (22.3%), L. (V.) lainsoni (4.9%), L. (Leishmania) mexicana (1%), and a putative hybrid, L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana (1%). L. (V.) guyanensis was most abundant in central Peru. Of patients infected with the 3 former species, 21 (21.9%) did not respond to SbV chemotherapy. The proportions of treatment failure (after 12 months of follow-up) were 30.4%, 24.5%, and 8.3% in patients infected with L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) peruviana, and L. (V.) guyanensis, respectively. Infection with L. (V.) guyanensis was associated with significantly less treatment failure than L. (V.) braziliensis, as determined by multiple logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 0.07 [95% confidence interval, 0.007-0.8]; P=.03).
Leishmania species can influence SbV treatment outcome in patients with CL. Therefore, parasite identification is of utmost clinical importance, because it should lead to a species-oriented treatment.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2007; 195(12):1846-51. · 6.41 Impact Factor