[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite major progress in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment during the recent decades, hypertension remains the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality throughout the world. The prevalence of hypertension in developing countries continues to rise reaching alarming rates. Several risk factors of hypertension appear to be more common in developing countries than in developed countries. In Turkey, hypertension is a prevalent condition affecting approximately 22.5 million individuals. Hypertension control (defined as blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg) rate increased from 8.1% in 2003 (first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) study) to 28.7% in 2012 (PatenT 2 study). Meanwhile, rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remained high in Turkey. Controlling risk factors such as hypertension, tobacco use, unhealthy diet, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and physical inactivity can prevent most of the deaths from cardiovascular disease. It is also crucial for the public health system to have a hypertension education program aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease and prevention and control of hypertension promoting a healthy lifestyle in Turkey. Such a program could positively affect other lifestyle-related diseases as well. Importantly, cooperation among the components of the health system could contribute to improved outcomes in hypertensive populations.
Kidney International Supplements. 12/2013; 3(4):326-331.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Vascular calcification and atherosclerosis play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients, especially when complications of diabetic nephropathy occur. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and fetuin-A are two markers of vascular calcification. We evaluated the association between these vascular markers and urinary albumin excretion in diabetic patients. Method: Three groups were arranged containing 40 patients: normoalbuminuric (Group 1), microalbuminuric (Group 2), and macroalbuminuric (Group 3). In addition to the obtained data, levels of hs-CRP (high sensitivity-CRP) and homocysteine were examined. Results: OPG levels of patients in Group 2 were higher than in Group 1 (p = 0.058). OPG levels in Group 3 were lower than in Groups 1 or 2 (p = 0.014 and 0.000, respectively). Levels of fetuin-A in Group 2 were determined to be lower than in Groups 1 and 3 (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in Group 3 was higher than in Group 1 (p = 0.002). CIMT in Group 2 was also higher than in Group 1 (p = 0.039). A positive correlation between fetuin-A and OPG was found (p = 0.012, r = 0.393). Additionally, a positive correlation between hs-CRP and fetuin-A in Group 2 (p = 0.020, r = 0.367) and a negative correlation between hs-CRP and OPG in Group 3 (p = 0.036, r = -0.333) were observed. Conclusions: The differences found between albuminuria and OPG or fetuin-A may be due to the different doses and variety of medications the patients received, in addition to genetic and racial factors. So far, in our country, polymorphisms related to OPG and fetuin-A have not been defined. Further detailed studies about polymorphisms will have additional value.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive subjects is controversial. Attempts to elucidate the possible association between hyperuricemia and early atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients may provide alternative prevention or therapy targets for future cardiovascular events.
A total of 67 hypertensive and 30 healthy subjects underwent B-mode ultrasonography to measure carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT). All biochemical analyses were assessed by local laboratories using standard laboratory methods.
C-IMT, serum uric acid (UA) levels, and mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) levels were significantly higher in hypertensive population compared to healthy subjects (P<0.001). Among hypertensive subjects, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), C-IMT, and proteinuria levels were significantly higher in hyperuricemic patients compared to normouricemic participants (for all, P<0.05). Age (r=0.28, P=0.02), MBP (r=0.34, P=0.04), hs-CRP (r=0.58, P=0.006), proteinuria (r=0.58, P=0.007), estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.35, P=0.02), and UA (r=0.31, P=0.02) levels were significantly associated with C-IMT levels. Multiple linear regression analysis using C-IMT as a dependent variable showed that age (beta=0.84, P=0.03) and UA levels (beta=-0.87, P=0.02) were independently associated with C-IMT.
Hyperuricemia is an independent predictor for early atherosclerosis in hypertensive subjects with normal renal function. Therefore, the optimal control of UA may provide further benefits in preventing atherosclerosis and hypertensive end-organ injury.
Advances in Therapy 03/2012; 29(3):276-86. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dialysate leakage may occur through the anterior abdominal wall, the genital organs or the pleural cavity during the early or late stages of dialysis in patients who are on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). This dialysate leakage can reach such an extent that CAPD treatment may need to be halted. Dialysate leakage through the subcutaneous anterior abdominal wall can be caused by a deficiency in the abdominal muscles. In this study, 3 patients on CAPD who had a dialysate leak through the subcutaneous anterior abdominal wall were followed. An exercise programme was offered to strengthen abdominal muscles. CAPD continued but volumes were reduced by 6-25%. Exercise programmes for abdominal muscles may be useful for the prevention of leakage through the subcutaneous anterior abdominal wall, without having to interrupt CAPD treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to detect the prevalence of ownership of a home sphygmomanometer among hypertensive subjects through a nation-wide survey, to investigate parameters affecting ownership of a sphygmomanometer, to compare how home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) was actually used in daily practice with some aspects of the current guidelines, and to discuss what we implemented to increase the reliability of HBPM in a developing country. A total of 2747 hypertensive patients from 34 cities, representative of the Turkish population, were enrolled in the study. A multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to each participant using the computer-assisted telephone interviewing method. Among 2747 hypertensive patients, 1281 of them (46.6%) had a home sphygmomanometer. Most of the patients were using wrist devices. The factors associated with ownership of a sphygmomanometer were female gender, older age, obesity, higher educational status, higher income level, living in urban areas, awareness of hypertension and anti-hypertensive drug usage. Only 16% of the devices were used on the advice of a physician. The patients learned usage of their device mainly from the sellers and their relatives. The ownership of a home sphygmomanometer is common among hypertensive patients in Turkey, but regular monitoring of blood pressure before physician visits is rare despite common ownership of these devices. Daily practice of HBPM in Turkey was far from the recommendations of the current guidelines. More effort is needed to improve the reliability of HBPM.
Hypertension Research 11/2011; 35(3):356-61. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that beta-glucan (BG), which has antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, attenuats renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We aimed to investigate whether BG might have a preventive role against the development of contrast-induced nephropathy and to compare its effect with nebivolol (Nb) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC).
Thirty-six Wistar albino female rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6 each): control, contrast media (CM), BG, BG + CM, Nb + CM, and NAC + CM. With the exception of control and CM groups, the others were given drugs orally once a day for 5 days. Kidney function parameters, inflammatory parameters, and serum and renal tissue oxidative stress markers were measured.
Increases of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the CM group only. Absolute changes of serum creatinine levels in BG, BG + CM and Nb + CM groups were significantly lower than those in the CM group (p < 0.05). Serum levels of advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde were significantly less (p < 0.05) in the BG group compared to the CM group. Histopathological lesions in the CM group were more advanced (p < 0.05). No significant differences between the BG + CM, Nb + CM and NAC + CM groups were found with regard to histopathological findings.
This study suggests that BG protects or ameliorates against contrast-induced nephropathy. Its beneficial effects may be similar to or greater than those of Nb or NAC.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 04/2011; 15(5):658-65. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the bioequivalence of two commercial topical formulations of oxytetracycline HCl by tape stripping and microdialysis in healthy volunteers.
Tape stripping study was conducted on 12 healthy volunteers. After a 30-minute application of the formulations, adhesive tapes were used to sample stratum corneum at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 hr. Ten of these volunteers were included in the microdialysis study with a period of 4 weeks between the experiments. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis of the forearm. Following the application of the test and reference simultaneously, dialysates were collected in 30-minute sampling intervals up to 4 hr.
Pharmacokinetic evaluation by microdialysis yielded that the test could not be said to be bioequivalent to the reference at 90% CI. The intersubject variability of oxytetracycline content in stratum corneum was moderate when it was compared to the dermal levels. The test was found to be bioequivalent to reference according to the dermatopharmacokinetic evaluation by tape stripping.
No significant correlations were found between microdialysis and tape stripping methods as regarding the topical bioequivalence of oxytetracycline HCl formulations.
Pharmaceutical Research 04/2011; 28(9):2165-75. · 4.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on nephrotoxicity due to contrast nephropathy and reperfusion-induced ischemia has been reported in experimental models. However, its efficacy on colistin-induced nephrotoxicity has not been elucidated yet. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the nephrotoxic effect of colistin and to investigate the possible protective effect of NAC on colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. The secondary aim was to research the systemic effects of nephrotoxicity-induced oxidative stress on the lung.
Eighteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned and were given (a) 1 ml/kg sterile saline, (b) 300,000 IU/kg/day colistin, and (c) 300,000 IU/kg/day colistin and 150 mg/kg NAC for six consecutive days.
Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urinary creatinine, urinary protein, plasma TNF-alpha levels, renal tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity and immunocytochemical findings were evaluated. Colistin exerted nephrotoxicity and achieved a significant increase in plasma BUN and creatinine levels and renal tissue SOD levels. NAC exhibited no significant effect on biochemical parameters but reduced renal tissue SOD level and reversed immunocytochemical staining of inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and neurotrophin-3. Increased oxidative stress in the lung tissue of the rats treated with colistin has also been documented. Additionally, NAC significantly reduced the immunostaining of endothelial NOS (e-NOS) and i-NOS in the lung tissue.
Colistin-induced renal toxicity may be attributable to oxidative damage. The combined treatment of colistin plus NAC seems to have a beneficial role in restoration of the oxidant injury which may be related to its antioxidant effect.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 01/2011; 37(1):141-6. · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the target levels of calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), calcium phosphate products (Ca × P) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) and compare them with the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) recommendations.
Three hundred and fifty-seven patients who had been undergoing dialysis for more than 3 months were included. Patients who had undergone a parathyroidectomy were excluded. The levels of Ca, P, iPTH and Ca × P were monitored for the last 3 months. The Ca and P levels were measured by standard techniques, and iPTH was assessed by the intact molecule assay.
Between HD and PD patients, there was no statistically significant difference for age, duration of dialysis or primary disease causing end-stage renal disease. The percentage of patients whose serum Ca, P, Ca × P product and iPTH were within K/DOQI recommended target ranges were 61.2, 66.4, 82.2 and 28.3% in HD patients, and 56.3, 60.6, 85.9 and 22.5% in PD patients, respectively. When all results for each group - HD and PD - were analyzed, 12.8% of patients had all 4 markers within the target range.
Achieving target ranges of mineral markers is important in dialysis patients, but reaching K/DOQI target levels is difficult. Hence, physicians should be careful in using P binders and vitamin D analogs to achieve the normal ranges.
Medical Principles and Practice 01/2011; 20(1):85-9. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This population-based epidemiological study was aimed to evaluate the daily salt intake and its relation to blood pressure in a representative group of Turkish population. The enrolled normotensive and hypertensive individuals (n = 1970) completed a questionnaire including demographics, dietary habits, hypertension awareness and drug usage. Blood pressure was measured and to estimate salt consumption, 24-h urine samples were collected. The daily urinary sodium excretion was 308.3 ± 143.1 mmol/day, equal to a salt intake of 18.01 g/day. Salt intake was higher in obese participants, rural residents, participants with lower education levels and elderly. A positive linear correlation between salt intake and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was demonstrated (r = 0.450, p = 0.020; r = 0.406, p = 0.041; respectively), and each 100 mmol/day of salt intake resulted in 5.8 and 3.8 mmHg increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures, respectively. Salt intake and systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated in normal weight individuals (r = 0.257, p < 0.01). The Turkish population consumes a great amount of salt; salt intake and blood pressure was positively correlated. Efforts in sodium restriction are therefore crucial in the management of hypertension as part of national and global health policies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension incidence is an important determinant of hypertension prevalence and progression. Few studies have been published on hypertension incidence in developing countries despite the high prevalence observed. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of hypertension in Turkey.
The study was designed as an epidemiological cohort study which included the population of the Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) Study which had 4910 volunteers. Blood pressure measurements were performed three times and a questionnaire was used to obtain data on the present status of hypertension with regards to distributions and alterations of risk factors.
In the present study, 4008 (81.6%) participants of the PatenT Study population were contacted after 4 years. After excluding 173 dead and 67 pregnant individuals, the study cohort comprised of 3768 individuals. The overall 4-year incidence rate of hypertension was 21.4%; it reached a maximum of 43.3% in individuals over 65 years of age. Age, initial blood pressure category, and body mass index were the best predictors of the hypertension incidence rate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, obesity, alcohol consumption, and living in rural areas were significant predictors of hypertension.
Follow-up periods scheduled considering age, initial blood pressure category, and body mass index are important for the early determination of hypertension. As there are limited data regarding hypertension incidence in developing countries, the results of data collected in this study might serve as a model.
Journal of Hypertension 10/2009; 28(2):240-4. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of uroepithelial tumors after cyclophosphamide and azathioprine therapy in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) have been reported in the literature but renal cell carcinoma (RCC), rarely. RCC associated with WG has been previously reported in a few cases. Most of them have simultaneous diseases. Here, we report a case, which developed RCC 8 years after initiation of WG. Long-term immunosuppressive treatment is a risk factor for the development of malignancies; it should be suggested that RCC in our patient might be due to immunosuppressive therapy.
Rheumatology International 05/2009; 30(1):119-21. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of everolimus on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).
Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ischemia-reperfusion (IR), and ischemia-reperfusion/everolimus (IR/eve) groups. Everolimus was administered for seven consecutive days to the IR/eve group prior to injury. IR and IR/eve groups underwent forty-five minutes ischemia followed by the application of reperfusion at 2 and 24 hours. Blood samples and kidneys were taken from all animals.
. Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels increased at two hours of reperfusion in the IR and IR/eve groups, and decreased at 24 hours of reperfusion in the IR group. In the IR/eve group, we detected significantly high interleukin-6 levels and low tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde levels at 24 hours. Myeloperoxidase levels increased at two hours of reperfusion in the IR/eve group, but decreased significantly at 24 hours. Everolimus did not improve renal tubular and interstitial injuries in renal IRI.
It has been demonstrated that pretreatment with everolimus has beneficial effects on cytokines and oxidative stress in renal IRI. However, these effects are insufficient for the correction of histopathological changes and restoration of normal kidney function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis patients are at an increased risk of bleeding due to the platelet dysfunction caused by uremia and the use of anticoagulants during dialysis. Spontaneous spinal hematoma is a rare disorder as a complication in hemodialysis patients. Also it includes the hematoma secondary to coagulopathy, vascular malformation and hemorrhagic tumors. Here, we report the case of 77-year-old woman who presented with spinal cord compression due to spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma associated with hemodialysis. When an end-stage renal disease patient suffers from back pain and neurological deficits, the clinician should be alerted for the spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma as well as cerebrovascular events.
Internal Medicine 01/2009; 48(24):2115-8. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of nephrotic syndrome co-existing with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a rare condition. Almost any glomerular pathology may accompany CLL. The most frequent of all is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Moreover, in 5 - 10% of patients with CLL, monoclonal gammopathy may be detected in serum and/or urine samples. There are no well-established treatment protocols for those CLL patients with accompanying nephrotic syndrome. In this case report, we present a 55-year-old female patient diagnosed with CLL, developing nephrotic syndrome, renal dysfunction and IgG k-type monoclonal gammopathy in the follow-up. The renal biopsy revealed glomerular and tubular deposits of k-chain and histopathology of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Rituximab along with CVP (cyclophosphamide - vincristine - prednisolone) chemotherapy regimen was initiated. At the end of 6 courses of treatment, the patient was on "nephrologic" partial remission as the serum creatinine and albumin levels had returned to normal and proteinuria decreased by more than 50%. The patient was also in partial remission for CLL. In conclusion, in patients with CLL and nephrotic syndrome, presence of MPGN along with light-chain nephropathy is rarely reported. Several different treatment protocols are discussed for these patients. Among these regimes, R-CVP is an acceptable alternative for CLL patients with MPGN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of renal denervation and serum nitric oxide level with a different time course of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomized into 6 groups. All rats underwent right nephrectomy to create a single kidney model. Renal denervated and innerved rats were subjected to renal clamping for 30-60 minutes. The study was performed in the Department of Anatomy, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey, between June and November 2005.
Combined effect of denervation and ischemia may caused significant increase in serum nitric oxide levels and decrease in glomerular filtration rates.
Our results indicate that kidney denervation did not cause any changes in renal functions, but with ischemia it worsens the deleterious effect of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and causes a significant increase in serum nitric oxide levels.
Saudi medical journal 12/2008; 29(11):1561-6. · 0.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There remains some difficulty in determining disease activity during the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The excretion levels of some inflammatory response molecules increase as a result of the onset of this disease. We studied urinary alfa-1-microglobulin (alpha1-MG) and albumin levels in patients with active and inactive ulcerative colitis (UC) and investigated whether we could use these parameters as an activity index.
The study was carried out at Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Nephrology and Gastroenterology Departments, between December 2003 and March 2006. In total, 35 patients (male/female: 16/19, mean age: 38.3+/-2.4 years) and 13 healthy controls (male/female: 6/7, mean age: 35.8+/-2.8 years) were enrolled in the study. Nineteen patients had symptoms of active disease and the remaining 16 patients had inactive disease.
There was a significant difference in serum C-reactive protein (CRP), urinary albumin excretion, and alpha1-MG excretion levels between patients and controls. Patients with active disease had significantly higher serum CRP and alpha1-MG levels than those with inactive disease and controls. Patients with active disease had higher microalbuminuria levels than inactive patients, but this difference was not statistically significant. Urinary albumin and alpha1-MG excretion did not correlate with serum CRP levels.
The present study suggests that, as with CRP, urinary levels of albumin and alpha1-MG increase during the active period of UC. During the inactive period, concentrations of these parameters are comparable to controls. The measurement of alpha1-MG and/or microalbuminuria could provide information on disease severity and response to treatment.
Advances in Therapy 12/2008; 25(12):1342-52. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quality of life (QOL) has recently been explored as one of the main outcomes of renal replacement therapy. In this study, we sought to compare three groups of patients-hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation-with regard to QOL.
Seventy-five hemodialysis, 41 peritoneal dialysis and 20 transplant patients were given Patient Information Form, Short Form Health Survey 36, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
The QOL scores of the three groups were similar and lower than the normal Turkish population. Depression and anxiety levels had significant and negative effects on QOL of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, but not transplant patients. In a multiple regression analysis, being male, being older than 46 years, living with family, having middle-higher income, having renal disease for a longer time, having a longer period of dialysis treatment, having comorbid illness, having not enough illness knowledge, and having higher levels of depression and of anxiety significantly correlated with a worse quality of life.
The three forms of renal replacement therapy did not differ with regard to QOL. Among the factors that seem to affect QOL, psychological status and treatment/illness knowledge had the most significant correlation. The underlying mechanisms need to be clarified.