[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nutritional composition and anti-obesity activities of cereal bars containing Allium fistulosum extract (AFB) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice was determined. AFB is rich in vitamins C, B2, and B3, and B9 with high protein. Oral treatment of AFB in obese mice reduced body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissue as well as adipocyte size, compared to the high fat diet control mice. AFB also decreased serum triacylglycerol, glucose, and insulin concentrations, with increased HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin levels. Furthermore, 5% AFB markedly increased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ, uncoupling protein-2 as well as β3-adrenoreceptor in the visceral adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that the cereal bar with A. fistulosum extract may potentially serve as nutraceutical for improvement of obesity and metabolic disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polygonum aviculare L. has been used in traditional Korean medicine to treat obesity and symptoms associated with hypertension.
The effectiveness or mechanism of Polygonum aviculare L. ethanol extract (PAE) on atherosclerosis disease has not been examined experimentally. This study investigated the protective effect of PAE in atherosclerotic mice.
ApoE KO mice were fed a Western diet (WD) alone or with PAE or a statin for 12 weeks, followed by analysis of bodyweight, serum lipid levels, and blood pressure. Staining of the aorta and adipose tissue, expression levels of adhesion molecules, and the MAPK pathway were also examined. Cell viability, NF-κB activity, and protein levels of adhesion molecules were assessed in vitro.
ApoE KO mice fed PAE (50 and 100mg/kg) or statin (10mg/kg) gained less body weight, and has less adipose tissue and lower serum lipid levels and blood pressures than the WD group. Aorta ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and NF-κB levels were decreased by PAE in a dose-dependent manner, consistent with the in vitro observations. PAE and statin decreased atherosclerotic plaque and adipocyte size versus the WD group. Furthermore, PAE decreased phosphorylation of MAPK pathway components in the aorta of PAE-treated mice, suggesting that PAE's anti-atherosclerotic effects are mediated via a MAPK pathway-dependent mechanism.
PAE may protect against the development of atherosclerotic disease. The beneficial effects are associated with lowering bodyweight, serum lipids, blood pressure, adhesion molecular protein levels, atherosclerotic plaque, and adipocyte size, involving the MAPK pathway.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to optimize the extraction conditions of continentalic acid, the main compound from Aralia continentalis root, we developed a model using the response surface methodology. The continentalic acid yield was analyzed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection. The extraction solvent, temperature, and time the three main factors for ultrasound-assisted extraction were optimized using the central composite design. Analysis of variance showed a good model fit (R (2) = 0.9323). The maximum extraction of continentalic acid obtained experimentally was 1.0138 % under an extraction temperature of 33 °C and extraction time of 28 min when 100 % ethanol was used as the solvent. The experimental value was in good agreement (the yield 1.0103 %) with those predicted values. The results clearly showed that quality by statistical design could be effectively applied to optimize extraction of continentalic acid.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 11/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) signaling in keratinocytes plays an important role in mediating inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis and contact dermatitis. Illicium verum Hook. f. has been used in traditional medicine for treating skin inflammation, rheumatism, asthma, and bronchitis in Asia.
To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and regulatory mechanisms of I. verum extract (IVE) in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT.
In this study, we examined the effect of IVE on IFN-γ-induced ICAM-1 expression in HaCaT cells. The levels of IFN-γ receptor α (IFN-γRα), phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (pJak2), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (pSTAT1), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) were analyzed by western blot. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the HaCaT cells was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and cell-surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of IVE and its constituents on the adherence of T lymphocytes to IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells were also investigated.
IVE significantly inhibited IFN-γ-induced mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1. IVE inhibited IFN-γ-induced IFN-γRα, pJak2 and pSTAT1 expression in HaCaT cells. The expression of SOCS1 was up-regulated by treatment of IVE. In addition, IVE and its constituents (p-anisaldehyde and trans-anethole) effectively suppressed IFN-γ-induced adherence of Jurkat T cells to HaCaT cells and ICAM-1 expression on the cell surface.
These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of IVE may contribute to therapeutic efficacy in IFN-γ-dependent inflammatory skin diseases by modulating the IFN-γ signal pathway.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulmus macrocarpa Hance (Ulmaceae) has been used as a traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of edema, mastitis, gastric cancer and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ulmus macrocarpa extract (UME) on thrombus formation in vivo, platelet activation ex vivo and fibrinolytic activity in vitro. To identify the antithrombotic activity of UME in vivo, we used an arterial thrombosis model. UME delayed the occlusion time by 13.4 and 13.9 min at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. UME significantly inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation induced by collagen and adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), respectively, but did not affect the coagulation times following activated partial thromboplastin and prothrombin activation. Therefore, to investigate the antiplatelet effect of UME, the effect of UME on collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro was examined. UME exhibited antiplatelet aggregation activity, induced by ADP and collagen. Furthermore, the fibrinolytic activity of UMEwas investigated. The results showed that UME significantly increased fibrinolysis at 1,000 mg/ml. In conclusion, the results suggested that UME may significantly inhibit artery thrombus formation in vivo, potentially due to antiplatelet activity, and also exhibits potential as a clot‑dissolving agent for thrombolytic therapy.
Molecular Medicine Reports 07/2013; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis, which manifests as acute coronary syndrome, stroke, and peripheral arterial diseases, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Prunella vulgaris, a perennial herb with a worldwide distribution, has been used as a traditional medicine in inflammatory disease. Here, we investigated the effects of P. vulgaris ethanol extract on TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). We found that P. vulgaris ethanol extract inhibited adhesion of monocyte/macrophage-like THP-1 cells to activated HASMCs. It also decreased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin and ROS, No production in TNF-α-induced HASMCs and reduced NF-kB activation. Furthermore, P. vulgaris extract suppressed TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These results demonstrate that P. vulgaris possesses antiinflammatory properties and can regulate TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules by inhibiting the p38 MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(7): 352-357].
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Agents currently used for the treatment and prevention of thrombosis have a number of side effects. We conducted this study to develop antithrombotic agents from herbs that are used in food.Methods
The 80% (v/v) ethanol extracts of Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (PL) and Mume Fructus (MF) and their combinations—2:1 (PM21), 1:1 (PM11), and 1:2 (PM12)—were evaluated on rat platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in vitro and on arteriovenous shunt thrombosis after 3 days of oral treatment in rats in vivo.ResultsAt 100 μg/mL, PM21 and PM11 inhibited in vitro ADP-induced aggregation by 44.0 ± 4.3% and 30.0 ± 3.2%, respectively, whereas PL, MF, and PM12 weakly or scarcely inhibited ADP-induced aggregation by 3.9 ± 3.2%, 13.0 ± 2.7%, and 5.2 ± 1.3%, respectively. The IC50 values of PM21 on ADP-, collagen-, and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations were 135.6 ± 7.4 μg/mL, 142.7 ± 5.8 μg/mL, and 186.5 ± 9.7 μg/mL, respectively. In an in vivo rat arteriovenous-shunt thrombosis model, thrombus weight was significantly decreased after the oral administration of 400 mg/kg PL (27.8 ± 3.0%, p < 0.01) or MF (35.2 ± 2.1%, p < 0.01), and with a good accord to the in vitro results, the combination of PL and MF in the ratio of 2:1, PM21 (60.9 ± 1.2%, p < 0.001), showed a superior antithrombotic effect to those of individual extracts. At dosages of 200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg, PM21 dose-dependently decreased thrombosis weight (ED50, 314 mg/kg).Conclusion
These results suggest that combination preparations of PL and MF, especially their 2:1 combination, can increase antiplatelet and antithromboticeffects more than PL and MF alone, offering evidence for a potential novel combination antithrombotic therapy.
Integrative Medicine Research. 06/2013; 2(2):70–75.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corosolic acid (CRA), a triterpenoid from medicinal herbs, has been shown to induce apoptosis in several cell lines, with the exception of A549 cells. In this report, we investigated the apoptotic effect and mechanism of CRA in A549 cells. The present study shows that CRA significantly inhibits cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Exposure to CRA induces sub-G1 cell cycle arrest and causes apoptotic death in A549 cells. CRA also triggers the activation of caspases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an effect antagonized by z-vad-fmk. In addition, exposure to CRA leads to a significant increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inA549 cells. Furthermore, exposure to the ROS scavenger N acetylcysteine (NAC)prevents CRA-induced apoptosis, suggesting a role for ROS in CRA-induced apoptosis. ROS are critical regulators of caspase-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. These results indicate that CRA induces mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis inA549 cells by altering anti-apoptotic proteins in a ROS-dependent manner.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 02/2013; 56C:8-17. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400 mg/kg/day) for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:626397. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alismatis Rhizoma is a perennial herb originating from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep and the same species which have been used to treat seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, polydipsia, and pedal edema. We aimed to determine the concentrations of the compounds alisol B and alisol B acetate present in a sample of the herb using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. We selected methanol as the optimal solvent considering the structures of alisol B and alisol B acetate. We estimated the proportion of alisol B and alisol B acetate in a standard extract to be 0.0434% and 0.2365% in methanol, respectively. To optimize extraction, we employed response surface methodology to determine the yields of alisol B and alisol B acetate, which mapped out a central composite design consisting of 15 experimental points. The extraction parameters were time, concentration, and sample weight. The predicted concentration of alisol B derivatives was estimated to be 0.2388% under the following conditions: 81 min of extraction time, 76% of methanol concentration, and 1.52g of sample weight.
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 01/2013; 36(4):513-524. · 0.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actinidia polygama has been used as a herbal folk medicine for treating pain, gout, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammation. In the present study, the anti‑obesity properties of Actinidia polygama extract (APE) were investigated in mice with high‑fat diet‑induced obesity. APE treatment of high‑fat diet (HFD)‑fed obese mice significantly reduced body weight, adipose tissue mass and serum triglyceride and leptin levels relative to the HFD‑fed mice. Food intake did not differ between the HFD and HFD+APE groups, although the food efficiency ratio (FER) was significantly decreased in the HFD+APE group compared with the HFD group. Histological examination showed that the sizes of the adipocytes were significantly smaller in the HFD+APE group compared with the HFD group. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase were significantly decreased in the HFD+APE mice compared with the HFD‑fed mice, but serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were not significantly changed in the HFD+APE mice compared with the levels in the normal diet (ND)‑fed and HFD‑fed mice. These results suggest that APE may be useful for treating metabolic diseases, including obesity and hyperlipidemia, without toxic side‑effects.
Molecular Medicine Reports 12/2012; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. The expression of adhesion molecules in aortic smooth muscle cells facilitates the accumulation of transmigrated leukocytes within the atherosclerotic vascular wall. The stem of Akebia quinata (A. quinata) has previously been used as a crude drug for treating urinary disorders and inflammatory disease in Korea, China and Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an A. quinata ethanol extract (AQEE) on the expression of adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX‑2) in tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-induced human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The results of the present study demonstrated that AQEE attenuated intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E‑selectin and COX‑2 expression in TNF‑α-stimulated HASMCs and inhibited THP-1 cell adhesion to activated HASMCs. Furthermore, AQEE suppressed the TNF‑α induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and reduced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB; p65) nuclear translocation. The present study demonstrated that AQEE possesses anti‑inflammatory properties and regulates TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules by inhibition of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Molecular Medicine Reports 11/2012; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curcuma is used to treat skin diseases and colic inflammatory disorders, and in insect repellants and antimicrobial and antidiabetic medications. Two Curcuma species (C. aromatica and C. longa) grown in Jeju-do and Jin-do were used in this study. Methanolic extracts were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis was applied to characterize the differences between species or origin. PCA analysis showed significantly greater differences between species than origins, and the metabolites responsible for the differences were identified. The concentrations of sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) and essential oils (eucalyptol, curdione, and germacrone) were significantly different between the two species. However, the samples from Jeju-do and Jin-do were different mainly in their concentrations of organic acids (fumarate, succinate, acetate, and formate) and sugars. This study demonstrates that NMR-based metabolomics is an efficient method for fingerprinting and determining differences between Curcuma species or those grown in different regions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Illicium verum Hook. f. (star anise) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of skin inflammation, rheumatism, asthma, and bronchitis. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Illicium verum extract (IVE) in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line.
We investigated the effectiveness of IVE in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)/interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced human keratinocytes. To measure the effects of IVE on chemokine and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in HaCaT cells, we used the following methods: cell viability assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assay.
IVE inhibited the expression of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced mRNA and protein expression of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Furthermore, IVE decreased TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced mRNA expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). IVE inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB translocation into the nucleus, as well as phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. IVE inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, IVE significantly inhibited activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt. Furthermore, IVE contained 2.14% trans-anethole and possessed significant anti-inflammatory activities.
IVE exerts anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the expression of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules via blockade of NF-κB, STAT1, MAPK, and Akt activation, suggesting that IVE may be a useful therapeutic candidate for inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2012; 144(1):182-9. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, rheumatism, and bone healing. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% ethanol extract of Drynaria fortunei (DFE).
We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied DFE on house dust mite Dermatophargoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.
Treatment of NC/Nga mice with DFE reduced the dermatitis score, ear thickness, and serum levels of IgE, IgG1, and IL-6. Histopathological analyses of ear and skin lesions showed inhibition of the thickening of the epidermis and reduced epidermal/dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. In ear lesions, mRNA expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were reduced by DFE treatment.
DFE inhibited the development of dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. These results suggest that DFE may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2012; 144(1):94-100. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Illicium verum is a traditional herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory properties used in Asia. However, its usefulness in the treatment of allergic diseases remains unclear. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects of I. verum extract (IVE) in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis.
We investigated the effects of IVE on compound 48/80-induced histamine release, and phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated cytokines secretion in MC/9 mast cells. Atopic dermatitis was induced in NC/Nga mice by exposure to extract of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae). After a topical application of IVE on ear and skin lesions, we evaluated the severity of skin symptoms, ear thickness, inflammatory cell infiltration, and serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, interleukin (IL)-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. In addition, we determined the expression of IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in ear tissues.
IVE inhibited secretion of histamine, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-α from mast cells in a dose-dependent manner. Topical application of IVE significantly reduced dermatitis scores, ear thickness, and serum levels of IgE, histamine, IL-6, and ICAM-1. Histopathological analysis demonstrated decreased epidermal thickening and dermal infiltration by inflammatory cells. In the ear lesions, IVE treatment reduced expression of IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, TARC, RANTES, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, but not IFN-γ.
These results indicate that IVE inhibits atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by suppressing the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. These results suggest that IVE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for atopic dermatitis.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2012; 144(1):151-9. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dianthus chinensis L. is used to treat various diseases including cancer; however, the molecular mechanism by which the ethanol extract of Dianthus chinensis L. (EDCL) induces apoptosis is unknown. In this study, the apoptotic effects of EDCL were investigated in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with EDCL significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. This induction was associated with chromatin condensation, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. However, apoptosis induced by EDCL was attenuated by caspase inhibitor, indicating an important role for caspases in EDCL responses. Furthermore, EDCL did not alter the expression of bax in HepG2 cells but did selectively downregulate the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xl, resulting in an increase in the ratio of bax:bcl-2 and bax:bcl-xl. These results support a mechanism whereby EDCL induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:573527. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Litchi chinensis Sonn. (lychee), which belongs to the family of Sapindaceae, is a subtropical evergreen tree that is cultivated throughout Southeast Asia, particularly in China. Litchi chinensis has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. However, the antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects of Litchi chinensis have not been reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effects of a 70% ethanol extract from Litchi chinensis (LCE) on platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis. LCE dose-dependently inhibited collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rat platelet-rich plasma. LCE at 4 mg/ml had a maximal inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. In particular, the LCE 4 mg/ml-treated group showed almost complete inhibition in the collagen-induced platelet aggregation assay. It also significantly prolonged coagulation times, such as the activated partial thromboplastin and prothrombin time, in rat platelet-poor plasma. We also investigated the fibrinolytic effects of LCE using the fibrin plate assay. LCE increased fibrinolytic activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrated the antithrombotic effects of LCE and suggest that Litchi chinensis may be a new natural source for the development of antiplatelet, anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapeutics for thrombotic and cardiovascular diseases.
Molecular Medicine Reports 12/2011; 5(3):721-4. · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agrimonia pilosa (AP) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for treating various cancers and diseases in Asian countries.
Cell viability along with caspase-3/-7, caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity were measured to detect apoptosis. The activity of the apoptotic factors bcl-2, bcl-xl, mcl-1, XIAP, BID, BIK, caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP were measured by Western blotting. FACS analysis was used to analyze the cell cycle.
APE inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. Growth inhibition was associated with increased caspase activity and sub-G1 apoptotic fractions. When we measured the affect of APE on intracellular signaling, APE stimulated the apoptotic factors bcl-2, bcl-xl, mcl-1, XIAP, BID, BIK, caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP in HepG2 cells.
The results indicate that APE induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in HepG2 cells and demonstrates one of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of the extract reported in previous studies.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2011; 138(2):358-63. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taraxacum, known as dandelion, is a large genus of plants in the family Asteraceae. Pharmacological studies have shown that these plants display a wide variety of medicinal properties because Taraxacum extracts contain many pharmacologically active metabolites that display anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, and anticancer activity. Each plant species displays several different natural constituents, the majority of which have not been studied as no global metabolite screen of the diverse Taraxacum species has been performed. In this study, we investigated the metabolite difference in three species of Taraxacum (T. coreanum, T. officinale, and T. platycarpum) by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. The aim of this study was to identify the different chemical compositions of the polar and nonpolar extracts in these species. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis showed a significantly higher separation among nonpolar extracts (mainly fatty acids and sterols) compared to polar extracts (mainly amino acids, organic acids, and sugars) between these species. A one-way ANOVA was performed to statistically certify the metabolite differences of these nonpolar extracts. Taken together, these data suggest that a metabolomic approach using combined (1)H NMR and GC-MS analysis is an effective analytical method to differentiate biochemical compositions among different species in plants.
The Analyst 08/2011; 136(20):4222-31. · 4.23 Impact Factor