[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the cardiovascular thrombotic risk after surgical castration (SC) versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) in Chinese men with prostate cancer. All Chinese prostate cancer patients who were treated with SC or GnRHa from year 2000 to 2009 were reviewed and compared. The primary outcome was any new-onset of cardiovascular thrombotic events after SC or GnRHa, which was defined as any event of acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. The risk of new-onset cardiovascular thrombotic event was compared between the SC group and the GnRHa group using Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for other potential confounding factors. A total of 684 Chinese patients was included in our study, including 387 patients in the SC group and 297 patients in the GnRHa group. The mean age in the SC group (75.3 ± 7.5 years) was significantly higher than the GnRHa group (71.8 ± 8.3 years) (P < 0.001). There was increased risk of new cardiovascular thrombotic events in the SC group when compared to the GnRHa group upon Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.014). Upon multivariate Cox regression analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.072, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.11, P< 0.001), hyperlipidemia (HR 2.455, 95% CI 1.53-3.93, P< 0.001), and SC (HR 1.648, 95% CI 1.05-2.59, P= 0.031) were significant risk factors of cardiovascular thrombotic events. In conclusion, SC was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events when compared to GnRHa. This is an important aspect to consider while deciding on the method of androgen deprivation therapy, especially in elderly men with known history of hyperlipidemia.
Asian Journal of Andrology 12/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer in a Chinese population.
Patients and methods:
All Chinese patients with prostate cancer who were treated primarily with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, with or without further ADT at our hospital from the year 2000 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. We compared the risk of AMI in the patients who were given further ADT (ADT group) with those who were not given any ADT (non-ADT group). Potential risk factors of AMI including age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, history of stroke, ischaemic heart disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) and duration of ADT were reviewed. The risk of AMI after ADT was first analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method, followed by Cox regression analyses including the potential risk factors mentioned.
In all, 452 patients were included, with 200 patients in the non-ADT group and 252 patients in the ADT group. The mean (sd) age was 68.2 (5.9) years in the non-ADT group and 69.5 (6.5) years in the ADT group, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.031). There were no significant differences in their pre-existing medical conditions or ECOG PS. The ADT group was associated with an increased risk of AMI when compared with the non-ADT group (P = 0.004) upon Kaplan-Meier analysis. Upon multivariate Cox regression analysis, hyperlipidaemia, poor ECOG PS and the use of ADT were the only three significant factors that were associated with increased risk of developing new AMI.
There was increased risk of AMI after ADT for prostate cancer in a Chinese population. Hyperlipidaemia and poor ECOG PS were also significant risk factors for developing AMI. The risk of AMI should be considered when deciding on ADT, especially in patients with history of hyperlipidaemia and relatively poor ECOG PS.
BJU International 10/2014; 116(3). DOI:10.1111/bju.12967 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On page 855, J. C. Ho and co-workers exploit a simple photolithographic technique using surface-textured soft polymer films as optical masks for the area selective exposure of photoresists upon flood UV illumination. This allows rapid fabrication of periodic nanopatterns over large areas, and by simply varying the mask and tuning the exposure dose, patterns with different geometric characteristics can be obtained in a controllable manner. Importantly, these polymer masks can be used numerous times, making this technique a reliable low-cost alternative to the existing methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The associations of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with its adverse events in the Asian population remained largely unknown. We investigated the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) after ADT for prostate cancer in the Asian population.Methods
All prostate cancer patients who were treated primarily with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, with or without further ADT from 2000 to 2009 were reviewed. Clinical parameters including age, clinical T stage, Gleason score, hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, ischemic heart disease, history of stroke, new-onset DM, follow-up duration, form and duration of ADT were reviewed. The risk of DM after ADT was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analysis.Results388 patients were included, consisting of 169 patients in the non-ADT group and 219 patients in the ADT group. Upon Kaplan-Meier analysis, ADT group had a higher risk of new-onset DM (P = 0.011). Upon multivariate Cox regression analysis, dyslipidemia (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.07-5.00, P = 0.032), impaired fasting glucose (HR 5.92, 95% CI 1. 2.27-15.45, P < 0.001) and the use of ADT in the form of GnRH agonist (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.19-9.39, P = 0.022) and bilateral orchiectomy (HR 6.49, 95% CI 1.48-28.55, P = 0.013) were associated with increased risk of new-onset DM.Conclusions
There was increased risk of new-onset DM after ADT for prostate cancer in the Asian population. Regular screening of DM can be considered after the initiation of ADT, especially in patients with known history of dyslipidemia and impaired fasting glucose.
Journal of Diabetes 09/2014; 7(5). DOI:10.1111/1753-0407.12226 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To review a series of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMTs) of the urinary bladder in 10 hospitals in Hong Kong.
A database search in the pathology archives of 10 hospitals in Hong Kong from 1995 to 2013 was performed using the key words 'inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour', 'inflammatory pseudotumour' and 'spindle cell lesion'. Patient characteristics, clinical features, histological features, immunohistochemical staining results and treatment outcomes were reviewed.
Nine cases of IMT of the urinary bladder were retrieved. The mean age was 45.4 ± 22.8 years (range 11-78). Eight patients (88.9%) presented with haematuria and 5 patients (55.6%) had anaemia with a mean haemoglobin level of 6.8 ± 1.3 g/dl. Histologically, the majority of patients (77.8%) had a compact spindle cell pattern. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase staining was positive in 75% of cases. During a mean follow-up period of 43.4 months (range 8-94), none of them developed any local recurrence or distant metastasis.
A high index of suspicion of IMT should be maintained for young patients presenting with bleeding bladder tumours and significant anaemia. IMTs of the urinary bladder run a benign disease course, and good prognosis can be achieved after surgical resection.
Urologia Internationalis 07/2014; 94(1). DOI:10.1159/000358732 · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controllable nanoscale patterning of a photoresist is achieved via flood UV illumination with the assistance of conformably attached surface-textured polymer films. These polymer films can be reused numerous times, enabling the cost-effective and reliable fabrication of highly ordered nanopatterned arrays for widespread applications, from plasmonic sensors and multifunctional coatings to photovoltaics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the association between patient age, other clinical factors and mortality following radical cystectomy for treatment of bladder cancer. DESIGN. Historical cohort study. SETTING. A urology unit in Hong Kong. PATIENTS. The outcome of 117 patients who had radical cystectomies performed in one urological unit from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed. Demographic and perioperative data, including tumour stage, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and preoperative serum albumin levels were retrieved from computerised medical records. Risk factors for 30-day mortality, and cancer-specific, other-cause, and overall death rates at 5 years were calculated. The data were subsequently stratified and analysed according to age. RESULTS. Of the 117 patients, 83 (71%) were aged 75 years or below. The mean follow-up duration was 31 (standard deviation, 29) months. Age, tumour stage, and preoperative serum albumin level, but not the Charlson Comorbidity Index, were found to be predictors of survival following radical cystectomy. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 3% in the full sample, 1% in patients aged 75 years or below, and 10% in patients aged over 75 years. There was no significant difference in 5-year cancer-caused mortalities between patients aged 75 years or below and those aged over 75 years (33% vs 33%, P=0.956). In patients older than 75 years, the 5-year other-cause and overall mortality rates were 47% and 80%, respectively; such rates were higher than those for younger patients (13% and 46%, respectively). CONCLUSION. Age, tumour stage, and preoperative serum albumin level were predictors of survival after radical cystectomy. Non-cancer-related death played a crucial role in the overall mortality rate in elderly patients having radical cystectomy for bladder cancer.
Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine 08/2013; 19(5). DOI:10.12809/hkmj133964 · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who had a delayed presentation of duodenal obstruction as a result of a bleeding right renal angiomyolipoma (AML) with retroperitoneal hematoma. Her duodenal obstruction did not improve upon conservative management, and a computed tomography (CT)-guided drainage of the retroperitoneal hematoma was subsequently performed. Post-intervention, CT scan confirmed hematoma resolution, and she was able to resume normal diet afterwards. We present this first reported case of a bleeding renal AML with retroperitoneal hematoma causing duodenal obstruction and discuss on the management of such condition.
International Urology and Nephrology 06/2013; 45(4). DOI:10.1007/s11255-013-0483-2 · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world. Urothelial carcinoma (formerly known as transitional cell carcinoma) comprises the majority of bladder cancers. In order to decipher the genetic alteration leading to the carcinogenesis of urothelial cancer, we performed genome-wide allelotyping analysis using 384 microsatellite markers spanning 22 autosomes together with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in 21 urothelial cancer. High frequency of allelic imbalance was observed in chromosome arm 1q (61.9%), 3p (61.9%), 4q (66.67%), 8p (57.14%), 9p (76.2%) and 9q (66.67%). Allelic imbalance with frequency above average was also observed in chromosome arm 2q, 10p, 10q, 11p, 11q, 12q, 13q, 15q, 17p and 19q. The allelic imbalance of each case and fractional allelic loss for each chromosome was associated with higher tumor grade and stage (P<0.05). We have also delineated several minimal deletion regions on chromosome 3p, 4q, 8p, 9p, 9q, 11p, 13q, 16q and 17p. By CGH analysis, common chromosomal alterations included gain of 1p, 1q, 12q, 16p, 17q and 19p as well as loss of 4q and 9p in most of the cases. Our findings may provide valuable information to locate putative oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer in this locality.
International Journal of Oncology 05/2009; 34(4):963-70. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) with epirubicin in adjuvant therapy of superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma, with respect to recurrence, progression and survival. Prognostic factors are also evaluated.
Between October 1991 and September 1999, all patients harboring superficial bladder cancers (Ta or T1) with any of the relevant criteria (stage>a, grade>1, size>1 cm, multiple or recurrent tumors), after complete transurethral resection were randomized to receive either 81 mg Connaught strain BCG or 50 mg epirubicin. Patients with recurrences were eligible to crossover, even repeatedly, until progression. Recurrence, progression and survival were analyzed in relation to initial treatment, patient characteristics and tumor characteristics.
There were 209 patients included in the study, 149 men and 60 women. The mean age was 69.9 years (range, 24-92). The BCG group consisted of 102 patients and the epirubicin group contained 107 patients. Final analysis was made at a median follow up of 23, 47 and 61 months for recurrence, progression and survival, respectively. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for recurrence-free, progression-free and disease-specific survival were 61%, 78% and 80%, respectively, for the BCG group. The corresponding figures were 32%, 74% and 92%, respectively, for the epirubicin group. Time to recurrence differed significantly between two treatment groups (P=0.0004). Multiplicity increased the risk of recurrence, while grading influenced recurrence, progression and disease specific survival.
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin prolonged time to recurrence when compared with epirubicin. Grading was shown to be a universal prognostic factor for recurrence, progression and disease specific survival.
International Journal of Urology 05/2005; 12(5):449-55. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2005.01064.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case series of inverted papilloma of the urinary bladder and urethra is presented, together with a review of the literature with respect to multiplicity, recurrence rate and association with transitional cell carcinoma, and a discussion on surveillance of the lesion.
Cases of inverted papilloma of the lower urinary tract in a single centre were reviewed. Patient and tumour characteristics, recurrence and associated transitional cell carcinoma are reported.
Twenty patients were included (18 male, two female). The mean age was 60.8 years (range 35-78 years). All had solitary tumours ranging from 3 mm to 30 mm in size. Median cystoscopic follow up was 30 months (range 2-140 months). There was no recurrence. One patient was associated with subsequent transitional cell carcinoma 44 and 76 months later. Together with the present 20 cases, review of the English literature with respect to inverted papilloma of the lower urinary tract identified a total of 322 cases reported, with a recurrence rate of 3.85%. Moreover, 1.55%, 5.90% and 1.54% were associated with previous, simultaneous and subsequent transitional cell carcinoma, respectively.
Recurrence is not uncommon and risk of subsequent transitional cell carcinoma is not rare, such that non-invasive surveillance with flexible cystoscopy is recommended for inverted papilloma of the lower urinary tract.
ANZ Journal of Surgery 05/2005; 75(4):213-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1445-2197.2005.03327.x · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a carcinosarcoma within a bladder diverticulum together with a review of 18 previously reported cases of intradiverticular sarcomas and carcinosarcomas with respect to their clinical features, treatments and outcomes. Frequent deaths with intra-abdominal recurrences suggest the need for total cystectomy, rather than diverticulectomy.
International Journal of Urology 01/2005; 11(12):1136-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2004.00956.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the recurrence, progression and survival in patients with T1G3 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder treated with sequential intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin or epirubicin) on long-term follow up.
Between July 1988 and September 1999, all patients in a single center with T1G3 bladder TCC, after complete transurethral resection (TURBT), received either 81 mg of Connaught strain BCG or 50 mg of doxorubicin or epirubicin as adjuvant therapy. A conservative approach was adopted whereby those with superficial recurrences were eligible to crossover, even repeatedly, until progression to muscle invasion. Recurrence, progression and disease-specific survival were analyzed.
There were 36 patients included, with 26 males and 10 females. The mean age was 71.6 years (range 53-85 years). Final analysis was made at a median follow-up of 23.5 months (range 0-125 months) for recurrence, 33 months (range 0-125 months) for progression and 45.5 months (range 3-125 months) for survival. Sixteen (44.4%) patients showed recurrence. Nine (25%) of these 16 patients progressed. Five (13.9%) of those who progressed died of TCC. The 10 year Kaplan-Meier estimates for recurrence-free survival, progression-free survival and disease-specific survival were 48, 68 and 81%, respectively. Figures with this conservative approach were comparable to those with more aggressive approaches reported in the literature.
Adjuvant intravesical therapy with either BCG or a chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin or epirubicin) and crossover on recurrence was an effective conservative treatment for T1G3 bladder TCC.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2004; 34(4):202-5. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High frequency loss of 3p21.3 region where RASSF1A located was demonstrated in several tumors. We aimed to investigate the methylation status of RASSF1A and the frequency of LOH in 3p21.3 region in bladder cancer. Three bladder cancer cell lines, 40 cases of bladder TCC and 14 cases of paired voided urine samples were subjected to methylation analysis. By methylation specific PCR, complete methylation of promoter region of RASSF1A gene were detected in cell lines T24 and UMUC3. Demethylation treatment re-expressed RASSF1A in these 2 cell lines. Methylation of RASSF1A was also detected in 47.5% (19/40) of the TCC cases but not in 6 carcinoma in situ (CIS) or 6 normal urothelium samples. For LOH study, loss of 3p21.3 region was detected in 57.9% (11/19) of our cases. Interestingly, methylation of RASSF1A was found in 72.7% (8/11) of the cases with LOH but only in 12.5% (1/8) of the cases without LOH. Methylation of RASSF1A was detected in 50% (7/14) of voided urine samples, but not in normal control. It showed a higher sensitivity than conventional urine cytology in detecting cancer cells, especially for low grade cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrated a high frequency of RASSF1A methylation with frequent LOH in 3p21.3 region in bladder cancer. It suggested that it may be a potential tumor suppressor gene in this chromosomal region and can be silenced by promoter hypermethylation. Detection of aberrant gene methylation in routine voided urine was feasible and may provide a non-invasive and sensitive approach for cancer detection.
International Journal of Cancer 06/2003; 104(5):611-6. DOI:10.1002/ijc.10971 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the methylation pattern in bladder cancer and assess the diagnostic potential of such epigenetic changes in urine.
The methylation status of 7 genes (RARbeta, DAPK, E-cadherin, p16, p15, GSTP1, and MGMT) in 98 cases of bladder transitional cell carcinoma and 4 cases of carcinoma in situ was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR. Twenty-two cases had paired voided urine samples for analysis.
In transitional cell carcinoma tumor tissues, aberrant methylation was frequently detected in RARbeta (87.8%), DAPK (58.2%), E-cadherin (63.3%), and p16 (26.5%), whereas methylation of p15 (13.3%), GSTP1 (5.1%), and MGMT (5.1%) is not common. No association between methylation status and grading or muscle invasiveness was demonstrated. In 22 paired voided urine samples of bladder cancer, methylation of DAPK, RARbeta, E-cadherin, and p16 could be detected in 45.5%, 68.2%, 59.1%, and 13.6% of the cases, respectively. The sensitivity of methylation analysis (90.9%) was higher than that of urine cytology (45.5%) for cancer detection. Methylation of RARbeta(50%), DAPK (75%), and E-cadherin (50%) was also detected in carcinoma in situ. In 7 normal urothelium samples and 17 normal urine controls, no aberrant methylation was detected except for RARbeta methylation in 3 normal urothelium samples (42.9%) and 4 normal urine samples (23.5%), respectively.
Our results demonstrated a distinct methylation pattern in bladder cancer with frequent methylation of RARbeta, DAPK, E-cadherin, and p16. Detection of gene methylation in routine voided urine using selected markers appeared to be more sensitive than conventional urine cytology.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2002; 8(2):464-70. · 8.72 Impact Factor