[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) is a newly described clinical entity characterized by symptoms, which can involve the gastrointestinal tract, the nervous system, the skin, and other organs. There is little data on the pathogenesis of NCWS and it is probable that different pathogenic mechanisms are involved in the different clinical manifestations of the disease. The only common denominator of NCWS "syndrome" is wheat consumption: the symptoms disappear on exclusion of wheat from the diet, and reappear on wheat consumption. The objective of this study was to review our prior data regarding NCWS and to review relevant medical literature regarding NCWS, with particular attention to the hypothesis that NCWS patients could suffer from non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated wheat allergy.Methods:We reviewed our data on 276 patients diagnosed with NCWS by means of double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) wheat challenge. The data indicating a possible wheat allergy diagnosis were examined and other data in the literature were reviewed; we review the role of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and the basophil activation assay in food allergy, and the histology findings in the food allergy diagnosis.Results:The comparison between patients suffering from NCWS and presenting with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and controls with IBS not due to NCWS showed that NCWS was characterized by: a personal history of food allergy in the pediatric age (0.01), coexistent atopic diseases (0.0001), positive serum anti-gliadin (0.0001) and anti-betalactoglobulin (0.001) antibodies, positive cytofluorimetric assay revealing in vitro basophil activation by food antigens (0.0001), and a presence of eosinophils in the intestinal mucosa biopsies (0.0001).Conclusions:Patients with NCWS and multiple food sensitivity show several clinical, laboratory, and histological characteristics that suggest they might be suffering from non-IgE-mediated food allergy. However, other pathogenic mechanisms need to be considered.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 29 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.353.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2013; · 7.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Patients with chronic constipation due to food hypersensitivity (FH) had an elevated anal sphincter resting pressure. No studies have investigated a possible role of FH in anal fissures (AFs). We aimed to evaluate (1) the effectiveness of diet in curing AFs and to evaluate (2) the clinical effects of a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) challenge, using cow's milk protein or wheat.METHODS:One hundred and sixty-one patients with AFs were randomized to receive a "true-elimination diet" or a "sham-elimination diet" for 8 weeks; both groups also received topical nifedipine and lidocaine. Sixty patients who were cured with the "true-elimination diet" underwent DBPC challenge in which cow's milk and wheat were used.RESULTS:At the end of the study, 69% of the "true-diet group" and 45% of the "sham-diet group" showed complete healing of AFs (P<0.0002). Thirteen of the 60 patients had AF recurrence during the 2-week cow's milk DBPC challenge and 7 patients had AF recurrence on wheat challenge. At the end of the challenge, anal sphincter resting pressure significantly increased in the patients who showed AF reappearance (P<0.0001), compared with the baseline values. The patients who reacted to the challenges had a significantly higher number of eosinophils in the lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes than those who did not react to the challenges.CONCLUSIONS:An oligo-antigenic diet combined with medical treatment improved the rate of chronic AF healing. In more than 20% of the patients receiving medical and dietary treatment, AFs recurred on DBPC food challenge.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 16 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.58.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2013; · 7.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet "A", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "B"), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet "B", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "A"). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The diagnosis of food hypersensitivity (FH) in adult patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, beyond the immediate IgE-mediated clinical manifestations, is very often difficult. The aims of our study were to: 1) evaluate the frequency of FH in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like clinical presentation; and 2) compare the diagnostic accuracy of two different methods of in vitro basophil activation tests. Methods: Three hundred and five patients (235 females, age range 18-66 years) were included and underwent a diagnostic elimination diet and successive double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) challenges. Two different methods of in vitro basophil activation tests (BAT) (CD63 expression after in vitro wheat or cow's milk proteins stimulation) were evaluated: one was performed on separated leukocytes, and the other on whole blood. Results: Ninety patients of the 305 studied (29.5%) were positive to the challenges and were diagnosed as suffering from FH. BAT on separate leukocytes showed a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 91% in FH diagnosis. BAT on whole blood showed a sensitivity of 15%-20% and a specificity of 73% in FH diagnosis (p<0.0001 compared to the other method). Conclusions: About one third of the IBS patients included in the study were suffering from FH and were cured on the elimination diet. The BAT based on CD63 detection on whole blood samples did not work in FH diagnosis and showed a significantly lower sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy than the assay based on separated leukocytes.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 11/2012; · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (WS) is considered a new clinical entity. An increasing percentage of the general population avoids gluten ingestion. However, the real existence of this condition is debated and specific markers are lacking. Our aim was thus to demonstrate the existence of WS and define its clinical, serologic, and histological markers.METHODS:We reviewed the clinical charts of all subjects with an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like presentation who had been diagnosed with WS using a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) challenge in the years 2001-2011. One hundred celiac disease (CD) patients and fifty IBS patients served as controls.RESULTS:Two hundred and seventy-six patients with WS, as diagnosed by DBPC challenge, were included. Two groups showing distinct clinical characteristics were identified: WS alone (group 1) and WS associated with multiple food hypersensitivity (group 2). As a whole group, the WS patients showed a higher frequency of anemia, weight loss, self-reported wheat intolerance, coexistent atopy, and food allergy in infancy than the IBS controls. There was also a higher frequency of positive serum assays for IgG/IgA anti-gliadin and cytometric basophil activation in "in vitro" assay. The main histology characteristic of WS patients was eosinophil infiltration of the duodenal and colon mucosa. Patients with WS alone were characterized by clinical features very similar to those found in CD patients. Patients with multiple food sensitivity were characterized by clinical features similar to those found in allergic patients.CONCLUSIONS:Our data confirm the existence of non-celiac WS as a distinct clinical condition. We also suggest the existence of two distinct populations of subjects with WS: one with characteristics more similar to CD and the other with characteristics pointing to food allergy.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 24 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ajg.2012.236.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2012; · 7.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lymphoid aggregates are normally found throughout the small and large intestine. Known as lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH), these aggregates are observed especially in young children and are not associated with clinical symptoms being considered 'physiological'. In children presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms the number and size of the lymphoid follicles are increased. Patients suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms (i.e. recurrent abdominal pain) should systematically undergo gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. With these indications LNH, especially of the upper but also of the lower gastrointestinal tract has been diagnosed, and in some children it may reflect a food hypersensitivity (FH) condition. AIM: To review the literature about the relationship between LNH and FH, particularly focusing on the diagnostic work-up for LNH related to FH. METHODS: We reviewed literature using Pubmed and Medline, with the search terms 'lymphoid nodular hyperplasia', 'food hypersensitivity', 'food allergy' and 'food intolerance'. We overall examined 10 studies in detail, selecting articles about the prevalence of LNH in FH patients and of FH in LNH patients. RESULTS: Collected data showed a median of 49% (range 32-67%) LNH in FH patients and a median of 66% (range 42-90%) FH in LNH patients. Literature review pointed out that the most important symptom connected with LNH and/or FH was recurrent abdominal pain, followed by diarrhoea and growth retardation. Both LNH and FH are associated with an increase in lamina propria γ/δ+ T cells, but the mechanisms by which enhanced local immune responses causing gastrointestinal symptoms still remain obscure. CONCLUSIONS: When assessing FH, we rely on clinical evaluation, including elimination diet and challenge tests, and endoscopic and immunohistochemical findings. Considering the possible co-existence of duodenal and ileo-colonic LNH, upper endoscopy can be recommended in children with suspected FH, especially in those presenting with additional upper abdominal symptoms (i.e. vomiting). Likewise, lower endoscopy might be additionally performed in patients with suspected FH and LNH of the duodenal bulb, also presenting with lower abdominal symptoms (i.e. recurrent abdominal pain).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD), serum assays for anti-endomysium (EMA) and anti-transglutaminase (anti-tTG) antibodies have excellent diagnostic accuracy. However, these assays are less sensitive in young pediatric patients. Recently, a new ELISA test using deamidated gliadin peptides (DGP) as antigen has proved to be very sensitive and specific even in pediatric patients. In addition, anti-actin IgA antibodies (AAA) is another test that can be used in CD patients because antibody concentrations correlate with the degree of villous atrophy. This study evaluated the clinical accuracy of anti-tTG, EMA, AGA, anti-DGP and AAA and the effectiveness of these in different combinations for diagnosing CD in a large cohort of pediatric patients.
Sera of 150 children under 6 years of age were tested: 95 patients had a diagnosis of CD, while 55 patients who did not suffer from CD were used as controls. Anti-DGP IgA/IgG and AAA were assayed with ELISA kits, while anti-tTG IgA/IgG and AGA IgG/IgA were assayed using a quantitative fluoroimmunoassay. The EMA test was conducted by indirect immunofluorescence.
Seventy-six of 95 (80%) CD patients were positive for DGP IgA and/or tTG IgA. Eighty of 95 (84.2%) patients were positive for DGP IgG and/or tTG IgA. None of the controls were positive for these antibodies. Eighty-four of 95 (88.4%) patients and 8/55 (14.5%) controls were positive for AAA and/or anti-tTG IgA.
In very young children, association of anti-tTG IgA with anti-DGP IgG is the best test combination for diagnosing CD, yielding a cumulative sensitivity of 84.2% and a specificity of 100%.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 09/2011; 50(1):111-7. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) diagnosis is becoming more difficult as patients with no intestinal histology lesions may also be suffering from CD.
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of antiendomysium (EmA) assay in the culture medium of intestinal biopsies for CD diagnosis.
The clinical charts of 418 patients with CD and 705 non-CD controls who had all undergone EmA assay in the culture medium were reviewed.
EmA assay in the culture medium had a higher sensitivity (98 vs. 80%) and specificity (99 vs. 95%) than serum EmA/antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) assay. All patients with CD who were tested as false-negatives for serum EmA and/or anti-tTG (32 adults and 39 children) carried the human leukocyte antigen alleles associated to CD. Furthermore, during the follow-up, four patients with negative-serum EmA/anti-tTG, normal villi architecture, and positive-EmAs in the culture medium, developed villous atrophy and underwent gluten-free diet with consequent resolution of the symptoms and complete intestinal histology recovery.
EmA assay in the culture medium should be included in the diagnostic criteria for CD diagnosis in 'seronegative' patients.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 08/2011; 23(11):1018-23. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms suffer from food hypersensitivity (FH); their symptoms improve when they are placed on elimination diets. No assays identify patients with FH with satisfactory levels of sensitivity. We determined the frequency of FH among patients with symptoms of IBS and the ability of fecal assays for tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), or calprotectin to diagnose FH.
The study included 160 patients with IBS, 40 patients with other gastrointestinal diseases, and 50 healthy individuals (controls). At the start of the study, patients completed a symptom severity questionnaire, fecal samples were assayed, and levels of specific immunoglobulin E were measured. Patients were observed for 4 weeks, placed on an elimination diet (without cow's milk and derivatives, wheat, egg, tomato, and chocolate) for 4 weeks, and kept a diet diary. Those who reported improvements after the elimination diet period were then diagnosed with FH, based on the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, oral food challenge (with cow's milk proteins and then with wheat proteins).
Forty of the patients with IBS (25%) were found to have FH. Levels of fecal ECP and tryptase were significantly higher among patients with IBS and FH than those without FH. The ECP assay was the most accurate assay for diagnosis of FH, showing 65% sensitivity and 91% specificity.
Twenty-five percent of patients with IBS have FH. These patients had increased levels of fecal ECP and tryptase, indicating that they might cause inflammation in patients with IBS. Fecal assays for ECP could be used to identify FH in patients with IBS.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 08/2011; 9(11):965-971.e3. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural or induced variations in the noxiousness of gluten proteins for celiac disease (CD) patients are currently being investigated for their potential in breeding wheat crops with reduced toxicity.
We evaluated the bread wheat line C173 for its effects on the in vitro-grown duodenal mucosa of CD patients.
In vitro-grown duodenal mucosa biopsies of 19 CD patients on a gluten-free diet were exposed to peptic/tryptic-digested prolamins from bread wheat line C173 lacking gliadin-glutenin subunits, analyzed for morphology, cytokine and anti-tTG antibody production, and compared with mucosa biopsies exposed to prolamins from wild-type cv. San Pastore.
Duodenal mucosa biopsies exposed to prolamins from C173 and San Pastore released higher amounts of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10 and anti-tTG antibodies in the culture medium than untreated controls. The line C173 differed from cv. San Pastore as it did not produce negative effects on enterocyte height, suggesting that manipulating prolamin composition can affect innate immune responses of CD mucosa to wheat gluten.
Our data demonstrated that this gliadin-deficient wheat has a lower direct toxicity but activates an immunologic reaction of the duodenal mucosa like that of the common wheat species.
Digestive and Liver Disease 01/2011; 43(1):34-9. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a frequent condition affecting 10-20% of children and can be considered within the classification of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of daily supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in children with FAP. Methods: The children (aged 6-16 years) were screened for FAP as defined in the Rome III criteria and 60 patients were recruited in this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The children were randomly allocated to receive either L. reuteri (2 x 10(8) CFU/day) or identical placebo for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week follow-up period without supplementation. Frequency and intensity of pain was self-recorded by the subjects. Results: The L. reuteri-supplemented children had significantly lower pain intensity compared with the placebo controls. Conclusions: Supplementation with L. reuteri reduced perceived abdominal pain intensity, which may encourage clinicians to use this probiotic in children with FAP.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 07/2010; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is a common disease in the Saharawi population of Arab-Berber origin. Saharawi patients with CD and their families were invited to participate in a follow-up study aimed at checking the CD serology status in patients being treated with the gluten-free diet (GFD) and investigating the prevalence of CD in first-degree relatives.
We investigated 975 subjects (62.8% females and 37.2% males, age range 0.7 to 75.4 years, median age 13.4 years) belonging to 212 families, by determining the serum immunoglobulin A anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysial antibody levels. Thirty-two first-degree relatives were already receiving GFD when tested.
Overall, 42.2% of the 244 treated subjects with CD showed a borderline/positive anti-transglutaminase determination, and 36.6% were also anti-endomysial positive. The serologic family screening detected 33 previously undiagnosed CD cases. The 65 affected first-degree relatives were sibling (42), mother (12), son/daughter (7), and father (4). The overall prevalence of CD among first-degree relatives was 65 of 763 (8.5%, 95% confidence interval 6.5-10.5). Based on our previous estimate of CD prevalence in the pediatric Saharawi population (5.6%), the sibling relative risk was 1.5.
The risk of CD in the Saharawis is only modestly increased in first-degree relatives compared with the general population, probably because of the higher frequency of CD predisposing genes in the general population. Saharawi patients with CD receiving GFD showed poor adherence to the treatment, which could contribute to residual CD-related morbidity and mortality.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 05/2010; 50(5):506-9. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the usefulness of abdominal ultrasound examination (US) for the diagnostic workup of cases of suspected CD involving negative serum antibodies and difficult diagnosis.
524 consecutive patients with symptoms of suspected CD underwent an extensive diagnostic workup. 76 (14 %) were excluded since they were positive for serum anti-tTG and/or EmA antibodies. 377 were excluded since they were diagnosed with something other than CD or did not have the alleles encoding for HLA DQ 2 or DQ 8. A diagnosis of CD with negative serum antibodies was probable in 71 patients who underwent abdominal US and duodenal biopsy for histology evaluation.
Intestinal histology and subsequent clinical and histological follow-up confirmed the CD diagnosis in 12 patients (GROUP 1) and excluded it in 59 subjects (GROUP 2). Abdominal US showed that the presence of dilated bowel loops and a thickened small bowel wall had a sensitivity of 83 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 95 % in CD diagnosis. Furthermore, in 11 of the 12 CD seronegative patients there was at least one of these two abdominal US signs. Therefore, considering the presence of one of these two signs, abdominal US sensitivity increased to 92 % and NPV to 98 %.
Abdominal US is useful in the diagnostic workup of patients with a high clinical suspicion of CD but with negative serology.
Ultraschall in der Medizin 03/2010; 32 Suppl 1:S53-61. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A percentage of patients with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) suffer from food hypersensitivity (FH) and improve on a food-elimination diet. No assays have satisfactory levels of sensitivity for identifying patients with FH. We evaluated the efficacy of an in vitro basophil activation assay in the diagnosis of FH in IBS-like patients.
Blood samples were collected from 120 consecutive patients diagnosed with IBS according to Rome II criteria. We analyzed in vitro activation of basophils by food allergens (based on levels of CD63 expression), as well as total and food-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels in serum. Effects of elimination diets and double-blind food challenges were used as standards for FH diagnosis.
Twenty-four of the patients (20%) had FH (cow's milk and/or wheat hypersensitivity); their symptom scores improved significantly when they were placed on an elimination diet. Patients with FH differed from other IBS patients in that they had a longer duration of clinical history, a history of FH as children, and an increased frequency of self-reported FH; they also had hypersensitivities to other antigens (eg, egg or soy). The basophil activation assay diagnosed FH with 86% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 87% accuracy; this level of sensitivity was significantly higher than that of serum total IgE or food-specific IgE assays.
A cytometric assay that quantifies basophils after stimulation with food antigens based on cell-surface expression of CD63 had high levels of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing FH. This assay might be used to diagnose FH in patients with IBS-like symptoms.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 11/2009; 8(3):254-60. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of an ELISA test for anti-gliadin IgA and IgG antibodies, which uses synthetic deamidated gliadin peptides (anti-gliadin antibodies, AGAs) as coating; the results were compared with a test that uses extracted gliadin (AGAe).
The study was conducted on the sera of 144 patients suffering from celiac disease (CD), including 20 patients with IgA deficiency and 9 who were following a gluten-free diet (GFD), and 129 controls.
In the 115 CD patients (without IgA deficiency), the sensitivity of AGAe IgA and IgG was 32.2 and 60.9%, whereas that of AGAs IgA and IgG was 59.1 and 72.2%. The specificity for AGAe IgA and IgG, and AGAs IgA and IgG was 93.8 and 89.9%, and 96.9% and 99.2%, respectively. Of the 20 patients with CD and IgA deficiency, 7 tested positive for AGAe IgG and 14 for AGAs IgG. The test using deamidated gliadin peptides performed better in terms of sensitivity and specificity than the AGA tests with extracted antigen.
The very high specificity of the AGAs IgG test (99.2%) also suggests that patients who test positive with this assay require a thorough followup, even if the anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) and anti-endomysial autoantibodies (EMA) assays are negative.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The addition of prebiotics to infant formula modifies the composition of intestinal microflora. Aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that prebiotics reduce the incidence of intestinal and respiratory infections in healthy infants.
A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, open trial was performed. Healthy infants were enrolled and randomized to a formula additioned with a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides or to a control formula. The incidence of intestinal and respiratory tract infections and the anthropometric measures were monitored for 12 months.
Three hundred and forty two infants (mean age 53.7+/-32.1 days) were enrolled. The incidence of gastroenteritis was lower in the supplemented group than in the controls (0.12+/-0.04 vs. 0.29+/-0.05 episodes/child/12 months; p=0.015). The number of children with more than 3 episodes tended to be lower in prebiotic group (17/60 vs. 29/65; p=0.06). The number of children with multiple antibiotic courses/year was lower in children receiving prebiotics (24/60 vs. 43/65; p=0.004). A transient increase in body weight was observed in children on prebiotics compared to controls during the first 6 months of follow-up.
Prebiotic administration reduce intestinal and, possibly, respiratory infections in healthy infants during the first year of age.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rectal bleeding and lymphonodular hyperplasia (LNH) in children can be caused by food hypersensitivity (FH). Our aim was to verify whether similar clinical and endoscopy presentations in adults can be due to FH.
Consecutive adult patients with rectal bleeding were enrolled. All underwent routine assays, colonoscopy, and histology study.
Ten of 64 (15%) patients showed LNH as the unique sign at colonoscopy. An oligoantigenic diet resolved the rectal bleeding in 9 patients, and the reintroduction of several foods caused symptom reappearance. Double-blind placebo-controlled challenges with cow's milk and wheat protein confirmed the FH; symptoms reappeared 1-96 hours after the challenge. None of the patients were positive for IgE-mediated assays. In patients with LNH and FH, histology of the ileum and colon mucosa showed a higher number of lymphoid follicles and intraepithelial and lamina propria eosinophils compared with the other patients with rectal bleeding.
Recurrent rectal bleeding can be caused by FH in adult patients. Endoscopic evidence of LNH characterizes these cases.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 01/2009; 7(1):120-2. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The jejunal mucosa is the major site involved in celiac disease, but modifications have also been found in the gastric, rectal and esophageal mucosa. Few studies have focused on the histomorphological features of the oral mucosa in celiac disease patients. Our objectives were: (i) to assess the presence, quality and intensity of lymphocytic infiltrate in clinically healthy oral mucosa and its relation to celiac disease severity (villous height to crypt depth ratio); and (ii) to detect any other histological features connected to celiac disease.
Twenty-one untreated celiac disease patients (age range 13-68 years) with clinically healthy oral mucosa were enrolled and compared with 14 controls. Intestinal and oral biopsies were carried out and specimens were evaluated after staining with hematoxylin and eosin.
Intra-epithelial lymphocyte B and T infiltrates of the oral mucosa were found to be similar in both groups; likewise, intensity of the lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was similar in both groups and was not related to intestinal damage; important signs of spongiosis were found to be more significantly present in celiac disease patients compared with controls (P = 0.0002).
Our study showed that the healthy oral mucosa of untreated patients does not reflect the intestinal damage by celiac disease, but it is unexpectedly affected by spongiosis, as being detected for the first time in the literature. This latter feature could be related to gliadin ingestion and could contribute to explain the higher susceptibility of celiac disease patients to suffering from oral mucosa lesions.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 08/2008; 38(1):34-41. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistent villous atrophy in patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) is reported with increasing frequency. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between persistent damage of the villi and "atypical" gastrointestinal symptoms in CD patients on a GFD.
Sixty-nine CD patients on a GFD were divided into two groups: Group A included 42 patients (6 M, 36 F, age range 17-62 years) undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopies (EGDs) due to the presence of symptoms; Group B included 27 control patients (6 M, 21 F, age range 24-71 years) who were asymptomatic at the time of the study. Both groups underwent EGDs and a duodenal histologic study.
Persistent endoscopic lesions were more frequent in Group A (30/42) than in Group B (12/27; p=0.01). Villous atrophy was significantly more frequent in Group A than in Group B: 85% versus 33% (p<0.0001; odds ratio (OR)=12; 95% CI 3.7-38.9). Gastrointestinal symptoms in the Group A patients were different from those present at CD diagnosis: anemia/diarrhea/weight loss in 6 cases; gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-like symptoms in 12 cases; abdominal pain/constipation in 24 cases. In Group A there was no difference in gender distribution, age and duration of GFD between subjects with normal villi and those with persistent partial villous atrophy. Patients with persistent symptoms showed a higher intraepithelial eosinophil count (p=0.005) than the asymptomatic patients (p=0.01).
Persistent intestinal villous atrophy in CD patients on a GFD is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms considered "atypical" for CD and not present at CD diagnosis.
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 07/2008; 43(11):1315-21. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral mucosal lesions may be markers of chronic gastrointestinal disorders, such as those causing malabsorption. Our objectives were to assess the prevalence of recurrent oral aphthous-like ulcers in coeliac disease patients living in the Mediterranean area, and to evaluate the impact of a gluten-free diet.
A test group of 269 patients (age range 3-17 years) with coeliac disease confirmed both serologically and histologically was compared with a control group of 575 otherwise clinically healthy subjects for the presence, or a positive history of aphthous-like ulcers. Coeliac disease patients with aphthous-like ulcers were re-evaluated 1-year after starting a gluten-free diet.
Aphthous-like ulcers were found significantly more frequently in coeliac disease, in 22.7% (61/269) of patients with coeliac disease versus 7.1% (41/575) of controls (p=<0.0001; chi-square=41.687; odds ratio=4.3123; 95% confidence interval=2.7664:6.722). Most coeliac disease patients with aphthous-like ulcers and adhering strictly to gluten-free diet (71.7%; 33/46) reported significant improvement on gluten-free diet, with no or reduced episodes of aphthous-like ulcers (p=0.0003; chi-square=13.101; odds ratio=24.67; 95% confidence interval=2.63:231.441).
The epidemiological association found between coeliac disease and aphthous-like ulcers suggests that recurrent aphthous-like ulcers should be considered a risk indicator for coeliac disease, and that gluten-free diet leads to ulcer amelioration.
Digestive and Liver Disease 02/2008; 40(2):104-7. · 3.16 Impact Factor