Ricardo López de Cicco

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (26)116.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert an anticancer effect by affecting multiple cellular mechanisms leading to inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. It is well known that breast cancer comprises distinct molecular subtypes which differ in their responsiveness to therapeutic and preventive agents. We tested the hypothesis that n-3FA may preferentially affect triple-negative breast cancer cells for which no targeted intervention is presently available. The in vitro antiproliferative effects of n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its metabolite, 4-OH-DHA as well as its putative metabolite 4-OXO-DHA, were tested in five triple-negative human basal breast cell lines at different stages of transformation (MCF-10F, trMCF, bsMCF, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549) and three luminal breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T-47D, and SK-BR-3). Cell proliferation was measured with the tetrazolium MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. DHA and its oxidized derivatives significantly inhibited cell proliferation (20-90% reduction) of both basal and luminal breast cancer cell lines. The inhibitory effect was more pronounced on triple-negative basal breast cancer cell lines as compared to luminal breast cancer cell lines after 4-OXO-DHA treatment. Our data provide novel information regarding the preferential antitumor effect of oxidized derivatives of DHA on basal type breast cancer.
    In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11626-014-9822-6 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy and its effects on breast cancer risk have been widely investigated; there is consensus among researchers that early pregnancy confers protection against breast cancer later in life, whereas nulliparity and late-age parity have been associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer. The answer to the question of how pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk has been elusive; however, pregnancy, like breast cancer, is a similar hormone-dependent entity under direct control of estrogen, progesterone and, of particular importance, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In this report, we emphasize the main changes, previously described by our laboratory, in morphology and gene expression levels of the mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to known cancer-preventative conditions (pregnancy, hCG and progesterone + estrogen). In addition, we postulate a protective mechanism induced by hCG that could reduce the cell's potential to be transformed by carcinogens.
    07/2013; 2(4):283-294. DOI:10.2217/bmt.13.16
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    ABSTRACT: Background It is accepted that a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer after menopause is reduced by early full term pregnancy and multiparity. This phenomenon is thought to be associated with the development and differentiation of the breast during pregnancy. Methods In order to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of pregnancy induced breast cancer protection, we profiled and compared the transcriptomes of normal breast tissue biopsies from 71 parous (P) and 42 nulliparous (NP) healthy postmenopausal women using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. To validate the results, we performed real time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results We identified 305 differentially expressed probesets (208 distinct genes). Of these, 267 probesets were up- and 38 down-regulated in parous breast samples; bioinformatics analysis using gene ontology enrichment revealed that up-regulated genes in the parous breast represented biological processes involving differentiation and development, anchoring of epithelial cells to the basement membrane, hemidesmosome and cell-substrate junction assembly, mRNA and RNA metabolic processes and RNA splicing machinery. The down-regulated genes represented biological processes that comprised cell proliferation, regulation of IGF-like growth factor receptor signaling, somatic stem cell maintenance, muscle cell differentiation and apoptosis. Conclusions This study suggests that the differentiation of the breast imprints a genomic signature that is centered in the mRNA processing reactome. These findings indicate that pregnancy may induce a safeguard mechanism at post-transcriptional level that maintains the fidelity of the transcriptional process.
    BMC Medical Genomics 10/2012; 5(1):46. DOI:10.1186/1755-8794-5-46 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that a fish oil (FO)-rich diet increased the chemopreventive efficacy of tamoxifen (Tam) against N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Herein, we provide evidence that Tam treatment modifies gene expression of mammary tumors depending upon the type of dietary fat fed to the animals. Rats initiated with MNU and treated with Tam were fed a diet rich in corn oil or FO. After 8 wk, cribriform tumors were collected and gene expression analysis was performed. Increased RNA expression of genes such as SerpinB10, Wisp2, and Apod in tumors from FO-treated rats is indicative of highly differentiated tumors. Decreased expression of H19 and Igf2 mRNA in Tam-treated groups, and Gamma Synuclein mRNA in the FO + Tam group may be related to tumor growth impairment and lower metastatic capacity. Change in the expression of genes associated with immunity in animals in the FO + Tam group may suggest a shift in the immune response. These data show that, although Tam modulates the expression of genes leading to tumor growth impairment, further modulations of genes are influenced by FO. FO modulation of Tam changes in gene expression accounts for its enhancing chemopreventive effect against MNU-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Nutrition and Cancer to view the supplemental file.
    Nutrition and Cancer 10/2012; 64(7):991-9. DOI:10.1080/01635581.2012.712736 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The loss of epithelial expression markers by neoplastic breast cancer cells in the primary tumor is believed to play a pivotal role during breast cancer metastasis. This phenomenon is the hallmark of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Gene expression microarrays were performed to investigate key functional elements on an in vitro metastasis model derived from human breast epithelial cells (MCF10F) treated with 17 beta estradiol. We identified groups of SLUG associated genes modulated during EMT.
    Drug Discovery Today Disease Mechanisms 06/2012; 9(1-2):e35-e40. DOI:10.1016/j.ddmec.2012.11.002
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), and 2,3,7,­8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are endocrine disruptors that are widely present in the environment. Exposure to these compounds, at different stages of life (prenatal, ­prepubertal) and dose levels (low, high), affects the global gene expression profile of the rat mammary gland at different ages. Each compound has a specific action on the gene expression of the mammary gland. Moreover, the changes observed also vary with dose administered, stage of life at the time of exposure, and the age studied. It was observed that transcription and DNA-related genes, including estrogen and DNA damage response signaling pathways and developmental genes, were mainly affected upon BPA action. TCDD had the greatest effect on the tumor suppressor genes. Several genes related to the lipid metabolism were regulated by BBP and TCDD ­treatments, but not by BPA. Immune-related genes were modulated by TCDD at ­several conditions and were suppressed by BBP in early puberty. Our data ­demonstrate that each endocrine disruptor induces a set of specific changes in the mammary gland, leading to different biological responses. KeywordsEndocrine disruptors-Mammary cancer-Tumorigenesis-DMBA-Microarrays
    11/2011: pages 69-101;
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    ABSTRACT: Early pregnancy and multiparity are known to reduce the risk of women to develop breast cancer at menopause. Based on the knowledge that the differentiation of the breast induced by the hormones of pregnancy plays a major role in this protection, this work was performed with the purpose of identifying what differentiation-associated molecular changes persist in the breast until menopause. Core needle biopsies (CNB) obtained from the breast of 42 nulliparous (NP) and 71 parous (P) postmenopausal women were analyzed in morphology, immunocytochemistry and gene expression. Whereas in the NP breast, nuclei of epithelial cells were large and euchromatic, in the P breast they were small and hyperchromatic, showing strong methylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 and 27. Transcriptomic analysis performed using Affymetrix HG_U133 oligonucleotide arrays revealed that in CNB of the P breast, there were 267 upregulated probesets that comprised genes controlling chromatin organization, transcription regulation, splicing machinery, mRNA processing and noncoding elements including XIST. We concluded that the differentiation process induced by pregnancy is centered in chromatin remodeling and in the mRNA processing reactome, both of which emerge as important regulatory pathways. These are indicative of a safeguard step that maintains the fidelity of the transcription process, becoming the ultimate mechanism mediating the protection of the breast conferred by full-term pregnancy.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2011; 131(5):1059-70. DOI:10.1002/ijc.27323 · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • Lucas Tadeu Bidinotto, Ricardo López de Cicco, Jose Russo
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 08/2011; 11(8):1151-3. DOI:10.1586/era.11.106 · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 07/2011; 71(8 Supplement):5578-5578. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2011-5578 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokine receptors are associated with tumor cell growth by increasing proliferation, metastasis and regulating self-renewal of cancer stem cells (SCs). There is a strong association between cytokine IL-8 receptor (CXCR1) over-expression and cells displaying SC characteristics. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) causes differentiation, inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of the breast epithelium. hCG receptor (LHCGR) expression in breast tumors and in breast cancer cell lines is undetectable or low. In this study, our objective was to assess and compare the effects of hCG and a 15 amino acid hCG fragment of the hormone on mRNA expression of CXCR1 and LHCGR on normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10F) by real time RT-PCR after treatment with hCG or a hCG fragment for 15 days. Cell proliferation was also measured. hCG and the hCG fragment decreased cell proliferation in both groups. The compounds upregulated LHCGR expression and downregulated CXCR1 expression. It is possible to postulate that an increase of LHCGR mRNA seems to respond to the decrease of CXCR1 expression. These genes probably act synergistically to reduce the amount of cancer SCs in the mammary gland. Thereby, the use of hCG or the hCG fragment as a therapeutic or preventive tool should be considered.
    Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation 06/2011; 6(3):241–245.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to comprehensively compare the genomic profiles in the breast of parous and nulliparous postmenopausal women to identify genes that permanently change their expression following pregnancy. The study was designed as a two-phase approach. In the discovery phase, we compared breast genomic profiles of 37 parous with 18 nulliparous postmenopausal women. In the validation phase, confirmation of the genomic patterns observed in the discovery phase was sought in an independent set of 30 parous and 22 nulliparous postmenopausal women. RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix HG_U133 Plus 2.0 oligonucleotide arrays containing probes to 54,675 transcripts, scanned and the images analyzed using Affymetrix GCOS software. Surrogate variable analysis, logistic regression, and significance analysis of microarrays were used to identify statistically significant differences in expression of genes. The false discovery rate (FDR) approach was used to control for multiple comparisons. We found that 208 genes (305 probe sets) were differentially expressed between parous and nulliparous women in both discovery and validation phases of the study at an FDR of 10% and with at least a 1.25-fold change. These genes are involved in regulation of transcription, centrosome organization, RNA splicing, cell-cycle control, adhesion, and differentiation. The results provide initial evidence that full-term pregnancy induces long-term genomic changes in the breast. The genomic signature of pregnancy could be used as an intermediate marker to assess potential chemopreventive interventions with hormones mimicking the effects of pregnancy for prevention of breast cancer.
    Cancer Prevention Research 05/2011; 4(9):1457-64. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0021 · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation 01/2011; 6(3). DOI:10.1515/HMBCI.2011.019
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    ABSTRACT: VILIP-1, a member of the neuronal Ca(2+) sensor protein family, is able to act as a tumor suppressor in carcinoma cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and migration. In order to study the role of VILIP-1 in skin carcinogenesis we generated transgenic mice overexpressing VILIP-1 in epidermis under the control of the bovine keratin K5 promoter (K5-VILIP-1). We studied the susceptibility of FVB wild type and VILIP-1 transgenic mice to chemically mediated carcinogenesis. After 30 weeks of treatment with a two-stage carcinogenesis protocol, all animals showed numerous skin tumors. Nevertheless, K5-VILIP-1 mice showed decreased squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) multiplicity of approximately 49% (p<0.02) with respect to the corresponding SCC multiplicity observed in wild type (WT) mice. In addition, the relative percentage of low-grade cutaneous SCCs grade I (defined by the differentiation pattern according to the Broders grading scale) increased approximately 50% in the K5-VILIP1 mice when compared with SCCs in WT mice. Similar tendency was observed using a complete carcinogenesis protocol for skin carcinogenesis using benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). Further studies of tumors and primary epidermal keratinocyte cultures showed that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels and cell proliferation decreased in K5-VILIP-1 mice when compared with their wild counterparts. In addition tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) expression was higher in K5-VILIP-1 keratinocytes. These results show that VILIP-1 overexpression decreases the susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis in experimental mouse cancer models, thus supporting its role as a tumor suppressor gene.
    PLoS ONE 04/2010; 5(4):e10196. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010196 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most proprotein convertase (PC) inhibitors are compounds that act as competitive inhibitors. All of them contain the general cleavage motif RXK/RR that binds to the PC's active site impairing further interactions with their physiological substrates. The first inhibitors synthesized were the acyl-peptidyl-chloromethyl ketones that bind to the PC's active site through its peptidyl group and are able to transverse the plasma membrane due to the acyl moiety. For instance, one of the members of this family that exhibits reduced toxicity and has been widely used as an effective general PCs inhbitor is the derivative decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethylketone (CMK). Another approach to PC inhibition is based on proteins that contain either a natural or a bioengineered PC cleavage consensus site. In this context, the bioengineered serpin, alpha-1-antitrypsin Portland (alpha 1-PDX or PDX), proved to be a potent inhibitor of furin, the most studied of the cancer-related PCs. Both PDX and CMK were able to inhibit invasiveness of squamous cell carcinoma cell lines by blocking activation of cancer-associated PC substrates such as MT-MMPs, IGF-1R, and VEGF-C. A similar effect was produced by inhibiting PC-mediated processing using furin prosegment. PDX and CMK have also been assayed in vivo using skin carcinogenesis models. Newer promising small molecules and RNA interference approaches are also being developed to inhibit PCs.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 09/2007; 46(8):654-9. DOI:10.1002/mc.20331 · 4.77 Impact Factor
  • Daniel E Bassi, Jian Fu, Ricardo Lopez de Cicco, Andres J P Klein-Szanto
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    ABSTRACT: Proprotein convertases (PCs) are a group of Ca2+-dependent serine proteases that have homology to the endoproteases subtilisin (bacteria) and kexin (yeast). This group is comprised of less than a dozen members, known as furin/PACE, PC1/PC3, PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5/PC6, PC7/PC8/LPC, SKI/S1P, and NARC-1/PCSK9. Four PCs (Furin, PACE4, PC5, and PC7) have been localized to several different tissues and epithelial or nervous system tumors. PCs activate their cognate substrates by limited proteolysis at the consensus sequence RXR/KR downward arrow. Many PC substrates are well known cancer-associated proteins such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, integrins, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). For example, IGF-1 and its receptor, TGF-beta, VEGF-C, and MT-MMPs have direct roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Furin, a well-studied member of the PC family, has been associated with enhanced invasion and proliferation in head and neck, breast, and lung cancer. Conversely, inhibition of PC activity by PDX or several PC pro-segments, resulted in reduced processing of these key cancer-related substrates in human squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), colon adenocarcinoma, and astrocytoma cell lines. In parallel to these changes in cell proliferation and invasiveness as well as metastatic ability were markedly impaired. By controlling the maturation/activation of key cancer-associated proteins, PCs act as "master switches" at different levels during tumor development and progression. The manifold effects of PCs, influencing tumor cell proliferation, motility, adhesiveness, and invasiveness, should be exploited by further developing competitive/inhibitory therapeutic strategies that would be able to neutralize simultaneously the most salient cancer cell properties.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 11/2005; 44(3):151-61. DOI:10.1002/mc.20134 · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Collagen type IV degradation results in disruption and breakdown of the normal basement membrane architecture, a key process in the initiation of tumor microinvasion into the connective tissue. PACE4, a proprotein convertase, activates membrane type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) that in turn process collagenase type IV. Because PACE4 is overexpressed in skin carcinomas and in vitro overexpression of PACE4 resulted in enhanced invasiveness, we investigated whether or not in vivo PACE4 expression leads to the acquisition of invasiveness and increased tumorigenesis. Two transgenic mouse lines were designed by targeting PACE4 to the epidermal basal keratinocytes. Transgenic keratinocytes showed increased processing of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP resulting in collagenase IV activation and collagen type IV degradation. Higher collagenolytic activity partially disrupted normal basement membrane architecture favoring epithelial endophytic growth into the dermis and accelerating invasion and metastasis after chemical carcinogenesis. PACE4 overexpression resulted in enhanced susceptibility to carcinogenesis and tumor progression pointing to a new target for blocking tumor cell invasiveness.
    Cancer Research 09/2005; 65(16):7310-9. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1213 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Furin, a potent proprotein convertase involved in activation of several cancer-related substrates, is synthesized as an inactive zymogen, thus minimizing the occurrence of premature enzymatic activity that would lead to inappropriate protein activation or degradation. This natural inhibitory mechanism is based on the presence of an inactivating prosegment at the NH2 terminal of the zymogen. After initial autocatalytic cleavage, the prosegment remains tightly associated with the convertase until it reaches the trans-Golgi network where the dissociation of the prosegment and activation of furin occurs. We hypothesized that the inhibitory properties of the preprosegment of furin (ppFur) could be beneficial if ectopically expressed in tumor cells. Transfection of four human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines with the complete ppFur cDNA sequence (pIRES-EGFP-ppFur) or with the empty expression vector (pIRES-EGFP) was done. The inhibitory effect was evaluated using in vivo tumorigenicity, invasion, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and proliferation assays, as well as by investigating impairment of furin substrates processing. Following transfection of ppFur, a significant reduction in cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and invasiveness was observed in vitro and in vivo. These biological changes are directly related to the inhibition of furin-mediated activation of crucial cancer-related substrates, such as membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, transforming growth factor-beta, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor-C. PpFur expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines showed a mechanistic link between furin inhibition, decreased substrate processing, cell proliferation, and invasive ability. These findings suggest that furin inhibition is a feasible approach to ameliorate and even abolish the malignant phenotype of various malignancies.
    Cancer Research 06/2005; 65(10):4162-71. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-2820 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue is a common malignancy of the oral cavity. Furin convertase activates several precursor matrix metalloproteinases involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix. The pattern of expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), two key molecules in neoplasm development, was examined during the progression from normal epithelium to invasive SCC. We evaluated furin and VEGF-C expression and microvessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry in human tongue sections harboring normal epithelium, dysplastic epithelium, and/or SCC. Sections from 46 glossectomy specimens were assessed for furin expression. A selected group of 15 cases, each containing normal epithelium, precursor lesions, and invasive SCC, were further studied for furin and VEGF-C expression and MVD quantification. We also evaluated the pattern of furin expression and VEGF-C processing by Western blot analysis in three SCC cell lines with different degrees of aggressiveness. Furin and VEGF-C expression was notably higher in most precursor lesions and SCCs than in normal epithelia. Approximately 60% (n = 26) and 100% (n = 15) of the normal epithelia showed low-intensity staining for furin and VEGF-C, respectively. Intense staining for furin and VEGF-C was detected in approximately 80% (n = 34) and 100% (n = 15) of the SCCs, respectively. A significant correlation was seen between the expression of these two markers (Spearman's test, P < 0.00002). We found a statistically significant increase in MVD when either dysplasia (432 +/- 19.06; P < 0.05) or SCC (546 +/- 17.24) was compared with normal epithelium (315 +/- 17.27; P < 0.0001). SCC71, the most aggressive cell line analyzed, was the one with the highest furin expression. This cell line totally processed the VEGF-C proform, whereas the less aggressive line SCC9, exhibiting the least furin expression, did not. SCC15, of intermediate aggressiveness and furin expression, showed intermediate pro-VEGF-C processing. These findings suggest that furin is a useful marker of tumor progression and is responsible for VEGF-C processing. This in turn would enhance angiogenesis, leading to increased MVD associated with preinvasive and invasive neoplasia.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2004; 10(13):4480-8. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-03-0670 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor invasiveness is an intrinsic feature of most glial tumors that accounts for their malignant and locally destructive nature. We evaluated the subcutaneous (sc) tumorigenicity and in vivo invasiveness of 9 astrocytoma cell lines together with their respective metalloprotease activity in order to establish their biologic behavior and malignant potential. Invasiveness was assessed with an in vivo invasion assay using tracheal xenotransplants subcutaneously implanted into Scid mice. This assay permitted us to evaluate the penetration of tumor cells into the transplanted deepithelialized tracheas previously inoculated with either normal primary glial cells or with astrocytoma-derived cell lines. Although only 2 cell lines were tumorigenic after sc inoculation, 5 out of 9 tumor cell lines were tumorigenic in the tracheal graft system. The astrocytoma cell lines showed varying levels of penetration into the tracheal wall. The tumor lines GOS3, M059K, CCFSTTG1 and A172, as well as primary normal astrocytes, were nontumorigenic and noninvasive in this experimental model. LN405, SW1088 and SW1783 cells that were not tumorigenic as sc xenotransplants, on the other hand, grew well in the tracheal graft system showing low levels of in vivo invasiveness. U87MG and U118MG cells were tumorigenic as sc xenotransplants and showed high levels of invasiveness. In parallel to these in vivo studies, the constitutive levels of secreted gelatinases and stromelysins (MMP-3 and MMP-11) were investigated using conditioned media submitted to gelatin or casein-substrate zymography and Western blot analysis. Neither the gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) nor MMP-11 showed a direct correlation with the levels of in vivo tumor cell invasiveness. Conversely, secretion of MMP-3 correlated closely with tumorigenicity and invasiveness. In vitro tumor cell invasiveness was significantly reduced after incubation with the metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. This positive correlation between MMP-3 and the depth of tracheal wall penetration led us to conclude that the invasive properties of brain tumor cells may be due to the direct or indirect proteolytic effects of MMP-3 on extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules and that this enzyme might be a potential target for future therapies.
    International Journal of Cancer 09/2003; 106(5):676-82. DOI:10.1002/ijc.11286 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visinin-like protein-1 (VILIP-1) is a member of the neuronal EF-hand Ca(2+)-sensor protein family. VILIP-1 is expressed in the central nervous system where it plays a crucial role in regulating cAMP levels, cell signaling, and differentiation. Screening of mouse skin tumor cell lines for differentially expressed genes showed high-level VILIP-1 expression in less aggressive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and papilloma cell lines. Conversely, expression was markedly decreased or lost in invasive SCC and spindle cell carcinoma cell lines. In addition, immunohistochemistry of normal skin and primary tumors showed that VILIP-1 is expressed in basal cells of the normal intrafollicular epidermis as well as in basal cells of papillomas. The expression was decreased in low-grade SCCs and disappeared in most high-grade SCCs. When two high-grade carcinoma cell lines were transfected with VILIP1-cDNA, the VILIP-1 transfectants had significantly higher cAMP levels than the respective vector alone-transfected lines. VILIP-1-transfected cells were less invasive (both in vivo and in vitro) than the control transfectants. Reduced invasiveness and elevation of cAMP levels were accompanied by decreased MMP-9, as well as decreased RhoA activity. These results indicate that VILIP-1 plays an important role in regulating tumor cell invasiveness and that its loss could aid in enhancing the advanced malignant phenotype.
    Cancer Research 09/2003; 63(16):4997-5004. · 9.28 Impact Factor