[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In normal retinas, amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulates in the subretinal space, at the interface of the retinal pigment epithelium, and the photoreceptor outer segments. However, the molecular and cellular effects of subretinal Aβ remain inadequately elucidated. We previously showed that subretinal injection of Aβ(1-42) induces retinal inflammation, followed by photoreceptor cell death. The retinal Müller glial (RMG) cells, which are the principal retinal glial cells, are metabolically coupled to photoreceptors. Their role in the maintenance of retinal water/potassium and glutamate homeostasis makes them important players in photoreceptor survival. This study investigated the effects of subretinal Aβ(1-42) on RMG cells and of Aβ(1-42)-induced inflammation on retinal homeostasis. RMG cell gliosis (upregulation of GFAP, vimentin, and nestin) on day 1 postinjection and a proinflammatory phenotype were the first signs of retinal alteration induced by Aβ(1-42). On day 3, we detected modifications in the protein expression patterns of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), glutamine synthetase (GS), Kir4.1 [the inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channel], and aquaporin (AQP)-4 water channels in RMG cells and of the photoreceptor-associated AQP-1. The integrity of the blood-retina barrier was compromised and retinal edema developed. Aβ(1-42) induced endoplasmic reticulum stress associated with sustained upregulation of the proapoptotic factors of the unfolded protein response and persistent photoreceptor apoptosis. Indomethacin treatment decreased inflammation and reversed the Aβ(1-42)-induced gliosis and modifications in the expression patterns of COX-2, Kir4.1, and AQP-1, but not of AQP-4 or GS. Nor did it improve edema. Our study pinpoints the adaptive response to Aβ of specific RMG cell functions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane glycoprotein frequently studied for its role in Alzheimer's disease. Our recent study in APP knockout (KO) mice identified an important role for APP in modulating normal neuronal development in the retina. However the role APP plays in the adult retina and whether it is required for vision is unknown. In this study we evaluated the role of APP in retinal function and morphology comparing adult wildtype (WT) and APP-KO mice. APP was expressed on neuronal cells of the inner retina, including horizontal, cone bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells in WT mice. The function of the retina was assessed using the electroretinogram and although the rod photoreceptor responses were similar in APP-KO and WT mice, the post-photoreceptor, inner retinal responses of both the rod and cone pathways were reduced in APP-KO mice. These changes in inner retinal function did not translate to a substantial change in visual acuity as assessed using the optokinetic response or to changes in the gross cellular structure of the retina. These findings indicate that APP is not required for basic visual function, but that it is involved in modulating inner retinal circuitry.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29892. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RASSF1A gene, found at the 3p21.3 locus, is a tumor suppressor gene frequently hypermethylated in human cancers. In this study, we report that compared with melanocytes in normal choroid, RASSF1A is downregulated in uveal melanoma samples and in uveal melanoma cell lines. LOH at 3p21.3 was detected in 50% of uveal melanoma. Moreover, methylation of the RASSF1A promoter was detected in 35 of 42 tumors (83%) and RASSF1A was also weakly expressed at the mRNA level. These data indicate that LOH at the RASSF1A locus or RASSF1A promoter methylation may partly account for the suppression of RASSF1A expression observed in uveal melanoma. Furthermore, following ectopic expression in three RASSF1A-deficient melanoma cell lines (OCM-1, Mel270, and 92.1), RASSF1A weakly reduces cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of uveal melanoma cells without effect on ERK1/2 activation, cyclin D1 and p27(Kip1) expression. This study explored biological functions and underlying mechanisms of RASSF1A in the ERK1/2 pathway in normal uveal melanocytes. We showed that siRNA-mediated depletion of RASSF1A increased ERK1/2 activation, cyclin D1 expression, and also decreased p27(Kip1) expression in normal uveal melanocytes. Moreover, that the depletion of RASSF1A induced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and increased p21(Cip1) expression suggests that RASSF1A plays a role in the escape of cellular senescence in normal uveal melanocytes. Interestingly, we found that RASSF1A was epigenetically inactivated in long-term culture of uveal melanocytes. Taken together, these data show that depletion of RASSF1A could be an early event observed during senescence of normal uveal melanocytes and that additional alterations are acquired during malignant transformation to uveal melanoma.
Molecular Cancer Research 07/2011; 9(9):1187-98. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration is characterized by the formation of drusen containing amyloid-β (Aβ) and the degeneration of photoreceptors. To explore the largely unknown role of Aβ in the retina, we investigated the effects on photoreceptors of the oligomeric form of Aβ(1-42). Subretinal injection of the Aβ peptide induced misplaced expression of recoverin and synaptophysin in the photoreceptors, oxidative stress in their inner and outer segments, and finally apoptosis. Aβ did not induce cell death in purified photoreceptor cell cultures, but did so in retinal cell cultures, thereby suggesting that the cellular environment plays a role in Aβ-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. Subretinal injection of Aβ was followed by activation and migration of microglial cells and then by photoreceptor apoptosis. Microglial cells phagocytosed rhodopsin-containing debris and Aβ in the subretinal space. Quantitative RT-PCR allowed us to identify a specific gene expression profile associated with the Aβ-induced progression of retinal degeneration and consistent with oxidative stress, inflammation, and an apoptotic program. The gene most highly upregulated in Aβ-injected retinas was that for the chemokine CCL2, and its absence or that of its cognate receptor CCR2 greatly reduced migration of activated microglial cells to the site of retinal injury and profoundly worsened photoreceptor degeneration and disorganization of the retinal pigment epithelium in Aβ-injected retinas. Our study pinpoints the roles of Aβ and of CCL2/CCR2 axis-dependent inflammation in photoreceptor apoptosis.
Neurobiology of Disease 04/2011; 42(1):55-72. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very few studies have examined expression and function of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the retina. We showed that APP mRNA and protein are expressed according to the different waves of retinal differentiation. Depletion of App led to an absence of amacrine cells, a 50% increase in the number of horizontal cells and alteration of the synapses. The retinas of adult APP(-/-) mice showed only half as many glycinergic amacrine cells as wild-type retinas. We identified Ptf1a, which plays a role in controlling both amacrine and horizontal cell fates, as a downstream effector of APP. The observation of a similar phenotype in sorLA knockout mice, a major regulator of APP processing, suggests that regulation of APP functions via sorLA controls the determination of amacrine and horizontal cell fate. These findings provide novel insights that indicate that APP plays an important role in retinal differentiation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by the formation of drusen, extracellular deposits associated with atrophy of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), disturbance of the transepithelial barrier and photoreceptor death. Amyloid-beta (Abeta) is present in drusen but its role during AMD remains unknown. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of the oligomeric form of Abeta(1-42) - OAbeta(1-42) - on RPE and found that it reduced mitochondrial redox potential and increased the production of reactive oxygen species, but did not induce apoptosis in RPE cell cultures. It also disorganized the actin cytoskeleton and halved occludin expression, markedly decreasing attachment capacity and abolishing the selectivity of RPE cell transepithelial permeability. Antioxidant pretreatment partially reversed the effects of OAbeta(1-42) on mitochondrial redox potential and transepithelial permeability. Subretinally injected OAbeta(1-42) induced pigmentation loss and RPE hypertrophy but not RPE cell apoptosis in C57BL/6 J mice. Rapid OAbeta(1-42)-induced disorganization of cytoskeletal actin filaments was accompanied by decreased RPE expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and zonula occludens-1 and of the visual cycle proteins cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein and RPE65. The number of photoreceptors decreased by half within a few days. Our study pinpoints the role of Abeta in RPE alterations and dysfunctions leading to retinal degeneration and suggests that targeting Abeta may help develop selective methods for treating diseases involving retinal degeneration, such as AMD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) has been shown to have promising results in antitumor activity through the degradation of the activated V600E mutant of B-Raf (V600E B-Raf) in cutaneous melanoma cell lines. It has different effects, however, on the wild-type form of B-Raf (WT B-Raf), according to the WT B-Raf activation levels in the tumor cells. Uveal melanoma cells express WT B-Raf and only rarely express V600E B-Raf. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of HSP90 inhibition on uveal melanoma cell lines.
Human uveal melanoma cell lines were treated with the HSP90 inhibitors 17-AAG and 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-DMAG). Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT staining, and apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. Analysis of the expression of HSP90 and activation of the MEK/ERK downstream signaling of B-Raf was performed by Western blot. Effects of the downregulation of the HSP90 cochaperone, cdc37, on cell proliferation and activation of MEK/ERK was investigated by siRNA strategy.
The inhibition of HSP90 downregulated B-Raf, decreased cell proliferation, and reduced activation of MEK/ERK in uveal melanoma cell lines expressing WT B-Raf. HSP90 inhibition also reduced the expression of Akt, but the inhibition of Akt had no effect on cell proliferation, ruling out a role of Akt in the 17-AAG-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. The downregulation of cdc37 did not affect MEK/ERK signaling and cell proliferation, demonstrating that the cochaperone was not required for HSP90-controlled stability of B-Raf. c-Kit was also downregulated after HSP90 inhibition. The combination of 17-DMAG with imatinib mesylate, the inhibitor of c-kit, had synergistic inhibitory effects on cell proliferation in WT B-Raf uveal melanoma cell lines.
These results suggest that targeting HSP90 in tandem with c-Kit inhibition may be a promising therapeutic approach to uveal melanoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nowadays, there is no consensual and effective treatment in metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM). Numerous preclinical data (for example, 75% of MUM express c-kit) suggest that imatinib mesylate (IM) may be a potential treatment of UMM.
The primary objective of this phase II trial was to determine the non-progression rate at 3 months for patients receiving IM at dose of 400 mg twice per day orally. The study was based on a Simon's optimal design, which allows entry a total of 29 patients, if at least two non-progressions among ten first patients were observed.
Thirteen patients including ten assessable patients were enrolled in 12 months. No objective response and only one stable disease with duration of 5 months were noted. Five and one out of 13 enrolled patients experienced grade 3 and grade 4 toxicities, respectively. The most common severe adverse events were abdominal pain. The overall survival was 10.8 months.
Despite promising preclinical data, IM is an inactive single agent in MUM. This phase II clinical trial has been stopped at the first step.
Investigational New Drugs 07/2008; 26(6):561-5. · 3.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, remains poorly understood, but may be related to cumulative oxidative stress. The prime target of the disease is the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). To study the molecular mechanisms underlying RPE degeneration, we investigated whether repetitive oxidative stress induced premature senescence in RPE cells from the human ARPE-19 cell line. After exposure to 8 mM tert-butylhydroperoxide (tert-BHP) for 1 h daily for 5 days, the cells showed four well-known senescence biomarkers: hypertrophy, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, growth arrest, and cell cycle arrest in G1. A specific low-density array followed by qRT-PCR validation allowed us to identify 36 senescence-associated genes differentially expressed in the prematurely senescent cells. Functional analysis demonstrated that premature senescence induced amyloid beta secretion, resistance to acute stress by tert-BHP and amyloid beta, and defects in adhesion and transepithelial permeability. Coculture assays with choroidal endothelial cells showed the proangiogenic properties of the senescent RPE cells. These results demonstrate that chronic oxidative stress induces premature senescence in RPE cells that modifies the transcriptome and substantially alters cell processes involved in the pathophysiology of AMD. Oxidative stress-induced premature senescence may represent an in vitro model for screening therapeutics against AMD and other retinal degeneration disorders.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2008; 44(7):1348-61. · 5.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which involves retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cell death. However, signaling pathways involved in the oxidative-stress-induced RPE cell death are poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the involvement of the MAP kinase pathways during the induction of RPE cell death by oxidative stress.
ARPE-19 cells were exposed to the oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). Cell viability was assessed by cell counting and MTT-staining, and apoptosis was quantified by TUNEL and flow cytometry. Activation of JNK1/3, p38 alphabeta MAPKs and ERK1/2 and their potential targets was detected by Western blot analysis and immunochemistry with specific anti-phospho protein antibodies. Specific pharmacologic inhibitors directed against the MAPKs were used to analyze the signaling involved in cell death of RPE cells exposed to t-BHP.
Exposure of RPE cells to t-BHP, associated with increase in reactive oxygen species and intracellular glutathione depletion, induced time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis, which was associated with the accumulation of inactive ERK1/2 in cell nuclei and a transient and weak ERK1/2 activation. This activation was accompanied by a deactivation of P90(RSK), the major target of ERK1/2 and consequently by the delayed activation of its transcription factor CREB. MEK1/2 inhibition completely suppressed the transient activation of ERK1/2 and completely blocked apoptosis, demonstrating the role of the MEK-ERK module in mediating oxidative-stress-induced RPE cell death. In contrast, neither JNKs nor p38 alphabeta MAPKs were involved in mediating t-BHP-induced apoptotic signaling in RPE cells.
The results suggest that inhibiting the MEK-ERK module may allow the development of selective methods for treating oxidative-stress-induced RPE degeneration, such as AMD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutated B-Raf-mediated constitutive activation of ERK1/2 is involved in about 66% of cutaneous melanoma. By contrast, activating mutations in B-RAF are rare in ocular melanoma. This study aimed to determine the role of wild-type B-Raf ((WT)B-Raf) in uveal melanoma cell growth. We used cell lines derived from primary tumors of uveal melanoma to assess the role of (WT)B-Raf in cell proliferation and to characterize its upstream regulators and downstream effectors. Melanoma cell lines expressing (WT)B-Raf and (WT)Ras grew with similar proliferation rates, showed constitutive activation of ERK1/2, and had similar levels of B-Raf expression and B-Raf kinase activity as melanoma cell lines expressing the activating V600E mutation ((V600E)B-Raf). They were equally as sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2 for cell proliferation and transformation as (V600E)B-Raf cells. siRNA-mediated depletion of Raf-1 did not affect either ERK1/2 activation, whereas siRNA-mediated depletion of B-Raf reduced cell proliferation by up to 65% through the inhibition of ERK1/2 activation, irrespective of the mutational status of B-Raf. Pharmacological inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and siRNA-mediated depletion of PKA greatly reduced B-Raf activity, ERK1/2 activation, and cell proliferation in (WT)B-Raf cells, whereas it did not affect (V600E)B-Raf cells, demonstrating a key role of PKA in mediating (WT)B-Raf/ERK signaling for uveal melanoma cell growth. Moreover, inactivation or depletion of PKA did not affect Rap-1 activity, and Rap-1 depletion did not affect either B-Raf activity or ERK1/2 activation. This ruled out a role for Rap1 in the PKA-mediated B-Raf/ERK activation in (WT)B-Raf cells. Finally, we demonstrated the importance of cyclin D1 in mediating PKA/(WT)B-Raf signaling for cell proliferation. Altogether, our results suggest that the PKA/B-Raf pathway is a potential target for therapeutic strategies against (WT)B-Raf-expressing uveal melanoma.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2006; 281(14):9238-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study VP22 light controlled delivery of antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) to ocular cells in vitro and in vivo.
The C-terminal half of VP22 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and mixed with 20 mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (ODNs) to form light sensitive complex particles (vectosomes). Uptake of vectosomes and light induced redistribution of ODNs in human choroid melanoma cells (OCM-1) and in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were studied by confocal and electron microscopy. The effect of vectosomes formed with an antisense ODN corresponding to the 3'-untranslated region of the human c-raf kinase gene on the viability and the proliferation of OCM-1 cells was assessed before and after illumination. Cells incubated with vectosomes formed with a mismatched ODN, a free antisense ODN or a free mismatched ODN served as controls. White light transscleral illumination was carried out 24 h after the intravitreal injection of vectosomes in rat eyes. The distribution of fluorescent vectosomes and free fluorescent ODN was evaluated on cryosections by fluorescence microscopy before, and 1 h after illumination.
Overnight incubation of human OCM-1 and ARPE-19 cells with vectosomes lead to intracellular internalization of the vectosomes. When not illuminated, internalized vectosomes remained stable within the cell cytoplasm. Disruption of vectosomes and release of the complexed ODN was induced by illumination of the cultures with a cold white light or a laser beam. In vitro, up to 60% inhibition of OCM-1 cell proliferation was observed in illuminated cultures incubated with vectosomes formed with antisense c-raf ODN. No inhibitory effect on the OCM-1 cell proliferation was observed in the absence of illumination or when the cells are incubated with a free antisense c-raf ODN and illuminated. In vivo, 24 h after intravitreal injection, vectosomes were observed within the various retinal layers accumulating in the cytoplasm of RPE cells. Transscleral illumination of the injected eyes with a cold white light induced disruption of the vectosomes and a preferential localization of the "released" ODNs within the cell nuclei of the ganglion cell layer, the inner nuclear layer and the RPE cells.
In vitro, VP22 light controlled delivery of ODNs to ocular cells nuclei was feasible using white light or laser illumination. In vivo, a single intravitreal injection of vectosomes, followed by transscleral illumination allowed for the delivery of free ODNs to retinal and RPE cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The B-Raf(V599E)-mediated constitutive activation of ERK1/2 is involved in establishing the transformed phenotype of some uveal melanoma cells (Calipel, A., Lefevre, G., Pouponnot, C., Mouriaux, F., Eychene, A., and Mascarelli, F. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 42409-42418). We have shown that stem cell factor (SCF) is involved in the proliferation of normal uveal melanocytes and that c-Kit is expressed in 75% of primary uveal melanomas. This suggests that the acquisition of autonomous growth during melanoma progression may involve the SCF/c-Kit axis. We used six human uveal melanoma tumor-derived cell lines and normal uveal melanocytes to characterize the SCF/c-Kit system and to assess its specific role in transformation. We investigated the possible roles of activating mutations in c-KIT, the overexpression of this gene, and ligand-dependent c-Kit overactivation in uveal melanoma cell tumorigenesis. Four cell lines (92.1, SP6.5, Mel270, and TP31) expressed both SCF and c-Kit, and none harbored the c-KIT mutations in exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 that have been shown to induce SCF-independent c-Kit activation. Melanoma cell proliferation was strongly inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of c-Kit in these cells, despite the presence of (V599E)B-Raf in SP6.5 and TP31 cells. We characterized the signaling pathways involved in SCF/c-Kit-mediated cell growth and survival in normal and tumoral melanocytes and found that constitutive ERK1/2 activation played a key role in both the SCF/c-Kit autocrine loop and the gain of function of (V599E)B-Raf for melanoma cell proliferation and transformation. We also provide the first evidence that Glivec/STI571, a c-Kit tyrosine kinase inhibitor, could be used to treat uveal melanomas.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2004; 279(30):31769-79. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BRAF gene, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is mutated in several human cancers, with the highest incidence occurring in cutaneous melanoma. The activating V599E mutation accounted for 80% of all mutations detected in cutaneous melanoma cell lines. Reconstitution experiments have shown that this mutation increases ectopically expressed B-Raf kinase activity and induces NIH3T3 cell transformation. Here we used tumor-derived cell lines to characterize the activity of endogenous mutated B-Raf protein and assess its specific role in transformation. We show that three cell lines (OCM-1, MKT-BR, and SP-6.5) derived from human choroidal melanoma, the most frequent primary ocular neoplasm in humans, express B-Raf containing the V599E mutation. These melanoma cells showed a 10-fold increase in endogenous B-RafV599E kinase activity and a constitutive activation of the MEK/ERK pathway that is independent of Ras. This, as well as melanoma cell proliferation, was strongly diminished by siRNA-mediated depletion of the mutant B-Raf protein. Moreover, blocking B-RafV599E-induced ERK activation by different experimental approaches significantly reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of melanoma cells. Finally, quantitative immunoblot analysis allowed us to identify signaling and cell cycle proteins that are differentially expressed between normal melanocytes and melanoma cells. Although the expression of signaling molecules was not sensitive to U0126 in melanoma cells, the expression of a cluster of cell cycle proteins remained regulated by the B-RafV599E/MEK/ERK pathway. Our results pinpoint this pathway as an important component in choroidal melanoma cell lines.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2003; 278(43):42409-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both inhibition of endogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF) synthesis on nondividing lens epithelial cells and inhibition of secreted FGF1 in confluent quiescent retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells induce rapid cell apoptosis (Renaudet al.,1996,J. Biol. Chem.,271, 2801–2811). In addition several studies demonstrate that exogenous FGF2 can promote retinal cell survivalin vitroandin vivo.To determine the possible relationship between exogenous FGF2, endogenous FGF1, and cell survival, we examined the protective effect of a single dose of exogenous FGF2 on long-term culture of quiescent RPE cells after serum withdrawal. After 4 days of culture, a dramatic and sustained upregulation of FGF1 protein expression occurs specifically in response to exogenous FGF2. After addition of FGF2 (20 ng/ml), RPE cells express fourfold more FGF1 after Day 7 than after Day 1 of culture. This phenomenon is FGF2 dose-dependent. In contrast, neither serum nor FGF2 have an effect on total endogenous FGF2 expression. In addition, in response to exogenous FGF2, FGF1 is secreted in significant amounts into the extracellular medium at a rate comparable to FGF1 accumulation within the cell. Furthermore, in the absence of serum, significant increase in cell death occurs on Day 6 of culture, whereas addition of exogenous FGF2 induces a twofold decrease of RPE cell apoptosis. In the presence of exogenous FGF2, addition of a specific anti-FGF1 neutralizing antibody induces a rapid apoptosis of RPE cell cultures. Thus, we speculate that exogenous FGF2 may indirectly prolong cell survival by increasing synthesis and secretion of endogenous FGF1 and that endogenous FGF1, directly in response to exogenous FGF2, may function as an autocrine trophic factor in RPE cells.
Experimental Cell Research 06/1997; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When adult bovine lenses were cultured in vitro, the purified retina-derived growth factors EDGF I or EDGF II, as well as the soluble fraction of the retina RE, increased the rate of incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein in cells belonging to different populations in the anterior epithelium as well as in fibers from the most superficial region of the cortex. These fiber cells were the most sensitive to stimulation by the retinal factors as they exhibit a significant increase of total protein synthesis 24 hr after addition of the factors to the culture medium. The epithelial cells studies—central epithelial cells and germinative cells—appeared stimulated only 1 day later. The stimulation of incorporation was not directed towards a particular subset of proteins but to all major polypeptides constituting the electrophoretic pattern of each cell population.It is suggested that this type of ocular signal, which stimulates the expression of a definite program, may act as a permissive signal.
Experimental Eye Research 03/1989; · 3.03 Impact Factor