Simon S Wing

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (50)197.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous 24-h rhythms in physiology are driven by a network of circadian clocks located in most tissues. The molecular clock mechanism is based on feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. Posttranslational modifications, including ubiquitination, are important for regulating the clock feedback mechanism. Recently, we showed that the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 (USP2) associates with clock proteins and deubiquitinates PERIOD1 (PER1) but does not affect its overall stability. Mice devoid of USP2 display defects in clock function. Here, we show that USP2 regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear retention of PER1 and its repressive role on the clock transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1. The rhythm of nuclear entry of PER1 in Usp2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) was advanced but with reduced nuclear accumulation of PER1. Although Per1 mRNA expression rhythm remained intact in the Usp2 KO MEFs, the expression profiles of other core clock genes were altered. This was also true for the expression of clock-controlled genes (e.g., Dbp, Tef, Hlf, E4bp4). A similar phase advance of PER1 nuclear localization rhythm and alteration of clock gene expression profiles were also observed in livers of Usp2 KO mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel function of USP2 in the molecular clock in which it regulates PER1 function by gating its nuclear entry and accumulation.
    Journal of Biological Rhythms 08/2014; 29(4):243-56. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms, endogenous cycles of about 24 h in physiology, are generated by a master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and other clocks located in the brain and peripheral tissues. Circadian disruption is known to increase the incidence of various illnesses, such as mental disorders, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. At the molecular level, periodicity is established by a set of clock genes via autoregulatory translation-transcription feedback loops. This clock mechanism is regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, which set the pace of the clock. Ubiquitination in particular has been found to regulate the stability of core clock components but also other clock protein functions. Mutation of genes encoding ubiquitin ligases can cause either elongation or shortening of the endogenous circadian period. Recent research has also started to uncover roles for deubiquitination in the molecular clockwork. Here, we review the role of the ubiquitin pathway in regulating the circadian clock and we propose that ubiquitination is a key element in a clock protein modification code that orchestrates clock mechanisms and circadian behavior over the daily cycle.
    Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 01/2014; 7:69.
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    ABSTRACT: Spermatogenesis represents a complex succession of cell division and differentiation events resulting in the continuous formation of spermatozoa. Such a complex program requires precise expression of enzymes and structural proteins which is effected not only by regulation of gene transcription and translation, but also by targeted protein degradation. In this chapter, we review current knowledge about the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in spermatogenesis, describing both proteolytic and non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitination. Ubiquitination plays essential roles in the establishment of both spermatogonial stem cells and differentiating spermatogonia from gonocytes. It also plays critical roles in several key processes during meiosis such as genetic recombination and sex chromosome silencing. Finally, in spermiogenesis, we summarize current knowledge of the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in nucleosome removal and establishment of key structures in the mature spermatid. Many mechanisms remain to be precisely defined, but present knowledge indicates that research in this area has significant potential to translate into benefits that will address problems in both human and animal reproduction.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2014; 759:181-213. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Simon S Wing
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    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a critical role in skeletal muscle atrophy. A large body of research has revealed that many ubiquitin ligases are induced and play an important role in mediating the wasting. However, relatively little is known about the roles of deubiquitinases in this process. Although it might be expected that deubiquitinases would be downregulated in atrophying muscles to promote ubiquitination and degradation of muscle proteins, this has not to date been demonstrated. Instead several deubiquitinases are induced in atrophying muscle, in particular USP19 and USP14. USP19, USP2 and A20 are also implicated in myogenesis. USP19 has been most studied to date. Its expression is increased in both systemic and disuse forms of atrophy and can be regulated through a p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway. In cultured muscle cells, it decreases the expression of myofibrillar proteins by apparently suppressing their transcription indicating that the ubiquitin proteasome system may be activated in skeletal muscle to not only increase protein degradation, but also to suppress protein synthesis. Deubiquitinases may be upregulated in atrophy in order to maintain the pool of free ubiquitin required for the increased overall conjugation and degradation of muscle proteins as well as to regulate the stability and function of proteins that are essential in mediating the wasting. Although deubiquitinases are not well studied, these early insights indicate that some of these enzymes play important roles and may be therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 05/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous 24-hour rhythms are generated by circadian clocks located in most tissues. The molecular clock mechanism is based on feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. Post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, are important for regulating the clock feedback mechanism. Previous work has focused on the role of ubiquitin ligases in the clock mechanism. Here we show a role for the rhythmically-expressed deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin specific peptidase 2 (USP2) in clock function. Mice with a deletion of the Usp2 gene (Usp2 KO) display a longer free-running period of locomotor activity rhythms and altered responses of the clock to light. This was associated with altered expression of clock genes in synchronized Usp2 KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts and increased levels of clock protein PERIOD1 (PER1). USP2 can be coimmunoprecipitated with several clock proteins but directly interacts specifically with PER1 and deubiquitinates it. Interestingly, this deubiquitination does not alter PER1 stability. Taken together, our results identify USP2 as a new core component of the clock machinery and demonstrate a role for deubiquitination in the regulation of the circadian clock, both at the level of the core pacemaker and its response to external cues.
    Biology open. 08/2012; 1(8):789-801.
  • Gurpreet Manku, Simon S Wing, Martine Culty
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    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) consists of a cascade of enzymatic reactions leading to the ubiquitination of proteins, with consequent degradation or altered functions of the proteins. Alterations in UPS genes have been associated with male infertility, suggesting the role of UPS in spermatogenesis. In the present study, we questioned whether UPS is involved in extensive remodeling and functional changes occurring during the differentiation of neonatal testicular gonocytes to spermatogonia, a step critical for the establishment of the spermatogonial stem cell population. We found that addition of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin to isolated gonocytes inhibited their retinoic acid-induced differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, blocking the induction of the spermatogonial gene markers Stra8 and Dazl. We then compared the UPS gene expression profiles of Postnatal Day (PND) 3 gonocytes and PND8 spermatogonia, using gene expression arrays and quantitative real-time PCR analyses. We identified 205 UPS genes, including 91 genes expressed at relatively high levels. From those, 28 genes were differentially expressed between gonocytes and spermatogonia. While ubiquitin-activating enzymes and ligases showed higher expression in gonocytes, most ubiquitin conjugating and deubiquitinating enzymes were expressed at higher levels in spermatogonia. Concomitant with the induction of spermatogonial gene markers, retinoic acid altered the expression of many UPS genes, suggesting that the UPS is remodeled during gonocyte differentiation. In conclusion, these studies identified novel ubiquitin-related genes in gonocytes and spermatogonia and revealed that proteasome function is involved in gonocyte differentiation. Considering the multiple roles of the UPS, it will be important to determine which UPS genes direct substrates to the proteasome and which are involved in proteasome-independent functions in gonocytes and to identify their target proteins.
    Biology of Reproduction 05/2012; 87(2):44. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In experimental membranous nephropathy, complement C5b-9 induces sublethal glomerular epithelial cell (GEC) injury and proteinuria. C5b-9 also activates mechanisms that restrict injury or facilitate recovery. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) selectively degrades damaged or abnormal proteins, while misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) undergo ER-associated degradation (ERAD). In this study, we investigated the effect of complement on the UPS and ERAD. We monitored UPS function by transfection of rat GECs with a UPS reporter, GFP(u) (CL1 degron fused with green fluorescent protein). By analogy, CD3δ-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was employed as a reporter of ERAD. We demonstrated decreased GFP(u) levels in GECs after incubation with antibody and complement, compared with control. Using C8-deficient serum with or without purified C8, cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis), and the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, we confirmed that the decrease of GFP(u) was mediated by C5b-9, and subsequent proteasomal degradation of the reporter. Inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase attenuated the effect of complement on GFP(u) degradation. Complement, however, increased the level of CD3δ-YFP in GECs, implying an impairment of ERAD, likely due to an overabundance of misfolded proteins in the ER. The overall ubiquitination of proteins was enhanced in complement-treated GECs and in glomeruli of rats with experimental membranous nephropathy, although ubiquitin mRNA was unchanged in GECs. Proteasome inhibition with MG132 increased the cytotoxic effect of complement in GECs. Complement-stimulated UPS function, by accelerating removal of damaged proteins, may be a novel mechanism to limit complement-induced injury.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2012; 1823(5):1007-16. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anorexia-cachexia syndrome (ACS) is a major determinant of cancer-related death that causes progressive body weight loss due to depletion of skeletal muscle mass and body fat. Here, we report the development of a novel preclinical murine model of ACS in which lymphomas harbor elevated Myc and activated mTOR signaling. The ACS phenotype in this model correlated with deregulated expression of a number of cytokines, including elevated levels of interleukin-10 which was under the direct translational control of mTOR. Notably, pharmacologic intervention to impair protein synthesis restored cytokine production to near-normal levels, delayed ACS progression, and extended host survival. Together, our findings suggest a new paradigm to treat ACS by strategies which target protein synthesis to block the production of procachexic factors.
    Cancer Research 12/2011; 72(3):747-56. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We reported previously that parkin, a Parkinson disease-associated E3 ubiquitin-ligase interacts with ataxin-3, a deubiquitinating enzyme associated with Machado-Joseph disease. Ataxin-3 was found to counteract parkin self-ubiquitination both in vitro and in cells. Moreover, ataxin-3-dependent deubiquitination of parkin required the catalytic cysteine 14 in ataxin-3, although the precise mechanism remained unclear. We report here that ataxin-3 interferes with the attachment of ubiquitin (Ub) onto parkin in real-time during conjugation but is unable to hydrolyze previously assembled parkin-Ub conjugates. The mechanism involves an ataxin-3-dependent stabilization of the complex between parkin and the E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme, which impedes the efficient charging of the E2 with Ub. Moreover, within this complex, the transfer of Ub from the E2 is diverted away from parkin and onto ataxin-3, further explaining how ataxin-3 deubiquitination is coupled to parkin ubiquitination. Taken together, our findings reveal an unexpected convergence upon the E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme in the regulation of an E3/deubiquitinating enzyme pair, with important implications for the function of parkin and ataxin-3, two proteins responsible for closely related neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 287(1):531-41. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Improvements in health in the past decades have resulted in increased numbers of the elderly in both developed and developing regions of the world. Advances in therapy have also increased the prevalence of patients with chronic and degenerative diseases. Muscle wasting, a feature of most chronic diseases, is prominent in the elderly and contributes to both morbidity and mortality. A major research goal has been to identify the proteolytic system(s) that is responsible for the degradation of proteins that occurs in muscle atrophy. Findings over the past 20 years have clearly confirmed an important role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in mediating muscle proteolysis, particularly that of myofibrillar proteins. However, recent observations have provided evidence that autophagy, calpains and caspases also contribute to the turnover of muscle proteins in catabolic states, and furthermore, that these diverse proteolytic systems interact with each other at various levels. Importantly, a number of intracellular signaling pathways such as the IGF1/AKT, myostatin/Smad, PGC1, cytokine/NFκB, and AMPK pathways are now known to interact and can regulate some of these proteolytic systems in a coordinated manner. A number of loss of function studies have identified promising therapeutic approaches to the prevention and treatment of wasting. However, additional biomarkers and other approaches to improve early identification of patients who would benefit from such treatment need to be developed. The current data suggests a network of interacting proteolytic and signaling pathways in muscle. Future studies are needed to improve understanding of the nature and control of these interactions and how they work to preserve muscle function under various states of growth and atrophy.
    Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 06/2011; 48(2):49-70. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in spermatogenesis. However, the functions of deubiquitinating enzymes in this process remain poorly characterized. We previously showed that the deubiquitinating enzyme USP2 is induced in late elongating spermatids. To identify its function, we generated mice lacking USP2. Usp2 -/- mice appeared normal, and the weights of major organs, including the testis, did not differ from wild type (Usp2 +/+). However, although the numbers of testicular spermatids and epididymal spermatozoa were normal in Usp2 -/- males, these animals had a severe defect in fertility, yielding only 12% as many offspring as Usp2 +/+ littermates. Spermatogenesis in Usp2 -/- mice was morphologically normal except for the presence of abnormal aggregations of elongating spermatids and formation of multinucleated cells in some tubules. The epididymal epithelium was morphologically normal in Usp2 -/- mice, but some abnormal cells other than sperm were present in the lumen. Usp2 -/- epididymal spermatozoa manifested normal motility when incubated in culture media, but rapidly became immotile when incubated in PBS in contrast to Usp2 +/+ spermatozoa, which largely maintained motility under this condition. Usp2 -/- and +/+ spermatozoa underwent acrosome reactions in vitro with similar frequency. In vitro fertilization assays demonstrated a severe defect in the ability of Usp2 -/- spermatozoa to fertilize eggs. This could be bypassed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection or removal of the zona pellucida, which resulted in fertilization rates similar to that of Usp2 +/+ mice. We demonstrate for the first time, using mouse transgenic approaches, a role for the ubiquitin system in fertilization.
    Biology of Reproduction 05/2011; 85(3):594-604. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the USP19 deubiquitinating enzyme positively regulates proliferation in fibroblasts by stabilizing KPC1, a ubiquitin ligase for p27(Kip1). To explore whether this role of USP19 extends to other cellular systems, we tested the effects of silencing of USP19 in several human prostate and breast models, including carcinoma cell lines. Depletion of USP19 inhibited proliferation in prostate cancer DU145, PC-3 and 22RV1 cells, which was similar to the pattern established in fibroblasts in that it was due to decreased progression from G1 to S phase and associated with a stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). However, in contrast to previous findings in fibroblasts, the stabilization of p27(Kip1) upon USP19 depletion was not associated with changes in the levels of the KPC1 ligase. USP19 could also regulate the growth of immortalized MCF10A breast epithelial cells through a similar mechanism. This regulatory pattern was lost, though, in breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and in prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. Of interest, the transformation of fibroblasts through overexpression of an oncogenic form of Ras disrupted the USP19-mediated regulation of cell growth and of levels of p27(Kip1) and KPC1. Thus, the cell context appears determinant for the ability of USP19 to regulate cell proliferation and p27(Kip1) levels. This may occur through both KPC1 dependent and independent mechanisms. Moreover, a complete loss of USP19 function on cell growth may arise as a result of oncogenic transformation of cells.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e15936. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although it is well known that catecholamines inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation, the molecular underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of beta(2)-adrenoceptors (AR) and cAMP in regulating the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in skeletal muscle. We report that increased levels of cAMP in isolated muscles, promoted by the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine was accompanied by decreased activity of the UPS, levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, and expression of atrogin-1, a key ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in muscle atrophy. In cultured myotubes, atrogin-1 induction after dexamethasone treatment was completely prevented by isobutylmethylxanthine. Furthermore, administration of clenbuterol, a selective beta(2)-agonist, to mice increased muscle cAMP levels and suppressed the fasting-induced expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, atrogin-1 mRNA being much more responsive to clenbuterol. Moreover, clenbuterol increased the phosphorylation of muscle Akt and Foxo3a in fasted rats. Similar responses were observed in muscles exposed to dibutyryl-cAMP. The stimulatory effect of clenbuterol on cAMP and Akt was abolished in muscles from beta(2)-AR knockout mice. The suppressive effect of beta(2)-agonist on atrogin-1 was not mediated by PGC-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha known to be induced by beta(2)-agonists and previously shown to inhibit atrogin-1 expression), because food-deprived PGC-1alpha knockout mice were still sensitive to clenbuterol. These findings suggest that the cAMP increase induced by stimulation of beta(2)-AR in skeletal muscles from fasted mice is possibly the mechanism by which catecholamines suppress atrogin-1 and the UPS, this effect being mediated via phosphorylation of Akt and thus inactivation of Foxo3.
    Endocrinology 10/2009; 150(12):5395-404. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in the degradation of myofibrillar proteins that occurs in muscle wasting. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of enzymes mediating conjugation of ubiquitin. However, little is known about the role of deubiquitinating enzymes. We previously showed that the USP19-deubiquitinating enzyme is induced in atrophying skeletal muscle (Combaret L, Adegoke OA, Bedard N, Baracos V, Attaix D, Wing SS. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288: E693-E700, 2005). To further explore the role of USP19, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) in L6 muscle cells. Lowering USP19 by 70-90% in myotubes resulted in a 20% decrease in the rate of proteolysis and an 18% decrease in the rate of protein synthesis, with no net change in protein content. Despite the decrease in overall synthesis, there were approximately 1.5-fold increases in protein levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC), actin, and troponin T and a approximately 2.5-fold increase in tropomyosin. USP19 depletion also increased MHC and tropomyosin mRNA levels, suggesting that this effect is due to increased transcription. Consistent with this, USP19 depletion increased myogenin protein and mRNA levels approximately twofold. Lowering myogenin using siRNA prevented the increase in MHC and tropomyosin upon USP19 depletion, indicating that myogenin mediated the increase in myofibrillar proteins. Dexamethasone treatment lowered MHC and increased USP19. Depletion of USP19 reversed the dexamethasone suppression of MHC. These studies demonstrate that USP19 modulates transcription of major myofibrillar proteins and indicate that the ubiquitin system not only mediates the increased protein breakdown but is also involved in the decreased protein synthesis in atrophying skeletal muscle.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2009; 297(6):E1283-90. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: p27(Kip1) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the G(1)/S transition. Increased degradation of p27(Kip1) is associated with cellular transformation. Previous work demonstrated that the ubiquitin ligases KPC1/KPC2 and SCF(Skp2) ubiquitinate p27(Kip1) in G(1) and early S, respectively. The regulation of these ligases remains unclear. We report here that the USP19 deubiquitinating enzyme interacts with and stabilizes KPC1, thereby modulating p27(Kip1) levels and cell proliferation. Cells depleted of USP19 by RNA interference exhibited an inhibition of cell proliferation, progressing more slowly from G(0)/G1 to S phase, and accumulated p27(Kip1). This increase in p27(Kip1) was associated with normal levels of Skp2 but reduced levels of KPC1. The overexpression of KPC1 or the use of p27(-/-) cells inhibited significantly the growth defect observed upon USP19 depletion. KPC1 was ubiquitinated in vivo and stabilized by proteasome inhibitors and by overexpression of USP19, and it also coimmunoprecipitated with USP19. Our results identify USP19 as the first deubiquitinating enzyme that regulates the stability of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and demonstrate that progression through G(1) to S phase is, like the metaphase-anaphase transition, controlled in a hierarchical, multilayered fashion.
    Molecular and cellular biology 12/2008; 29(2):547-58. · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since maximum anabolism occurs postprandially, we developed a simulated fed state with clamped hyperinsulinemia, physiological hyperglycemia, and hyperaminoacidemia (Hyper-3) and explored muscle cellular mechanisms. Whole body [1-(13)C]leucine and [3-(3)H]glucose kinetics in healthy men were compared between hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic, isoaminoacidemic (Hyper-1, n = 10) and Hyper-3 (n = 9) clamps. In Hyper-3 vs. Hyper-1, nonoxidative leucine R(d) [rate of disappearance (synthesis)] was stimulated more (45 +/- 4 vs. 24 +/- 4 micromol/min, P < 0.01) and endogenous R(a) [rate of appearance (breakdown)] was inhibited similarly; hence net balance increased more (86 +/- 6 vs. 49 +/- 2 micromol/min, P < 0.001). Glucose R(d) was similar; thus Hyper-3 metabolic clearance rate (331 +/- 23 vs. 557 +/- 41 ml/min, P < 0.0005) and R(d)/insulin (M, 0.65 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.25 +/- 0.10 mg.min(-1).pmol(-1).l, P < 0.001) were less, despite higher insulin (798 +/- 74 vs. 450 +/- 24 pmol/l, P < 0.005). In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, phosphorylation of Akt (P = 0.025), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70(S6K1); P = 0.008), S6 (P = 0.049), and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1; P = 0.001) increased. With decreased eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF4E).4E-BP1 complex (P = 0.01), these are consistent with increased mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and translation initiation of protein synthesis. Although mRNA expression of ubiquitin, MAFbx 1, and MuRF-1 was unchanged, total ubiquitinated proteins decreased 20% (P < 0.01), consistent with proteolysis suppression. The Hyper-3 clamp increases whole body protein synthesis, net anabolism, and muscle protein translation initiation pathways and decreases protein ubiquitination. The main contribution of hyperaminoacidemia is stimulation of synthesis rather than inhibition of proteolysis, and it attenuates the expected increment of glucose disposal.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2008; 296(1):E105-13. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    Simon S Wing
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is caused by defects in both insulin signaling and insulin secretion. Though the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes remains largely unexplored, the few examples present in the literature are interesting and suggest targets for drug development. Studies indicate that insulin resistance can be induced by stimulating the degradation of important molecules in the insulin signaling pathway, in particular the insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1, IRS2 and the kinase AKT1 (Akt). In addition, a defect in insulin secretion could occur due to UPS-mediated degradation of IRS2 in the beta-cells of the pancreas. The UPS also appears to be involved in regulating lipid synthesis in adipocytes and lipid production by the liver and could influence the development of obesity. Other possible mechanisms for inducing defects in insulin signaling and secretion remain to be explored, including the role of ubiquitylation in insulin receptor internalization and trafficking. PUBLICATION HISTORY : Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com).
    BMC Biochemistry 02/2008; 9 Suppl 1:S6. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A ubiquitin protein ligase (E3), E3(Histone)/LASU1 (Mule/ARF-BP1/HUWE1), was recently identified that mediates ubiquitination of core histones, the Mcl-1 anti-apoptotic protein, and the p53 tumor suppressor protein. However, the expression of E3(Histone)/LASU1 remains poorly studied. Because we identified E3(Histone)/LASU1 from the testis, we explored its regulation during spermatogenesis. In the first wave of rat spermatogenesis, E3(Histone)/LASU1 mRNA and protein had peak expression at days 10 and 20, respectively, and decreased with age. Consistent with these findings, immunohistochemistry revealed that E3(Histone)/LASU1 was highly expressed in nuclei from spermatogonia to mid-pachytene spermatocytes. There was no obvious staining in spermatids, when histones are ubiquitinated and degraded. E3(Histone)/LASU1 was also expressed in other tissues. However, except in neuronal cells of the brain, expression was cytoplasmic. Thus, E3(Histone)/LASU1 may play a role in chromatin modification in early germ cells of the testis, but also has functions in other tissues.
    Developmental Dynamics 11/2007; 236(10):2889-98. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 26 S proteasome is implicated in the control of many major biological functions but a reliable method for the identification of its major substrates, i.e. polyubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, is still lacking. Based on the steps present in cells, i.e. recognition and deubiquitination, we developed an affinity matrix-based purification of polyUb conjugates suitable for any biological sample. Ub-conjugates were first purified from proteasome inhibitor-treated C2C12 cells using the Ub binding domains of the S5a proteasome subunit bound to an affinity matrix and then deubiquitinated by the catalytic domain of the USP2 enzyme. This two step purification of proteasome substrates involving both protein-protein interactions and enzyme-mediated release allowed highly specific isolation of polyUb 26 S proteasome substrates, which were then resolved on two-dimensional gels post-deubiquitination. To establish our method, we focused on a gel area where spots were best resolved. Surprisingly, spot analysis by mass spectrometry identified alpha2, alpha6, alpha7, beta2, beta3, beta4, and beta5 20 S proteasome subunits as potential substrates. Western blots using an anti-beta3 proteasome subunit antibody confirmed that high molecular weight forms of beta3 were present, particularly in proteasome inhibitor-treated cells. Sucrose gradients of cell lysates suggested that the proteasome was first disassembled before subunits were polyubiquitinated. Altogether, we provide a technique that enables large scale identification of 26 S proteasome substrates that should contribute to a better understanding of this proteolytic machinery in any living cell and/or organ/tissue. Furthermore, the data suggest that proteasome homeostasis involves an autoregulatory mechanism.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2007; 282(8):5302-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
197.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Polypeptide Hormone Laboratory
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Cell Biology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1992–1994
    • National Research Council Canada
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1989–1993
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Boston, MA, United States