[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we showed that bikunin, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, inhibits invasion and metastasis in several types of cancer cells possibly through suppression of upregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression. Bikunin corresponds to a light chain of the inter-alpha inhibitor. To explore critical role of endogenous bikunin, we used bikunin knockout (Bik-/-) mice. Here, we show that 1) higher frequency of spontaneous 3LL lung metastasis was observed in Bik-/- mice compared to Bik+/+ mice, suggesting that bikunin deficiency increases the sensitivity of mice to lung metastasis; 2) administration of exogenous bikunin caused a significant reduction of lung metastasis in Bik-/- and Bik+/+ mice; 3) primary and metastatic tumors significantly upregulated uPA and PAI-1 expression in Bik-/- mice relative to Bik+/+ mice at least through phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and 4) exogenous bikunin suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and upregulation of uPA and PAI-1 expression in 3LL cells in response to G-CSF. These data allow us to conclude that the increased sensitivity of Bik-/- mice to lung metastasis in vivo is due to a lack of circulating proteins of the inter-alpha inhibitor family, especially bikunin.
International Journal of Cancer 05/2006; 118(9):2322-8. DOI:10.1002/ijc.21293 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of syndecan-1 generally appears down-regulated in human cancers and experimental models, whereas transfectional expression of syndecan-1 in cancer cells has been shown to inhibit aspects of their malignant behavior. To clarify how reduced levels of syndecan-1 may confer enhanced invasiveness, we transfected human ovarian cancer cell line HRA with antisense (AS) syndecan-1 oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and compared the properties of transfected cells to those of parental cells or sense (S) syndecan-1 cells. Here, we show: 1) there was lower proliferation in the AS syndecan-1 cells compared to controls (parental HRA cells and S syndecan-1 cells) when cells were incubated with HB-GFs (HB-EGF, HGF, or FGF2); 2) transfection of HRA cells with a syndecan-1 AS ODN enhanced the increase in HB-GF-dependent invasiveness; 3) in contrast, IGF-I stimulated cell proliferation and invasion, irrespective of whether cells were transfected with the AS syndecan-1 gene; 4) IGF-I stimulated ERK1/2 activation and uPA expression in both the control and AS cells, whereas the net effect of the reduction of syndecan-1 is to shift the HB-GF dose-response curve to the right; 5) the AS cells reduced activation and up-regulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and uPA expression, respectively, in response to HB-GFs; and 6) in comparison with early stage ovarian cancer tissues, there was a 3-fold decrease in syndecan-1 mRNA levels in advanced stage tissues. Taken together, these data suggest that decreased syndecan-1 expression may be associated with enhanced cell invasion possibly through the uPA-independent mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis, a common disease among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus. TNF-alpha induces IL-8 production in endometriotic cells through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Thalidomide (Thal) inhibits inflammation by down-regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in tumor cells and inflammatory cells. However, the mechanism of Thal action in human endometriotic stromal cells has not yet been elucidated.
We examined whether Thal abrogates TNF-alpha-induced up-regulation of IL-8 expression in endometriotic stromal cells.
Here, we show 1) that treatment of endometriotic stromal cells with TNF-alpha increased the expression of phosphorylated IkappaBalpha and degradation of total IkappaBalpha, which in turn activates NF-kappaB; 2) Thal significantly inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced expression of phosphorylated IkappaBalpha and degradation of IkappaBalpha; 3) TNF-alpha activation induced increased nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, which was inhibited by pretreatment with either Thal or N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, an NF-kappaB inhibitor. Thal did not enhance the N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone's action; and 4) Pretreatment with Thal reduced TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 protein production as well as mRNA expression.
The current study showed for the first time that Thal treatment attenuated the expression of IL-8 by reducing TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provided evidence previously that bikunin, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, can disrupt dimerization of CD44 proteins, which may result in suppression of receptor-mediated MAP kinase signaling. However, to what extent dimerization may alter ligand-induced signaling has not been documented. Given the recent recognition that some growth factor receptors can form heterodimers with CD44, the present study was undertaken to determine whether the CD44 and growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR, FGFR, HGFR, VEGFR, TGF-betaRI, or TGF-betaRII) can form heterodimers in cancer cells and, if so, to investigate the potential functional consequences of such heterodimerization. We also examined whether bikunin can abrogate these heterodimerizations and inhibit CD44/growth factor-dependent signaling. Here, we show direct evidence for heterodimerization of CD44-FGFR and CD44-TGF-betaRI in human chondrosarcoma HCS-2/8 cells, CD44-EGFR complex in human glioma U87MG cells, and CD44-TGF-betaRI heterodimer in human ovarian cancer HRA cells. Coupling of CD44 and growth factor receptor may be selective, depending on a cell type. Bikunin does not alter the ligand binding, whereas functionally reduces heterodimerization between CD44 and growth factor receptors. The disruption of heterodimerization substantially reduces receptor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and ERK1/2 activation. Taken together, our data suggest that bikunin-mediated suppression of heterodimerization between CD44 and growth factors may inhibit the agonist-promoted activation of the signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the primary mediator of gram-negative sepsis; it induces the production of macrophage-derived cytokines. It has been shown that bikunin, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, inhibits LPS-induced cytokine expression.
To explore the role of bikunin, bikunin knockout (Bik(-/-)) mice were used for in vitro cytokine experiments and in vivo animal models.
We show that a higher level of LPS-mediated death was induced in Bik(-/-), compared with wild-type (wt), mice; the administration of bikunin caused a significant reduction in LPS-induced lethality; LPS significantly increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels in Bik(-/-), relative to wt, mice after LPS challenge; concomitant administration of bikunin inhibited the LPS-induced plasma levels of these cytokines; bikunin suppressed the LPS-induced up-regulation of cytokine expression through the suppression of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 in macrophages; and LPS-induced up-regulation of TNF- alpha expression was not enhanced in Bik(-/-) macrophages without endogenous bikunin.
These data allow us to speculate that the increased sensitivity of Bik(-/-) mice to LPS-induced death in vivo is due to a lack of circulating bikunin in plasma. Bikunin may play a role as a potent anti-inflammatory agent.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2005; 191(6):930-8. DOI:10.1086/428134 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bikunin is a multifunctional glycoprotein, which mediates suppression of tumor cell invasion and metastasis. The measurement of bikunin levels in the tissue of patients with malignant diseases has been introduced as a new and simple diagnostic tool for the evaluation of prognosis. The high bikunin expression in ovarian cancer tissue would enable the use of soluble bikunin protein present in the circulation of ovarian cancer patients as a biomarker of disease.
We developed a double-antibody immunoassay for bikunin and detected its presence in normal human circulation. We quantified, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or immunoblot assay bikunin in sera from 200 healthy women (controls), 200 patients with benign gynecologic diseases, and 327 patients with ovarian cancer before surgical removal of the tumor.
When the values of bikunin corresponding to the median were used as the cutoff value (11.5 microg/mL), low plasma bikunin was strongly associated with late-stage, suboptimal debulking with large residual tumor (> 2 cm) and low response to chemotherapy. The median survival time of the patients with a high bikunin level was more than 60 months as compared with 26 months among those with low bikunin level (P = .002). This difference corresponded to a 2.2-fold increased risk of dying for the lower plasma bikunin patients (hazard ratio, 0.45; P = .023) and remained significant in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 0.63; P = .041).
Preoperative plasma bikunin concentration is a strong and independent favorable prognostic marker for ovarian cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bikunin, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in protection against cancer and inflammation. To investigate the molecular mechanism of this inhibition, we analyzed the effect of bikunin on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in human peripheral mononuclear cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammatory inducer. Here, we show the following results. (i) LPS induced TNF-alpha expression in time- and dose-dependent manners through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. (ii) Bikunin inhibits LPS-induced up-regulation of TNF-alpha protein expression in a dose-dependent manner, reaching 60% inhibition at the highest doses of bikunin tested (5.0 microM). (iii) Inhibition by bikunin of TNF-alpha induction correlates with the suppressive capacity of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 signaling pathways, implicating repressions of at least three different signals in the inhibition. (iv) Bikunin blocks the induction of TNF-alpha target molecules interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-6 proteins. (v) Bikunin is functional in vivo, and this glycoprotein blocks systemic TNF-alpha release in mice challenged with LPS. (vi) Finally, bikunin can prevent LPS-induced lethality. In conclusion, bikunin significantly inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha production, suggesting a mechanism of anti-inflammation by bikunin through control of cytokine induction during inflammation. Bikunin might be a candidate for the treatment of inflammation, including septic shock.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously found that bikunin (bik), a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, suppresses transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-stimulated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human ovarian cancer cells that lack endogenous bik. In the present study, we tried to elucidate the mechanism by which bik also inhibits plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and collagen synthesis using human ovarian cancer cells. Here, we show that (a) there was an enhanced production of both uPA and PAI-1 in HRA cells in response to TGF-beta1; (b) the overexpression of bik in the cells or exogenous bik results in the inhibition of TGF-beta1 signaling as measured by phosphorylation of the downstream signaling effector Smad2, nuclear translocation of Smad3, and production of PAI-1 and collagen; (c) bik neither decreased expression of TGF-beta receptors (TbetaRI and TbetaRII) in either cell types nor altered the specific binding of 125I TGF-beta1 to the cells, indicating that the effects of bik in these cells are not mediated by ligand sequestration; (d) TbetaRI and TbetaRII present on the same cells exclusively form aggregates in TGF-beta1-stimulated cells; (e) co-treatment of TGF-beta1-stimulated cells with bik suppresses TGF-beta1-induced complex formation of TbetaRI and TbetaRII; and (f) a chondroitin-4-sulfate side chain-deleted bik (deglycosylated bik) does not inhibit TGF-beta1 signaling or association of type I/type II receptor. We conclude that glycosylated bik attenuates TGF-beta1-elicited signaling cascades in cells possibly by abrogating the coupling between TbetaRI and TbetaRII and that this probably provides the mechanism for the suppression of uPA and PAI-1 expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The net balance between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. To elucidate the mechanism of the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-dependent up-regulation of PAI-1 expression, we investigated which signaling pathway transduced by TGF-beta1 is responsible for this effect. Here, we show (1) nontoxic concentrations of TGF-beta1 up-regulates uPA expression in HRA and SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells, (2) TGF-beta1 activates Smads (phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear translocation of Smad3) and subsequently up-regulates PAI-1 expression in HRA cells, whereas TGF-beta1 neither activates Smads nor up-regulates PAI-1 in SKOV-3 cells, (3) pharmacological Src inhibitor PP2 or antisense (AS) c-Src oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) treatment significantly induces TGF-beta1-dependent activation of Smads, leading to PAI-1 synthesis, compared with controls, in SKOV-3 cells, (4) combination of TGF-beta1 and PP2, which activates PAI-1 expression and reduces uPA expression in SKOV-3, results in decreased invasiveness, (5) pharmacological inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (PD98059) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) (LY294002 and wortmannin) or AS-PI3K ODN transfection do not affect TGF-beta1-induced Smad signaling and up-regulation of PAI-1 expression in SKOV-3 cells pretreated with PP2, and (6) the induction of PAI-1 protein was partially inhibited by an inhibitor of Sp1-DNA binding, mithramycin, implicating, at least in part, Sp1 in the regulation of this gene by TGF-beta1. In conclusion, TGF-beta1-dependent activation of Smad2/3, leading to PAI-1 synthesis, may be negatively regulated by Src, but not its downstream targets MAPK and PI3K in SKOV-3 cells. These data also reflect the complex biological effect of uPA-PAI-1 system.