Nobuo Sekine

The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan

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Publications (12)76.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Direct effects of adrenomedullin on insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells were investigated using a differentiated insulin-secreting cell line INS-1. Adrenomedullin (1-100 pM) inhibited insulin secretion at both basal (3 mM) and high (15 mM) glucose concentrations, although this inhibitory effect was not observed at higher concentrations of adrenomedullin. The inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion by adrenomedullin was restored with 12-h pretreatment with 1 microg/ml pertussis toxin (PTX), suggesting that this effect could be mediated by PTX-sensitive G proteins. Cellular glucose metabolism evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay was not affected by adrenomedullin at concentrations that inhibited insulin secretion. Moreover, electrophysiological studies revealed that 10 pM adrenomedullin had no effect on membrane potential, voltage-gated calcium currents, or cytosolic calcium concentration induced by 15 mM glucose. Finally, insulin release induced by cAMP-raising agents, such as forskolin plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or the calcium ionophore ionomycin, was significantly inhibited by 10 and 100 pM adrenomedullin. In conclusion, adrenomedullin at picomolar concentrations directly inhibited insulin secretion from beta-cells. This effect is likely due to the inhibition of insulin exocytosis through the activation of PTX-sensitive G proteins.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2006; 291(1):E9-E14. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic AR42J cells have the feature of pluripotency of the precursor cells of the gut endoderm. Betacellulin (BTC) and activin A (Act) convert them into insulin-secreting cells. Using mRNA differential display techniques, we have identified a novel mitochondrial transporter, which is highly expressed during the course of differentiation, and have designated it citrate transporter protein-like protein (CTPL). Recently sideroflexin 1 (Sfxn1) was shown to be a susceptible gene of flexed-tail (f/f) mice, and CTPL has turned out to be a rat orthologous protein of Sfxn3, a member of sideroflexin family. CTPL/Sfxn3 was targeted to mitochondrial membrane like Sfxn1. The expression levels of CTPL/Sfxn3, Sfxn2, and Sfxn5 were upregulated in the early phase of differentiation into insulin-secreting cells but the expression levels of Sfxn1 and Sfxn3 did not change. All Sfxn family members were expressed in rat pancreatic islet. The expression levels of CTPL/Sfxn3, Sfxn2, and Sfxn5 were also upregulated in islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared to normal rats. The downregulation of CTPL/Sfxn3 in a rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1, with the antisense oligonucleotide did not affect the insulin secretion. Taken together, CTPL/Sfxn3 and some other family members might be important in the differentiation of pancreatic beta-cells as a channel or a carrier molecule and be related to the regeneration of pancreatic endocrine cells.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 09/2005; 95(6):1157-68. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triglyceride (TG) accumulation in pancreatic beta-cells is thought to be associated with impaired insulin secretory response to glucose (lipotoxicity). To better understand the mechanism of the impaired insulin secretory response to glucose in beta-cell lipotoxicity, we overexpressed a constitutively active form of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein- 1c (SREBP-1c), a master transcriptional factor of lipogenesis, in INS-1 cells with an adenoviral vector. This treatment was associated with strong activation of transcription of the genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, increased cellular TG content, severely blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and enhanced expression of the uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2), which supposedly dissipates the mitochondrial electrochemical potential. To decrease the up-regulated UCP-2 expression, small interfering RNA for UCP-2 was used. Introduction of the small interfering RNA increased the ATP/ADP ratio and partially rescued the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the cells overexpressing SREBP-1c, but did not affect the cellular TG content. Next, the effect of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist, 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside, was examined in the lipotoxicity model. Exposure of the cells with lipotoxicity to 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside increased free fatty acid oxidation, partially reversed the TG accumulation, phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, and improved the impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These results suggest that UCP-2 down-regulation and AMPK activation could be candidate targets for releasing beta-cells from lipotoxicity.
    Endocrinology 09/2004; 145(8):3566-77. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon-gamma and TNFalpha synergistically induce the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase and elicit severe cytotoxicity in pancreatic beta-cells. We demonstrate here that GH, the well known beta-cell mitogen, inhibits nitric oxide production by reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase gene induction by the two cytokines and counteracts their cytotoxic effect in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we examined activation of the transcription factors implicated in the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase, signal transducer and activator of transcription-1, and nuclear factor-kappa B. GH inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 promoted by interferon-gamma, whereas nuclear factor-kappa B activation by TNFalpha was not affected by GH. GH was found to induce suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 and -3, both of which are able to inhibit interferon-gamma activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1, suggesting that they are likely to mediate the inhibitory action of GH. Finally, exposure of INS-1 cells to interferon-gamma resulted in the impairment of insulin secretion in response to glucose, which was restored by the addition of GH. These results indicate that GH counteracts the effect of interferon-gamma through the inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1. This action of GH may be sufficient to suppress the synergistic induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase by interferon-gamma and TNFalpha, thereby preventing the cytotoxicity to beta-cells.
    Endocrinology 10/2001; 142(9):3909-16. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon- and TNF synergistically induce the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase and elicit severe cytotoxicity in pancreatic -cells. We demonstrate here that GH, the well known -cell mitogen, inhibits nitric oxide production by re- ducing inducible nitric oxide synthase gene induction by the two cytokines and counteracts their cytotoxic effect in insu- lin-secreting INS-1 cells. To elucidate the underlying mecha- nism, we examined activation of the transcription factors im- plicated in the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase, signal transducer and activator of transcription-1, and nu- clear factor-B. GH inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding of signal transducer and activator of transcrip- tion-1 promoted by interferon-, whereas nuclear factor-B activation by TNF was not affected by GH. GH was found to induce suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 and -3, both of which are able to inhibit interferon- activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1, suggesting that they are likely to mediate the inhibitory action of GH. Finally, exposure of INS-1 cells to interferon- resulted in the impair- ment of insulin secretion in response to glucose, which was restored by the addition of GH. These results indicate that GH counteracts the effect of interferon- through the inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1. This action of GH may be sufficient to suppress the synergistic induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase by interferon- and TNF, thereby preventing the cytotoxicity to -cells. (Endocrinology 142: 3909 -3916, 2001)
    Endocrinology 09/2001; 142(9):3909-3916. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is known to exert deleterious effects on pancreatic beta-cells and is implicated in the development of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated signaling mechanisms mediating the effects of IFN-gamma in pancreatic beta-cells using a differentiated rat insulin-secreting cell line, INS-1, with special reference to the activation of transcription factors STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription)1 and NF-kappaB. Exposure of INS-1 cells to 100 IU/ml IFN-gamma for 24 h resulted in significant inhibition of nutrient-induced insulin secretion associated with impaired metabolism. In combination with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (50 ng/ml), IFN-gamma elicited severe cytotoxicity and induced the expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA. IFN-gamma promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA-binding of STAT1 through Janus kinase (JAK)1 activation without apparent phosphorylation of JAK2. TNF-alpha did not affect STAT1 activation, but stimulated DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB, both of which were further increased by IFN-gamma. These effects of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha seem physiologically relevant, because either inhibition of STAT1 by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A or that of NF-kappaB by sulfasalazine resulted in the reduction of iNOS mRNA expression. In conclusion, IFN-gamma activates STAT1 and potentiates TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation in INS-1 cells, thereby inducing iNOS and cell destruction.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2000; 184(1):46-57. · 3.87 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cellular Physiology - J CELL PHYSIOL. 01/2000; 184(1):46-57.
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    ABSTRACT: Generation of free radicals is thought to mediate the cytotoxic action of alloxan on the pancreatic β-cell. In this investigation, the early effects of alloxan on cell function were studied. When INS-1D insulinoma cells were exposed to alloxan (1 mM) for 45 min followed by a 3-hr recovery period, the drug increased basal insulin release while abolishing the effect of glucose in static incubations. This was associated with impaired stimulation of cellular metabolism by glucose and reduced viability, both monitored colorimetrically with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). These alterations were largely counteracted by the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). Similar changes occurred when glucose was added directly after 5 min of alloxan treatment, whereas KCl-induced secretion was only partially inhibited. In perifusion, alloxan caused transient insulin secretion to 50% of the rates obtained with glucose 30 min later. Under these conditions, epinephrine abolished the stimulation due to both agents. Membrane potential and cytosolic calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) were recorded to clarify the action of alloxan. Alloxan-induced insulin release correlated with depolarization of INS-1D cells and a rise in [Ca2+]i. Alloxan did not augment [Ca2+]i in the presence of BHA or the absence of extracellular calcium. Nickel chloride blocked the effect of alloxan on [Ca2+]i, whereas verapamil was ineffective. This suggests that alloxan promotes Ca2+ influx through channels distinct from L-type channels, perhaps through non-selective cation channels. Thus, alloxan causes changes in INS-1D cells prevented by antioxidant treatment, suggesting that free radicals may modulate the ionic permeability leading to functional activation.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 04/1999; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GH binding to its receptor, which belongs to the cytokine receptor superfamily, activates Janus kinase (JAK) 2 tyrosine kinase, thereby activating a number of intracellular key proteins such as STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, which finally lead to GH's biological actions including gene expression. In contrast to receptor tyrosine kinases, the signalling pathways leading to MAP kinase activation by GH are poorly understood but appear to involve Grb2 and Shc. We now show that GH stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its association with Grb2, and concomitantly stimulated MAP kinase activity in liver, a major target tissue. Expression of EGFR and its mutants into CHO-GH receptor (GHR) cells revealed that GH-induced full activation of MAP kinase and c-fos expression required tyrosine phosphorylation sites of EGFR but not its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Moreover, by also using dominant negative JAK2 and in vitro kinase assay, we demonstrated that tyrosine 1068 of EGFR was evidently one of the major phosphorylation and Grb2 binding sites stimulated by GH via JAK2. These data suggest that the role of EGFR in GH signalling is to be phosphorylated by JAK2, thereby providing docking sites for Grb2 and activating MAP kinases and gene expression. This novel cross talk pathway may provide the first example of the hormone and cytokine receptor superfamily transducing signals via associated nonreceptor tyrosine kinase by phosphorylating growth factor receptor and utilizing it as a docking protein independent of its receptor tyrosine kinase activity.
    Endocrine Journal 05/1998; 45 Suppl:S27-31. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Endocrine Journal 01/1998; 45. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When growth hormone binds to its receptor, which belongs to the cytokine receptor superfamily, it activates the Janus kinase Jak2 which has tyrosine-kinase activity and initiates an activation of several key intracellular proteins (for example, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases) that eventually execute the biological actions induced by growth hormone, including the expression of particular genes. In contrast to receptors that themselves have tyrosine kinase activity, the signalling pathways leading to MAP kinase activation that are triggered by growth hormone are poorly understood, but appear to be mediated by the proteins Grb2 and Shc. We now show that growth hormone stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and its association with Grb2 and at the same time stimulates MAP kinase activity in liver, an important target tissue of growth hormone. Expression of EGFR and its mutants revealed that growth-hormone-induced activation of MAP kinase and expression of the transcription factor c-fos requires phosphorylation of tyrosines on EGFR, but not its own intrinsic tyrosine-kinase activity. Moreover, tyrosine at residue 1,068 of the EGFR is proposed to be one of the principal phosphorylation sites and Grb2-binding sites stimulated by growth hormone via Jak2. Our results indicate that the role of EGFR in signalling by growth hormone is to be phosphorylated by Jak2, thereby providing docking sites for Grb2 and activating MAP kinases and gene expression, independently of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of EGFR. This may represent a novel cross-talk pathway between the cytokine receptor superfamily and growth factor receptor.
    Nature 12/1997; · 42.35 Impact Factor