Sung M Kim

Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States

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Publications (18)41.69 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As uveal melanoma originates in the neural crest, we aimed to explore whether somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression is present and plays any role in these patients. Heavily pretreated metastatic uveal melanoma patients were tested with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). Planar images of the whole body complemented by single-photon emission computed tomography on suspected sites were acquired between 4 and 24 h after an intravenous administration of 185-222 MBq (5-6 mCi) of indium-octeotride. SSTR expression in metastatic tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In seven patients, sandostatin LAR was used with therapeutic intention. Thirty white patients were tested. All had extensive metastatic disease and the median number of previous treatments was three. SRS was found to be positive in 14 (46%) of the patients, but was not related to sex, type of previous treatments, tumor site, or histological type. In 10 patients, sufficient tumor specimens were available to perform immunohistochemical staining for SSTR. All cases with positive SSTR-2A staining were also positive by SRS. Two of the seven patients who received sandostatin LAR died within a month after receiving the first dose, whereas another two (28.5%) had stable disease for more than 5 months. The median time to progression after starting sandostatin was 2.1 months (range: 0.2-5.5 months). Approximately 50% of the uveal melanoma patients with extensive metastatic disease were positive for SSR, which was consistent with immunohistochemical staining for SSTR-2A. Therapeutic approaches targeting SSTR might be beneficial in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma.
    Melanoma research 11/2012; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thyroid gland was one of the first organs imaged in nuclear medicine, beginning in the 1940s. Thyroid scintigraphy is based on a specific phase or prelude to thyroid hormone synthesis, namely trapping of iodide or iodide analogues (ie, Tc99m pertechnetate), and in the case of radioactive iodine, eventual incorporation into thyroid hormone synthesis within the thyroid follicle. Moreover, thyroid scintigraphy is a reflection of the functional state of the gland, as well as the physiological state of any structure (ie, nodule) within the gland. Scintigraphy, therefore, provides information that anatomical imaging (ie, ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) lacks. Thyroid scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of patients with benign or malignant thyroid disease. In the former, the structure or architecture of the gland is best demonstrated by anatomical or cross-sectional imaging, such as ultrasound, CT, or even magnetic resonance imaging. The role of scintigraphy, however, is to display the functional state of the thyroid gland or that of a clinically palpable nodule within the gland. Such information is most useful in (1) patients with thyrotoxicosis, and (2) those patients whose thyroid nodules would not require tissue sampling if their nodules are hyperfunctioning. In neoplastic thyroid disease, thyroid scintigraphy is often standard of care for postthyroidectomy remnant evaluation and in subsequent thyroid cancer surveillance. Planar radioiodine imaging, in the form of the whole-body scan (WBS) and posttherapy scan (PTS), is a fundamental tool in differentiated thyroid cancer management. Continued controversy remains over the utility of WBS in a variety of patient risk groups and clinical scenarios. Proponents on both sides of the arguments compare WBS with PTS, thyroglobulin, and other imaging modalities with differing results. The paucity of large, randomized, prospective studies results in dependence on consensus expert opinion and retrospective analysis with inherent bias. With a growing trend not to ablate low-risk patients, so that a PTS cannot be performed, some thyroid carcinoma patients may never have radioiodine imaging. In routine clinical practice, however, imaging plays a critical role in patient management both before and after treatment. Moreover, as evidenced by the robust flow of publications concerning WBS and PTS, planar imaging of thyroid carcinoma remains a topic of great interest in this modern age of rapidly advancing cross sectional and hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography/CT, and positron emission tomography/CT.
    Seminars in nuclear medicine 01/2012; 42(1):49-61. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as normal serum free thyroxine and a free triiodothyronine level, with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and is usually undetectable. Although patients with this diagnosis have no or few signs and symptoms of overt thyrotoxicosis, there is sufficient evidence that it is associated with a relatively higher risk of supraventricular arrhythmias as well as the acceleration or the development of osteoporosis. Consequently, the approach to the patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism is controversial, that is, therapeutic intervention versus watchful waiting. Regardless, it is imperative for the referring physician to identify the causative thyroid disorder. This is optimally accomplished by a functional study, namely scintigraphy. Recognition of the scan findings of the various causes of subclinical hyperthyroidism enables the imaging specialist to help in diagnosing the underlying condition causing thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression thereby facilitating the workup and management of this thyroid disorder.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 09/2011; 36(9):e107-13. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphoscintigraphy has become part of the standard of care for patients with a new or recurrent diagnosis of melanoma, in helping determine the status of regional lymph nodes. Correct identification of sentinel lymph nodes enables the surgeon to further delineate the extent of malignancy by allowing sampling of the appropriate nodal group. Performing the lymphoscintigraphy prior to the planned operation allows limited surgery with less extensive postoperative morbidity. For this reason, a thorough knowledge of the lymph node drainage patterns from the different primary tumor locations, as well as of proper lymphoscintigraphic techniques and radiopharmaceuticals, constitutes an important armamentarium in the hands of surgeons, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians.
    Radiographics 01/2009; 29(4):1125-35. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radionuclide imaging is often used in the diagnosis and work-up of a wide range of neoplasms, on the basis of the biologic behavior of the tumor. Neuroendocrine tumors are a subgroup of neoplasms that are generally small and slow growing, and consequently their identification with conventional anatomic imaging can be difficult. Depending on the physiologic properties of the tumor, functional images obtained with radionuclides are often complementary to anatomic images, not only in the localization of the tumor and its metastases, but also in the assessment of prognosis and response to therapy. Familiarity with the choice of the appropriate radiopharmaceutical, proper imaging protocols, and the wide range of imaging patterns will enable the radiologist to guide the clinician in case management.
    Radiographics 01/2007; 27(5):1355-69. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lungs are among the most common sites for metastases from a multitude of cancers. The majority of pulmonary metastases appear nodular on radiologic images. Interstitial spread of tumor through pulmonary lymphatics, also known as pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC), is not uncommon and constitutes approximately 7% of pulmonary metastases. PLC is most often seen with adenocarcinoma of a variety of histologies such as thyroid carcinoma, and melanoma. It is usually noted in late stages of malignancy and therefore is indicative of a poor prognosis. Diagnosis of PLC is usually based on a combination of clinical and radiologic findings. However, the diagnosis is difficult when patients have limited clinical findings or have a history of or the possibility of other interstitial lung diseases. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been the modality of choice in the radiologic diagnosis of PLC. Imaging features of PLC on HRCT include thickening of interlobular septa, fissures, and bronchovascular bundles. Distribution of PLC may be focal or diffuse, unilateral or bilateral, and symmetric or asymmetric. Although FDG-PET has been extensively used in primary or secondary lung malignancies, its role and appearance in PLC have not been well determined in the literature. In this communication, we describe a spectrum of FDG-PET and CT findings in 5 cases with PLC. Similar to CT, the distribution of PLC can be extensive or limited on the FDG-PET. Diffuse, lobar, or segmental FDG uptake in the lungs is seen in extensive PLC. In limited PLC, a linear or a hazy area of FDG uptake extending from the tumor can be seen. Recognition of various patterns related to PLC on FDG-PET may allow accurate diagnosis of disease and could potentially influence the management of these patients.
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine 12/2006; 31(11):673-8. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic pain resulting from complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I), formerly referred to as the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS), is a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. It involves multiple organ systems, namely peripheral as well as central nervous, vascular, soft tissue, and skeletal. It usually develops as a consequence of trauma, without nerve injury. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the time since the initiating event, and there is no confirmatory histopathologic diagnosis. This article summarizes the current consensus on the classification, pathophysiology, and diagnostic approaches, emphasizing the role of scintigraphy in the management of this multisystem disorder.
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine 07/2005; 30(6):400-7. · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Nuclear Medicine 12/2004; 29(11):727-9. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if stunning can be seen with a 185-MBq (5-mCi) dose of iodine 131 (131I) at diagnostic whole-body scanning and, if stunning is seen, determine if there is any 131I therapeutic efficacy. A retrospective review of findings involving 166 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma was performed. Diagnostic 131I scans were compared with postablation scans for evidence of stunning. Stunning was defined when the diagnostic scan showed activity that was subsequently decreased on the postablation scan. The sample population was divided into two groups: group NS, patients with no stunning, and group S, patients with stunning. Patients were considered successfully treated if no functioning thyroid tissue and/or metastases were seen on follow-up diagnostic scans. Fisher exact and Student t tests were used to evaluate the statistical significance of therapy success rates, clinical characteristics, and scanning parameters between the two groups. Group NS included 135 (81.3%) of 166 patients, with 36 (26.7%) of 135 lost to follow-up. Group S included 31 (18.7%) of 166 patients, with eight (26%) of 31 patients lost to follow-up. There was no significant difference (P =.61) in treatment success rates between group NS (87 of 99, 88%) and group S (21 of 23, 91%). The treatment success rates for thyroid remnants were 87% (48 of 55) for group NS and 91% (10 of 11) for group S (P =.63). Treatment success rates for metastases (mostly lymph nodes) were 89% (39 of 44) for group NS and 83% (10 of 12) for group S (P =.55). Thyroid stunning can occur with 185 MBq of 131I in diagnostic imaging. However, data did not show any effect of stunning on the efficacy of 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
    Radiology 09/2004; 232(2):527-33. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The term thyrotoxicosis refers to the clinical syndrome of increased systemic metabolism that results when the serum concentrations of free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, or both are elevated. The term hyperthyroidism refers to overactivity of the thyroid gland with a resultant increase in thyroid hormone synthesis and release into the systemic circulation. These terms are not interchangeable, since thyrotoxicosis can develop in thyroid conditions that are not associated with increased thyroid function, such as thyroiditis, or in so-called factitious hyperthyroidism. The clinical signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis are virtually identical regardless of the cause. However, in a given patient, every attempt should be made to determine the exact cause of the thyrotoxicosis, as this in turn determines the prognosis and treatment. Since thyroid scintigraphy demonstrates the functional state of the thyroid gland, it should be used, in conjunction with determination of radioactive iodine uptake, as the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. Although the scintigraphic features of several of the thyroid disorders that cause thyrotoxicosis may overlap, their recognition helps narrow the differential diagnosis, thereby guiding the referring physician in the work-up and management of this disorder.
    Radiographics 01/2003; 23(4):857-69. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the safety and efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy as an alternative therapy to surgical resection for optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs). Thirty patients and 33 optic nerves with ONSMs were treated with conventional fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy treatment (CF-SRT) between July 1996 and May 2001 with the use of a 6-MeV LINAC designed for and dedicated to radiosurgery. The LINAC technique involved daily CF-SRT involving a relocatable frame, an average of three isocenters, and high-radiation dose conformality established by noncoplanar arc beam shaping and differential beam weighting. The patients who were treated with CF-SRT were followed clinically with serial visual fields and radiographically with both magnetic resonance imaging and functional (111)In-octreotide single-photon emission computed tomography. The results of treatment were compared with a historical control group of ONSM patients who were either observed or treated surgically and then observed. Our study population comprised 18 women and 12 men with a median age of 44 years (age range, 20-76 yr). The median isosurface radiation dose was 51 Gy (dose range, 50-54.0 Gy), and the median clinical follow-up time was 89 weeks (range, 9-284 wk). Of 22 optic nerves with vision before CF-SRT, 20 nerves (92%) demonstrated preserved vision, and 42% manifested improvement in visual acuity and/or visual field at follow-up. Comparison of our patients with a historical control group revealed preserved vision in only 16% of patients in a comparable period of observation, along with a 150% greater probability of visual improvement. Four patients (13%) had posttreatment morbidities, including visual loss (two patients), optic neuritis (one patient), and transient orbital pain (one patient). On magnetic resonance imaging studies, there was no evidence of tumor progression or recurrence in all patients, including tumor volume reductions noted in four patients. All six patients monitored with (111)In-octreotide scintigraphy demonstrated significant decreases in tumor activity after CF-SRT. To date, this article describes the largest reported series of ONSMs. Although longer follow-up is necessary, we think that CF-SRT represents a safe alternative to surgery and offers a higher likelihood of preserved or improved vision in patients with ONSM. Our analysis suggests that CF-SRT is also preferable to observation. Functional (111)In-octreotide single-photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy provides a useful technique for the assessment of tumor control that complements serial posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging in patients with ONSMs.
    Neurosurgery 11/2002; 51(4):890-902; discussion 903-4. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/1997; 4(1). · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphoscintigraphy of malignant melanoma has been a reliable method of identifying regional lymph nodes at risk for metastases and is now considered part of the standard of care in patients with melanoma. The status of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is predictive of the metastatic status of the corresponding regional lymph node group. Lymphatic channel mapping allows identification of the SLN, thereby making selective lymph node sampling possible. Consequently, SLN identification with lymphoscintigraphy results in both less extensive surgery and more efficient pathologic examination of the lymph node specimens. Therefore, it is imperative that radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians know which radiopharmaceuticals to use, recognize different lymphatic drainage patterns from various primary tumor sites throughout the body, use proper imaging techniques, and recognize potential pitfalls in image interpretation.
    Radiographics 22(3):491-502. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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