[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B cells acquire membrane-bound cognate antigens from the surface of the APCs by forming an IS, similar to that seen in T cells. Recognition of membrane-bound antigens on the APCs initiates adhesion of B lymphocytes to the antigen-tethered surface, which is followed by the formation of radial lamellipodia-like structures, a process known as B cell spreading. The spreading response requires the rearrangement of the submembrane actin cytoskeleton and is regulated mainly via signals transmitted by the BCR. Here, we show that cytoplasmic calcium is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in B lymphocytes. We find that BCR-induced calcium mobilization is indispensible for adhesion and spreading of B cells and that PLCγ and CRAC-mediated calcium mobilization are critical regulators of these processes. Measuring calcium and actin dynamics in live cells, we found that a generation of actin-based membrane protrusion is strongly linked to the dynamics of a cytoplasmic-free calcium level. Finally, we demonstrate that PLCγ and CRAC channels regulate the activity of actin-severing protein cofilin, linking BCR-induced calcium signaling to the actin dynamics.
Journal of leukocyte biology 01/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies specific for bovine type II collagen (CII) and Fcγ receptors play a major role in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to clarify the mechanism of immune complex-mediated inflammation and modulation of the disease. CII pre-immunized DBA/1 mice were intravenously boosted with extravidin coupled biotinylated monomeric CII-peptide epitope (ARGLTGRPGDA) and its complexes with biotinylated FcγRII/III specific single chain Fv (scFv) fragment. Disease scores were monitored, antibody titers and cytokines were determined by ELISA, and binding of complexes was detected by flow cytometry and immune histochemistry. Cytokine and chemokine secretion was monitored by protein profiler microarray. When intravenously administered into collagen-primed DBA/1 mice, both CII-peptide and its complex with 2.4G2 scFv significantly accelerated CIA and increased the severity of the disease, whereas the monomeric peptide and monomeric 2.4G2 scFv had no effect. FcγRII/III targeted CII-peptide complexes bound to marginal zone macrophages and dendritic cells, and significantly elevated the synthesis of peptide-specific IgG2a. Furthermore, CII-peptide containing complexes augmented the in vivo secretion of cytokines, including IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23, and chemokines (CXCL13, MIP-1, MIP-2). These data indicate that complexes formed by the CII-peptide epitope aggravate CIA by inducing the secretion of chemokines and the IL-12/23 family of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that the in vivo emerging immune complexes formed with autoantigen(s) may trigger the IL-12/23 dependent pathways, escalating the inflammation in RA. Thus blockade of these cytokines may be beneficial to downregulate immune complex-induced inflammation in autoimmune arthritis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plasma membrane has been hypothesized to contain nanoscopic lipid platforms, which are discussed in the context of "lipid rafts" or "membrane rafts." Based on biochemical and cell biological studies, rafts are believed to play a crucial role in many signaling processes. However, there is currently not much information on their size, shape, stability, surface density, composition, and heterogeneity. We present here a method that allows for the first time the direct imaging of nanoscopic long-lived platforms with raft-like properties diffusing in the live cell plasma membrane. Our method senses these platforms by their property to assemble a characteristic set of fluorescent marker proteins or lipids on a time scale of seconds. A special photobleaching protocol was used to reduce the surface density of labeled mobile platforms down to the level of well isolated diffraction-limited spots without altering the single spot brightness. The statistical distribution of probe molecules per platform was determined by single molecule brightness analysis. For demonstration, we used the consensus raft marker glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored monomeric GFP and the fluorescent lipid analog BODIPY-G(M1), which preferentially partitions into liquid-ordered phases. For both markers, we found cholesterol-dependent homo-association in the plasma membrane of living CHO and Jurkat T cells in the resting state, thereby demonstrating the existence of small, mobile, long-lived platforms containing these probes. We further applied the technology to address structural changes in the plasma membrane during fever-type heat shock: at elevated temperatures, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored monomeric GFP homo-association disappeared, accompanied by an increase in the expression of the small heat shock protein Hsp27.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(53):41765-71. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen plays a critical regulatory role in the development and maintenance of immunity. Its role in the regulation of antibody synthesis in vivo is still not completely clear. Here, we have compared the effect of estrogen on T cell-dependent (TD) and T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) antibody responses. The results provide the first evidence that estrogen enhances the TD but not the TI-2 response. Ovariectomy significantly decreased, while estrogen re-administration increased the number of hapten-specific IgM- and IgG-producing cells in response to TD antigen. In vitro experiments also show that estrogen may have a direct impact on B and T cells by inducing rapid signaling events, such as Erk and AKT phosphorylation, cell-specific Ca(2+) signal, and NFkappaB activation. These non-transcriptional effects are mediated by classical estrogen receptors and partly by an as yet unidentified plasma membrane estrogen receptor. Such receptor- mediated rapid signals may modulate the in vivo T cell-dependent immune response.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 02/2010; 67(10):1661-74. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evolutionarily developed microdomain structure of biological membranes has gained more and more attention in the past decade. The caveolin-free "membrane rafts," the caveolin-expressing rafts (caveolae), as well as other membrane microdomains seem to play an essential role in controlling and coordinating cell-surface molecular recognition, internalization/endocytosis of the bound molecules or pathogenic organisms and in regulation of transmembrane signal transduction processes. Therefore, in many research fields (e.g. neurobiology and immunology), there is an ongoing need to understand the nature of these microdomains and to quantitatively characterize their lipid and protein composition under various physiological and pathological conditions. Flow and image cytometry offer many sophisticated and routine tools to study these questions. In this review, we give an overview of the past efforts to detect and characterize these membrane microdomains by the use of classical cytometric technologies, and finally we will discuss the results and perspectives of a new line of raft cytometry, the "high throughput screening assays of membrane microdomains," based on "lipidomic" and "proteomic" approaches.
Cytometry Part A 08/2008; 73(7):599-614. · 3.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ceramide is a widely accepted mediator of T cell apoptosis and is released upon receiving various death or stress signals. Recently we have shown that the fate of T cells, life or death, depends strictly on the strength and duration of the ceramide-generating stimulus. Subapoptotic ceramide signals were shown to negatively regulate the antigen-specific activation signaling in T cells. Here we show that these subapoptotic ceramide signals also inhibit the antigen-triggered Ca2+ signals in B lymphocytes or the FcepsilonRI-mediated response of mast cells to antigen, but in a differential manner. Burkitt B lymphoma cells, frequently used models of mature B cells, and marginal zone B cells were largely resistant to the inhibitory action of ceramide. The response to cell death-inducing (strong/long duration) ceramide stimuli, resulting in massive apoptosis in T cells, was also differential among the various immunocytes in terms of both the death mechanism and the sensitivity. Our data suggest that ceramide's effects on life and death signaling in immunocytes are cell type-/stage-specific.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2007; 1090:161-7. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The possible regulatory mechanisms by which glycosphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains, caveolar and non-caveolar lipid rafts, control the immune response are continuously expanding. In the present overview we will focus on how these membrane-organizing lipids are involved, in collaboration with tetraspanin proteins, in the formation of distinct MHC-I and MHC-II microdomains at the cell surface and will analyze the possible roles of MHC compartmentation in the processes of antigen presentation and regulation of various stages of the cellular immune response. Some basic, lipid raft- and tetraspan mediated mechanisms involved in the formation and function of immunological synapses between various APCs and T-cells will also be discussed. Finally, a new aspect of immune regulation by sphingolipids will be briefly described, namely how can the death or stress signals, leading to ceramide accumulation, result in raft-associated regulatory platforms controlling cell death or antigen-induced, TCRmediated signaling of T-lymphocytes. The influence of these signals and their cross-talk on the fate (death or survival) of T-cells and the outcome of T-cell response will also be discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphingomyelinase (SMase)-mediated release of ceramide in the plasma membrane of T-lymphocytes induced by different stimuli such as ligation of Fas/CD95, irradiation, stress, inflammation or anticancer drugs primarily involves mitochondrial apoptosis signaling, but under specific conditions non-apoptotic Fas-signaling was also reported. Here we investigated, using a quantitative simulation model with exogenous C2-ceramide (and SMase), the dependence of activation and fate of T-cells on the strength and duration of ceramide accumulation. A murine, influenza virus hemagglutinin-specific T-helper cell (IP12-7) alone or together with interacting antigen presenting B-cells (APC) was used. C2-ceramide induced apoptosis of TH cells above a 'threshold' stimulus (>25 microM in 'strength' or >30 min in duration), while below the threshold C2-ceramide was non-apoptotic, as confirmed by early and late apoptotic markers (PS-translocation, mitochondrial depolarization, caspase-3 activation, DNA-fragmentation). The modest ceramide stimuli strongly suppressed the calcium response and inhibited several downstream signal events (e.g. ERK1/2-, JNK-phosphorylation, CD69 expression or IL-2 production) in TH cells during both anti-CD3 induced and APC-triggered activation. Ceramide moderately affected the Ca2+ -release from internal stores upon antigen-specific engagement of TCR in immunological synapses, while the influx phase was remarkably reduced in both amplitude and rate, suggesting that the major target(s) of ceramide-effects are membrane-proximal. Ceramide inhibited Kv1.3 potassium channels, store operated Ca2+ -entry (SOC) and depolarized the plasma membrane to which contribution of spontaneously formed ceramide channels is possible. The impaired function of these transporters may be coupled to the quantitative, membrane raft-remodeling effect of ceramide and responsible, in a concerted action, for the suppressed activation. Our results suggest that non-apoptotic Fas stimuli, received from previously activated, FasL+ interacting lymphocytes in the lymph nodes, may negatively regulate subsequent antigen-specific T-cell activation and thus modulate the antigen-specific T-cell response.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Engagement of antigen receptors on immature B cells induces apoptosis, while at the mature stage, it stimulates cell activation and proliferation. The difference in B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling pathways regulating death or survival of B cells is not fully understood. We aimed to characterize the pathway leading to BCR-driven apoptosis. Transitional immature B cells were obtained from the spleen of sublethally irradiated and auto-reconstituted mice. We have detected a short-lived BCR-driven activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK) and Akt/PKB in transitional immature B cells that correlated with the lack of c-Fos expression, reduced phosphorylation of Akt substrates and a susceptibility for apoptosis. Simultaneous signaling through BCR and CD40 protected immature B cells from apoptosis, however, without inducing Bcl-2 expression. The BCR-induced apoptosis of immature B cells is a result of the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and the subsequent activation of caspase-3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A T49696 OTKA projekt (3 év) támogatásával elért főbb eredmények: Kimutattuk, hogy a sejtmembrán "tutajok" szfingolipid és koleszterin alkotóelemei fontos szabályozói a T sejtek aktiváció/sejthalál egyensúlyának, valamint a polarizált helper T sejtek válaszképességének. Megmutattuk ezen folyamatokban a ceramidok, a Kv és Cav ioncsatornák alapvető szerepét is. Az általunk leírt szignálintegrációs modell újabb immunmodulációs lehetőségeket kínál. Kimutattuk, hogy az ösztrogén steroid hormonok gyors, nem-genomiális jeleket indukálnak T és B limfocitákon (foszforiláció, szelektív kalcium szignál, stb.), egy még nem azonosított membránreceptoron keresztül, és fokozzák a T sejt-függő, antigén-indukált ellenanyagtermelést. Eredményeink elősegíthetik az ösztrogénszint és egyes autoimmunbetegségek közötti összefüggések hátterének mélyebb megértését. Új, koleszterin-specifikus IgG monoklonális ellenanyagokat (AC1, AC8) állítottunk elő, melyeknek megmutattuk celluláris-koleszterin diagnosztikai célokra történő alkalmazhatóságát. Ezen ellenanyagok képesek a HIV-infekció/ termelés gátlására monocita-makrofág és T sejteken in vitro, elsősorban a célsejtek plazmamembránjának (lipid tutajok, HIV receptorok) molekuláris átrendezése révén. A projekt eredményeit felhasználva 2 PhD tudományos fokozat született; 6 referált tudományos közlemény nemzetközi folyóiratban; 4 új kongresszusi absztrakt, melyekből folyamatos a publikálás (3 publikáció-kész közlemény) | Main results of the project T49696 supported by OTKA (3 years): We have shown that two lipid constituents of rafts (sphingolipids or cholesterol) are critical in regulating the balance of activation/cell death signaling in T cells or the functional responses of polarized Th1 or Th2 cells. Specific, important contribution of ceramides, Kv and Cav ion channels was also shown in these processes, offering new possibilites of immunomodulation. Rapid, non-genomial signals (selective phosphorylation and Ca2+ signals or NFκB nuclear translocation) of estrogen steroid hormones have been shown in both T and B lymphocytes, that may be partly responsible for augmentation of the T-dependent humoral immune response observed in in vivo mice studies. These effects, mediated by a yet unidentified E2 membrane receptor, may help us to reveal and understand the relationship between estrogen levels and several autoimmune diseases. We generated novel cholesterol-specific IgG antibodies (AC1 and AC8), that may serve as diagnostic markers of clustered cholesterol (cell-free or cellular). As one of their most intriguing biological activity - inhibition of HIV entry/production in vitro - has been elucidated and shown that the major mechanism of action is remodeling of the target cells' plasma membrane (rafts and HIV receptors). 2 PhD degrees were received based on these results; 6 reviewed research articles; 4 new Congress Abstracts (publication is continuous: 3 publication-ready manuscripts)