Tomomi Nemoto

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Miura, Kanagawa-ken, Japan

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Publications (19)146.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Noc2, a putative Rab effector, contributes to secretory-granule exocytosis in neuroendocrine and exocrine cells. Here, using two-photon excitation live-cell imaging, we investigated its role in Ca(2+)-dependent zymogen granule (ZG) exocytosis in pancreatic acinar cells from wild-type (WT) and Noc2-knockout (KO) mice. Imaging of a KO acinar cell revealed an expanded granular area, indicating ZG accumulation. In our spatiotemporal analysis of the ZG exocytosis induced by agonist (cholecystokinin or acetylcholine) stimulation, the location and rate of progress of ZG exocytosis did not differ significantly between the two strains. ZG exocytosis from KO acinar cells was seldom observed at physiological concentrations of agonists, but was normal (vs. WT) at high concentrations. Flash photolysis of a caged calcium compound confirmed the integrity of the fusion step of ZG exocytosis in KO acinar cells. The decreased ZG exocytosis present at physiological concentrations of agonists raised the possibility of impaired elicitation of calcium spikes. When calcium spikes were evoked in KO acinar cells by a high agonist concentration: (a) they always started at the apical portion and traveled to the basal portion, and (b) calcium oscillations over the 10 µM level were observed, as in WT acinar cells. At physiological concentrations of agonists, however, sufficient calcium spikes were not observed, suggesting an impaired [Ca(2+)](i)-increase mechanism in KO acinar cells. We propose that in pancreatic acinar cells, Noc2 is not indispensable for the membrane fusion of ZG per se, but instead performs a novel function favoring agonist-induced physiological [Ca(2+)](i) increases.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37048. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that cAMP regulates Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis via protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in neurons and secretory cells. It has, however, never been clarified how regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis by cAMP differs depending on the involvement of PKA and Epac, and depending on two types of secretory vesicles, large dense-core vesicles (LVs) and small vesicles (SVs). In this study, we have directly visualized Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of both LVs and SVs with two-photon imaging in mouse pancreatic beta-cells. We found that marked exocytosis of SVs occurred with a time constant of 0.3 s, more than three times as fast as LV exocytosis, on stimulation by photolysis of a caged-Ca(2+) compound. The diameter of SVs was identified as approximately 80 nm with two-photon imaging, which was confirmed by electron-microscopic investigation with photoconversion of diaminobenzidine. Calcium-dependent exocytosis of SVs was potentiated by the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin, and the potentiating effect was unaffected by antagonists of PKA and was mimicked by the Epac-selective agonist 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl cAMP, unlike that on LVs. Moreover, high-glucose stimulation induced massive exocytosis of SVs in addition to LVs, and photolysis of caged cAMP during glucose stimulation caused potentiation of exocytosis with little delay for SVs but with a latency of 5 s for LVs. Thus, Epac and PKA selectively regulate exocytosis of SVs and LVs, respectively, in beta-cells, and Epac can regulate exocytosis more rapidly than PKA.
    The Journal of Physiology 09/2007; 582(Pt 3):1087-98. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two-photon excitation imaging is the least invasive optical approach to study living tissues. We have established two-photon extracellular polar-tracer (TEP) imaging with which it is possible to visualize and quantify all exocytic events in the plane of focus within secretory tissues. This technology also enables estimate of the precise diameters of vesicles independently of the spatial resolution of the optical microscope, and determination of the fusion pore dynamics at nanometer resolution using TEP-imaging based quantification (TEPIQ). TEP imaging has been applied to representative secretory glands, e.g., exocrine pancreas, endocrine pancreas, adrenal medulla and a pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12), and has revealed unexpected diversity in the spatial organization of exocytosis and endocytosis crucial for the physiology and pathology of secretory tissues and neurons. TEP imaging and TEPIQ analysis are powerful tools for elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms of exocytosis and certain related diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, and the development of new therapeutic agents and diagnostic tools.
    Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 10/2006; 58(7):850-77. · 12.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individual exocytic events in intact adrenal medulla were visualized by two-photon extracellular polar-tracer imaging. Exocytosis of chromaffin vesicles often occurred in a sequential manner, involving first vesicles located at the cell periphery and then those present deeper within the cytoplasm. Sequential exocytosis occurred preferentially at regions of the plasma membrane facing the intercellular space. The compound vesicles swelled to more than five times their original volume and formed vacuolar exocytic lumens as a result of expansion of intravesicular gels and their confinement within the lumen by the fusion pore and the narrow intercellular space. Such luminal swelling greatly promoted sequential exocytosis. The SNARE protein SNAP25 rapidly migrated from the plasma membrane to the membrane of fused vesicles. These data indicate that vesicles present deeper within the cytoplasm can be fusion ready like those at the cell periphery, and that swelling of exocytic lumens promotes assembly of the fusion machinery. We suggest the existence of two molecular configurations for fusion-ready states in Ca2+ -dependent exocytosis.
    The EMBO Journal 03/2006; 25(4):673-82. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of protein kinase A (PKA) in insulin exocytosis was investigated with the use of two-photon excitation imaging of mouse islets of Langerhans. Inhibitors of PKA selectively reduced the number of exocytic events during the initial period (< 250 s) of the first phase of glucose-induced exocytosis (GIE), without affecting the second phase, in intact islets or small clusters of islet cells. The PKA inhibitors did not reduce the extent of the glucose-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i). The actions of glucose and PKA in Ca(2+)-induced insulin exocytosis (CIE) triggered by photolysis of a caged-Ca(2+) compound, which resulted in large increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and thereby bypassed the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel-dependent mechanism of glucose sensing, were therefore studied. A high concentration (20 mM) of glucose potentiated CIE within 1 min, and this effect was blocked by inhibitors of PKA. This PKA-dependent action of glucose required glucose metabolism, given that increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP by treatment with forskolin potentiated CIE only at the high glucose concentration. Finally, PKA appeared to reduce the frequency of 'kiss-and-run' exocytic events and to promote full-fusion events during GIE. These data indicate that a PKA-dependent mechanism of glucose sensing, which is operative even at the basal level of PKA activity, plays an important role specifically in the first phase of GIE, and they suggest that the action of PKA is mediated at the level of the fusion reaction.
    The Journal of Physiology 01/2006; 570(Pt 2):271-82. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed an imaging approach to estimate the diameter of exocytic vesicles that are smaller than the resolution of an optical microscope and present within intact tissue. This approach is based on two-photon excitation imaging of polar tracers in the extracellular medium, is designated TEPIQ (two-photon extracellular polar-tracer imaging-based quantification), and has three variants. TEPIQ analysis of DeltaV measures vesicle volume with a fluid-phase tracer, sulforhodamine B (SRB). TEPIQ analysis of DeltaS determines vesicle surface area with a polar membrane tracer, FM1-43. TEPIQ analysis of DeltaV/DeltaS estimates vesicle diameter from the SRB/FM1-43 fluorescence ratio. TEPIQ analysis is insensitive to microscope settings because the same setup is used for calibration and actual experiments. We tested the validity of TEPIQ with glucose-induced exocytosis from beta-cells within pancreatic islets. The three TEPIQ variants yielded estimates for the mean diameter of exocytic vesicles of between 340 and 390 nm, consistent with the size of insulin granules. TEPIQ analysis relies on the combination of two-photon excitation imaging, the narrow intercellular spaces of intact tissue, and the presence of diffusible polar tracers in the extracellular medium. It allows quantitative imaging of exocytosis within secretory organs, yielding estimates of vesicle diameter with nanometer resolution.
    The Journal of Physiology 12/2005; 568(Pt 3):891-903. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated exocytosis of PC12 cells using two-photon excitation imaging and extracellular polar tracers (TEP imaging) in the lateral membranes not facing the glass-cover slip. Upon photolysis of a caged Ca2+ compound, TEP imaging with FM1-43 (a polar membrane tracer) detected massive exocytosis of vesicles with a time constant of about 1 s. TEPIQ (two-photon extracellular polar-tracer imaging-based quantification) analysis revealed that the diameter of vesicles was small (55 nm). Extensive exocytosis of small vesicles (SVs) was shown to be mediated by the transient opening of a fusion pore with a diameter less than about 1.6 nm, and to be followed by direct ('kiss-and-run') endocytosis and translocation of the endocytic vesicles (EVs) deep into the cytoplasm. These processes were unaffected by GTP-gamma-S. In contrast, constitutive endocytic vesicles exhibited a diameter of 90 nm, took up molecules with a diameter of > 12 nm, and their formation was blocked by GTP-gamma-S. Electron-microscopic investigation with photoconversion of diaminobenzidine using FM1-43 confirmed an abundance of EVs with a diameter of 54 nm in stimulated cells. They rapidly translocated into the cytosol, and fused with endosomal organelles. The number of SV exocytosis events vastly exceeded the number of SVs morphologically docked at the plasma membrane. Simultaneous capacitance and FM1-43 measurements indicated that TEP imaging detected most SV exocytosis, and the fusion pore was closed within 2 s. Thus, we have, for the first time, directly visualized massive exocytosis of small vesicles in a non-synaptic preparation, and have revealed their fusion-pore mediated exocytosis and endocytosis.
    The Journal of Physiology 12/2005; 568(Pt 3):917-29. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated exocytosis of PC12 cells using two-photon excitation imaging and extracellular polar tracers (TEP imaging) at the basal region of PC12 cells adjacent to the glass cover slip. TEPIQ (two-photon extracellular polar-tracer imaging-based quantification) analysis revealed that most exocytosis was mediated by large dense-core vesicles (LVs) with a mean diameter of 220 nm, and that exocytosis of LVs occurred slowly with a mean latency of approximately 7 s even though exocytosis was induced with large increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by uncaging of a caged-Ca2+ compound. We also found that 97% of exocytic LVs remained poised at the plasma membrane, 72% maintained their fusion pores in an open conformation for more than 30 s, and 76% triggered sequential compound exocytosis of vesicles that were located deeper in the cytosol. Sequential compound exocytosis by PC12 cells was confirmed by electron microscopic investigation with photoconversion of diaminobenzidine by FM1-43 (a polar membrane tracer). Our data suggest that pre-stimulus docking of LVs to the plasma membrane does not necessarily hasten the fusion reaction, while docking and resulting stability of exocytic LVs facilitates sequential compound exocytosis, and thereby allowing mobilization of deep vesicles.
    The Journal of Physiology 12/2005; 568(Pt 3):905-15. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxygen consumption increases within a fraction of a second after the onset of neuronal activity, a phenomenon referred to as the "initial dip" in functional imaging studies of the living brain. The cellular mechanism that underlies this rapid increase in oxygen consumption has remained unclear, however. We have now used two-photon excitation imaging to characterize rapid activity-dependent mitochondrial responses in single neurons. This approach allowed simultaneous multicolor imaging of individual mitochondria in single mouse Purkinje neurons in culture. Mitochondrial depolarization was induced immediately when the cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) exceeded 15 microM and was associated with oxidation of mitochondrial NAD(P)H, suggesting that Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial depolarization mediated by the Ca(2+) uniporter directly facilitated oxidation of NAD(P)H. With the use of a miniature oxygen electrode, we detected a burst of oxygen consumption within 0.2s after the onset of cell depolarization in single Purkinje neurons, and this rapid increase in oxygen consumption was dependent on the increase in [Ca(2+)](i). We have thus demonstrated a rapid Ca(2+)-dependent consumption of oxygen that is mediated by mitochondrial depolarization in mammalian central neurons. This process might function as a rapid feed-forward mechanism in homeostatic control of the cytosolic ATP concentration.
    Cell Calcium 05/2005; 37(4):359-70. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The spatiotemporal changes in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) as well as fluid secretion and exocytosis induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in intact acini of guinea pig nasal glands were investigated by two-photon excitation imaging. Cross-sectional images of acini loaded with the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator fura-2 revealed that the ACh-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was immediate and spread from the apical region (the secretory pole) of acinar cells to the basal region. Immersion of acini in a solution containing a fluorescent polar tracer, sulforhodamine B (SRB), revealed that fluid secretion, detected as a rapid disappearance of SRB fluorescence from the extracellular space, occurred exclusively in the luminal region and was accompanied by a reduction in acinar cell volume. Individual exocytic events were also visualized with SRB as the formation of Omega-shaped profiles at the apical membrane. In contrast to the rapidity of fluid secretion, exocytosis of secretory granules occurred with a delay of approximately 70s relative to the increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Exocytic events also occurred deep within the cytoplasm in a sequential manner with the latency of secondary exocytosis being greatly reduced compared with that of primary exocytosis. The delay in sequential compound exocytosis relative to fluid secretion may be important for release of the viscous contents of secretory granules into the nasal cavity.
    Cell Calcium 05/2005; 37(4):349-57. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reorganization of F-actin in the apical region of mouse pancreatic acinar cells during Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of zymogen granules was investigated by two-photon excitation microscopy with intact acini. Granules were rapidly coated with F-actin in response to either agonist stimulation or photolysis of a caged-Ca(2+) compound. Such F-actin coating occurred exclusively at the surface of granules undergoing exocytosis and was prevented either by latrunculin-A, which inhibits actin polymerization, or by Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3, which inhibits the small GTPase Rho. Latrunculin-A or exoenzyme C3 also triggered the formation of vacuoles in acinar cells, a characteristic of acute pancreatitis. Stimulation of acini with high concentrations of cholecystokinin, which cause acute pancreatitis in mice, also impaired the F-actin coating of granules and induced vacuole formation. Latrunculin-A reduced the latency to exocytosis but did not affect the total number of exocytic events, suggesting that F-actin slows and further stabilizes exocytosis by facilitating F-actin coating. Rho-dependent F-actin coating of granule membranes thus stabilizes exocytic structures and is necessary for physiological progression of sequetial compound exocytosis in the exocrine pancreas and for prevention of acute pancreatitis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2004; 279(36):37544-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the mechanism underlying diabetes caused by mitochondrial gene mutations, we created a model by applying 0.4 microg/ml ethidium bromide (EtBr) to the murine pancreatic beta cell line betaHC9; in this model, transcription of mitochondrial DNA, but not that of nuclear DNA, was suppressed in association with impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release (Hayakawa, T., Noda, M., Yasuda, K., Yorifuji, H., Taniguchi, S., Miwa, I., Sakura, H., Terauchi, Y., Hayashi, J.-I., Sharp, G. W. G., Kanazawa, Y., Akanuma, Y., Yazaki, Y., and Kadowaki, T. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 20300-20307). To elucidate fully the metabolism-secretion coupling in these cells, we measured glucose oxidation, utilization, and lactate production. We also evaluated NADH autofluorescence in betaHC9 cells using two-photon excitation laser microscopy. In addition, we recorded the membrane potential and determined the ATP and ADP contents of the cells. The results indicated 22.2 mm glucose oxidation to be severely decreased by EtBr treatment compared with control cells (by 63% on day 4 and by 78% on day 6; both p < 0.01). By contrast, glucose utilization was only marginally decreased. Lactate production under 22.2 mm glucose was increased by 2.9- and 3.5-fold by EtBr treatment on days 4 and 6, respectively (both p < 0.01). Cellular NADH at 2.8 mm glucose was increased by 35 and 43% by EtBr on days 4 and 6 (both p < 0.01). These data suggest that reduced expression of the mitochondrial electron transport system causes NADH accumulation in beta cells, thereby halting the tricarboxylic acid cycle on one hand, and on the other hand facilitating anaerobic glucose metabolism. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was lost rapidly along with the EtBr treatment with concomitant losses of membrane potential depolarization and the [Ca(2+)](i) increase, whereas glibenclamide-induced changes persisted. This is the first report to demonstrate the connection between metabolic alteration of electron transport system and that of tricarboxylic acid cycle and its impact on insulin secretion.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2002; 277(44):41817-26. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the mechanism underlying diabetes caused by mitochondrial gene mutations, we created a model by applying 0.4 μg/ml ethidium bromide (EtBr) to the murine pancreatic β cell line βHC9; in this model, transcription of mitochondrial DNA, but not that of nuclear DNA, was suppressed in association with impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release (Hayakawa, T., Noda, M., Yasuda, K., Yorifuji, H., Taniguchi, S., Miwa, I., Sakura, H., Terauchi, Y., Hayashi, J.-I., Sharp, G. W. G., Kanazawa, Y., Akanuma, Y., Yazaki, Y., and Kadowaki, T. (1998)J. Biol. Chem. 273, 20300–20307). To elucidate fully the metabolism-secretion coupling in these cells, we measured glucose oxidation, utilization, and lactate production. We also evaluated NADH autofluorescence in βHC9 cells using two-photon excitation laser microscopy. In addition, we recorded the membrane potential and determined the ATP and ADP contents of the cells. The results indicated 22.2 mm glucose oxidation to be severely decreased by EtBr treatment compared with control cells (by 63% on day 4 and by 78% on day 6; both p < 0.01). By contrast, glucose utilization was only marginally decreased. Lactate production under 22.2 mm glucose was increased by 2.9- and 3.5-fold by EtBr treatment on days 4 and 6, respectively (both p< 0.01). Cellular NADH at 2.8 mm glucose was increased by 35 and 43% by EtBr on days 4 and 6 (both p < 0.01). These data suggest that reduced expression of the mitochondrial electron transport system causes NADH accumulation in β cells, thereby halting the tricarboxylic acid cycle on one hand, and on the other hand facilitating anaerobic glucose metabolism. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was lost rapidly along with the EtBr treatment with concomitant losses of membrane potential depolarization and the [Ca2+]i increase, whereas glibenclamide-induced changes persisted. This is the first report to demonstrate the connection between metabolic alteration of electron transport system and that of tricarboxylic acid cycle and its impact on insulin secretion.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(44):41817-41826. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin secretion from intact mouse pancreatic islets was investigated with two-photon excitation imaging. Insulin granule exocytosis occurred mainly toward the interstitial space, away from blood vessels. The fusion pore was unusually stable with a lifetime of 1.8 seconds. Opening of the 1.4-nanometer-diameter pore was preceded by unrestricted lateral diffusion of lipids along the inner wall of the pore, supporting the idea that this structure is composed of membrane lipids. When the pore dilated to 12 nanometers, the granules rapidly flattened and discharged their contents. Thus, our methodology reveals fusion pore dynamics in intact tissues at nanometer resolution.
    Science 09/2002; 297(5585):1349-52. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various fluorescent probes were assessed for investigating intact islets of Langerhans using two-photon excitation imaging. Polar fluorescent tracers applied on the outside rapidly (within 3 min) penetrated deep into the islets via microvessels. Likewise, an adenovirus carrying a Ca(2+)-sensitive green fluorescent protein mutant gene, yellow cameleon 2.1, was successfully transfected and enabled ratiometric cytosolic Ca(2+) measurement of cells in the deep layers of the islets. Interestingly, FM1-43, which is lipophilic and does not permeate the plasma membrane, also rapidly reached deep cell layers of the islets. In contrast, lipophilic fluorescent probes that permeate the plasma membrane (for example, fura-2-acetoxymethyl and BODIPY-forskolin) accumulated in the superficial cell layers of the islets, even 30 min after application. Thus, two-photon excitation imaging of pancreatic islets is a promising method for clarifying signaling mechanisms of islet cells, particularly when it is combined with membrane-impermeable probes. In addition, our data suggest that membrane-permeable antagonists may affect only the superficial cell layers of islets, and so their negative effects should be interpreted with caution.
    Diabetes 03/2002; 51 Suppl 1:S25-8. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic spines serve as preferential sites of excitatory synaptic connections and are pleomorphic. To address the structure-function relationship of the dendritic spines, we used two-photon uncaging of glutamate to allow mapping of functional glutamate receptors at the level of the single synapse. Our analyses of the spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons reveal that AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid)-type glutamate receptors are abundant (up to 150/spine) in mushroom spines but sparsely distributed in thin spines and filopodia. The latter may be serving as the structural substrates of the silent synapses that have been proposed to play roles in development and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Our data indicate that distribution of functional AMPA receptors is tightly correlated with spine geometry and that receptor activity is independently regulated at the level of single spines.
    Nature Neuroscience 12/2001; 4(11):1086-92. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report exocytosis of zymogen granules, as examined by multiphoton excitation imaging in intact pancreatic acini. Cholecystokinin induces Ca 2+ oscillations that trigger exocytosis when the cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration exceeds 1 microM. Zymogen granules fused with the plasma membrane maintain their Omega-shaped profile for an average of 220 s and serve as targets for sequential fusion of granules that are located within deeper layers of the cell. This secondary exocytosis occurs as rapidly as the primary exocytosis and accounts for most exocytotic events. Granule-granule fusion does not seem to precede primary exocytosis, indicating that secondary fusion events may require a plasma-membrane factor. This sequential-replenishment mechanism of exocytosis allows the cell to take advantage of a large supply of fusion-ready granules without needing to transport them to the plasma membrane.
    Nature Cell Biology 04/2001; 3(3):253-8. · 20.76 Impact Factor
  • Neuroscience Research - NEUROSCI RES. 01/1998; 31.
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Publication Stats

955 Citations
21 Downloads
943 Views
146.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2012
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • Department of Cell Physiology
      Miura, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
  • 2006–2007
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan