[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with poorer event-free survival (EFS) in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) in the bone marrow as measured by multidimensional flow cytometry (MDF) is a key early prognostic indicator and is strongly associated with EFS. We therefore hypothesized that obesity during induction would be associated with positive end of induction MRD (≥0.01%). We analyzed MDF of end-induction bone marrow samples from a historical cohort of 198 children newly diagnosed with B-precursor ALL (BP-ALL) and treated with Children's Oncology Group induction regimens. We assessed the influence of body mass index (BMI) on risk for positive end-induction MRD in the bone marrow. In our cohort of BP-ALL, 30 children were overweight (15.2%) and 41 obese (20.7%) at diagnosis. Independent of established predictors of treatment response, obesity during induction was associated with significantly greater risk for persistent MRD (Odds Ratio 2.57, 95% Confidence Interval 1.19-5.54, p=0.016). Obesity and overweight were associated with poorer EFS irrespective of end-induction MRD (p=0.012). Obese children with newly diagnosed BP-ALL are at increased risk for positive end-induction MRD and poorer EFS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Medulloblastoma in children can be categorized into at least four molecular subgroups, offering the potential for targeted therapeutic approaches to reduce treatment related morbidities. Little is known about the role of tumor microenvironment in medulloblastoma or its contribution to these molecular subgroups. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be an important source for therapeutic targets in both adult and pediatric neoplasms. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that expression of genes related to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) correlates with the medulloblastoma molecular subgroups and contributes to a diagnostic signature. Methods: Gene expression profiling using Human Exon Array (n=168) was analyzed to identify medulloblastoma molecular subgroups and expression of inflammation-related genes. Expression of 45 tumor-related and inflammation-related genes was analyzed in 83 medulloblastoma samples to build a gene signature predictive of molecular subgroups. TAMs in medulloblastomas (n=54) comprising the four molecular subgroups were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: A 31-gene medulloblastoma subgroup classification score inclusive of TAM-related genes (CD163, CSF1R) was developed with a misclassification rate of 2%. Tumors in the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroup had increased expression of inflammation-related genes and significantly higher infiltration of TAMs than tumors in the Group 3 or Group 4 subgroups (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). IHC data revealed a strong association between location of TAMs and proliferating tumor cells. Conclusions: These data show that SHH tumors have a unique tumor microenvironment among medulloblastoma subgroups. The interactions of TAMs and SHH medulloblastoma cells may contribute to tumor growth revealing TAMs as a potential therapeutic target.
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 10/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a critical role in the interaction of tumor cells and their microenvironment. HSPG activity is dictated by sulfation patterns controlled by sulfotransferases, which add sulfate groups, and sulfatases (Sulfs), which remove 6-O-sulfates. Here we report altered expression of these enzymes in human neuroblastoma cells with higher levels of Sulf-2 expression a specific feature of MYCN-amplified cells (MYCN-A cells) that represent a particularly aggressive subclass. Sulf-2 overexpression in neuroblastoma cells lacking MYCN amplification (MYCN-NA cells) increased their in vitro survival. Mechanistic investigations revealed evidence of a link between Sulf-2 expression and MYCN pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of Sulf-2 protein expression in 65 human neuroblastoma tumors demonstrated a higher level of Sulf-2 expression in MYCN-A tumors than in MYCN-NA tumors. In two different patient cohorts, we confirmed the association in expression patterns of Sulf-2 and MYCN and determined that Sulf-2 overexpression predicted poor outcomes in a non-independent manner with MYCN. Our findings define Sulf-2 as a novel positive regulator of neuroblastoma pathogenicity that contributes to MYCN oncogenicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) receiving packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions may have increased risk for vital organ iron deposition causing serious late effects. Methods: This cross-sectional cohort study of a CCS cohort quantified organ iron content by magnetic resonance imaging. Iron status by serum markers and hemochromatosis gene mutation status were assessed. Results: Seventy-five patients who had received a range (0-392 mL/kg) of cumulative PRBC transfusion volumes were enrolled (median age 14 years, range 8-25.6 years at evaluation). Median follow up time was 4.4 years, and median time since last transfusion was 4.9 years. Cancer diagnoses included acute lymphoblastic or myeloid leukemia (ALL/AML, n=33) and solid tumors (n=42). Liver and pancreatic iron concentrations were elevated in 36/73 (49.3%) and 19/72 (26.4%) subjects, respectively. Cardiac iron concentration was not increased in this cohort. In multivariate analysis, cumulative PRBC volume (p<0.0001) and older age at diagnosis (p<0.0001) predicted elevated liver iron concentration. Conclusions: Iron overload may occur in children and adolescents/young adults treated for cancer and is associated with cumulative PRBC transfusion volume and age at diagnosis. Impact: These findings have implications for development of monitoring and management guidelines for cancer patients and survivors at risk for iron overload, exploration of the additive risk of liver/pancreatic damage from chemotherapeutic exposures, and health education to minimize further liver/pancreatic damage from exposures such as excessive alcohol intake and hepatotoxic medications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with relapsed/refractory stage 4 high-risk neuroblastoma were enrolled on a phase I study (NANT2004-03) of intravenous fenretinide emulsion. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected during and after the infusion, and the levels were measured using an HPLC system. A likely case of a fatal drug interaction between fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen is described, including the pharmacokinetics of fenretinide, laboratory data, and post-mortem autopsy in a pediatric neuroblastoma patient treated on this study.
On Day 4 of a scheduled 5-day-infusion of intravenous fenretinide, the patient developed a fever, acetaminophen was started, ceftriaxone initiated for possible bacteremia, and fenretinide level doubled from 56 to 110 muM. Over the next three days, although blood cultures remained negative, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly. Acute liver failure was diagnosed on Day 7, and the patient expired on Day 20 of fulminant hepatic failure with associated renal, cardiac, and hemorrhagic/coagulation toxicities. Autopsy showed extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver, marked bile duct proliferation, and abundant hemosiderin, consistent with cholestasis and drug toxicity.
After extensive review of patient data, the clinical course, and the literature, we conclude that observed hepatic toxicity was likely due to a drug interaction between fenretinide and concomitant ceftriaxone and acetaminophen. None of the other 16 patients treated on this study experienced significant hepatic toxicity. Although the prevalence of cholestasis with ceftriaxone usage is relatively high, the potential drug interaction with these concomitant medications has not been previously reported. Concomitant use of fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen should be avoided.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies regarding the influence of weight on event-free survival (EFS) and treatment-related toxicity (TRT) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) considered only weight at diagnosis. Inasmuch as weight varies substantially over treatment, we hypothesized its impact on EFS is instead determined by cumulative time spent at an extreme weight during therapy and on TRT by weight at the time of toxicity.
In a cohort of 2,008 children treated for high-risk ALL in Children's Oncology Group study CCG-1961, we determined the effect on EFS of cumulative time receiving therapy at an extreme weight (either obese or underweight) between end of induction and start of maintenance therapy. We also evaluated the association between weight category and incidence and patterns of TRT during 13,946 treatment courses.
Being obese or underweight at diagnosis and for ≥ 50% of the time between end of induction and start of maintenance therapy resulted in inferior EFS (hazard ratios, 1.43 and 2.30, respectively; global P < .001). Normalization of weight during that period resulted in mitigation of this risk comparable to never being obese or underweight. Obese or underweight status at start of each treatment course was significantly associated with specific patterns of TRT.
Influence of weight extremes on EFS and TRT is not set at diagnosis as previously reported but is moderated by subsequent weight status during intensive postinduction treatment phases. These observations suggest that weight is a potentially addressable risk factor to improve EFS and morbidity in pediatric ALL.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ferritin levels and trends are widely used to manage iron overload and assess the efficacy of prescribed iron chelation in patients with transfusional iron loading. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 134 patients with transfusion-dependent anemia, over a period of up to 9 years. To determine if the trends in ferritin adequately reflect the changes in total body iron, changes in ferritin between consecutive liver iron measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared to changes in liver iron concentrations (LIC), a measure of total body iron. The time period between two consecutive LIC measurements was defined as a segment. Trends in ferritin were considered to predict the change in LIC within a segment if the change in one parameter was less than two fold that of the other, and was in the same direction. Using the exclusion criteria detailed in methods, the trends in ferritin were compared to changes in LIC in 358 segments. An agreement between ferritin trends and LIC changes was found in only 38% of the 358 segments examined. Furthermore, the change in ferritin was in opposite direction to that of LIC in 26% of the segments. Trends in ferritin were a worse predictor of changes in LIC in sickle cell disease than in thalassemia (p<0·01).While ferritin is a convenient measure of iron status; ferritin trends were unable to predict changes in LIC in individual patients. Ferritin trends need to be interpreted with caution and confirmed by direct measurement of LIC.
American Journal of Hematology 12/2013; · 4.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present here the first report of PID1 (Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1; NYGGF4) in cancer. PID1 was first identified in 2006 as a gene that modulates insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in adipocytes and muscle cells.
Quantitative RT-PCR, microarrays and cell culture RESULTS: Using four independent medulloblastoma datasets, we show that mean PID1 mRNA levels were lower in unfavorable medulloblastomas (Groups 3 and 4, and anaplastic histology) compared with favorable medulloblastomas (SHH and WNT groups, and desmoplastic/nodular histology) and with fetal cerebellum. In two large independent glioma datasets PID1 mRNA was lower in glioblastomas (GBMs), the most malignant gliomas, compared to other astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and non-tumor brains. Neural and proneural GBM subtypes had higher PID1 mRNA compared to classical and mesenchymal GBM. Importantly, overall survival and radiation-free progression-free survival were longer in medulloblastoma patients with higher PID1 mRNA (univariate and multivariate analyses). Higher PID1 mRNA also correlated with longer overall survival in glioma and GBM patients. In cell culture, overexpression of PID1 inhibited colony formation in medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) and GBM cell lines. Increasing PID1 also increased cell death and apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, induced mitochondrial depolarization, and decreased serum-mediated phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in medulloblastoma, ATRT and/or GBM cell lines, whereas siRNA to PID1 diminished mitochondrial depolarization.
These data are the first to link PID1 to cancer and suggest that PID1 may have a tumor inhibitory function in these pediatric and adult brain tumors.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: We present here the first report of PID1 (Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1; NYGGF4) in cancer. PID1 was first identified in 2006 as a gene that modulates insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in adipocytes and muscle cells. Experimental Design: Quantitative RT-PCR, microarrays and cell culture Results: Using four independent medulloblastoma datasets, we show that mean PID1 mRNA levels were lower in unfavorable medulloblastomas (Groups 3 and 4, and anaplastic histology) compared with favorable medulloblastomas (SHH and WNT groups, and desmoplastic/nodular histology) and with fetal cerebellum. In two large independent glioma datasets PID1 mRNA was lower in glioblastomas (GBMs), the most malignant gliomas, compared to other astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and non-tumor brains. Neural and proneural GBM subtypes had higher PID1 mRNA compared to classical and mesenchymal GBM. Importantly, overall survival and radiation-free progression-free survival were longer in medulloblastoma patients with higher PID1 mRNA (univariate and multivariate analyses). Higher PID1 mRNA also correlated with longer overall survival in glioma and GBM patients. In cell culture, overexpression of PID1 inhibited colony formation in medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) and GBM cell lines. Increasing PID1 also increased cell death and apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, induced mitochondrial depolarization, and decreased serum-mediated phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in medulloblastoma, ATRT and/or GBM cell lines, whereas siRNA to PID1 diminished mitochondrial depolarization. Conclusions: These data are the first to link PID1 to cancer and suggest that PID1 may have a tumor inhibitory function in these pediatric and adult brain tumors.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address the therapeutic challenges in childhood relapsed ALL, a phase 1 study combining a survivin mRNA antagonist, EZN-3042, with reinduction chemotherapy was developed for pediatric patients with second or greater bone marrow relapses of B-lymphoblastic leukemia. EZN-3042 was administered as a single agent on days -5 and -2 and then in combination with a 4-drug reinduction platform on days 8, 15, 22, and 29. Toxicity and the biological activity of EZN-3042 were assessed. Six patients were enrolled at dose level 1 (EZN-3042 2.5 mg/kg/dose). Two dose-limiting toxicities were observed: 1 patient developed a grade 3 γ-glutamyl transferase elevation and another patient developed a grade 3 gastrointestinal bleeding. Downmodulation of survivin mRNA and protein were assessed after single-agent dosing and decreased expression was observed in 2 of 5 patients with sufficient material for analysis. Although some biological activity was observed, the combination of EZN-3042 with intensive reinduction chemotherapy was not tolerated at a dose that led to consistent downregulation of survivin expression. The trial was terminated following the completion of dose level 1, after further clinical development of this agent was halted.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 10/2013; · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model-estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ≥40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI-mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients' risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups.
American journal of epidemiology 10/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment for children with high-risk neuroblastoma with anti-disialoganglioside mAb ch14.18, IL-2, and GM-CSF plus 13-cis-retinoic acid after myeloablative chemotherapy improves survival, but 40 % of patients still relapse during or after this therapy. The microenvironment of high-risk neuroblastoma tumors includes macrophages, IL-6, and TGFβ1. We hypothesized that this microenvironment suppresses anti-tumor functions of natural killer (NK) cells and that lenalidomide, an immune-modulating drug, could overcome suppression.
Purified NK cells were cultured with IL-2, neuroblastoma/monocyte-conditioned culture medium (CM), IL-6, TGFβ1, and lenalidomide in various combinations and then characterized using cytotoxicity (direct and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity), cytokine, flow cytometry, and Western blotting assays. Anti-tumor activity of NK cells with lenalidomide, ch14.18, or both was evaluated with a xenograft model of neuroblastoma.
CM from neuroblastoma/monocyte co-cultures contains IL-6 and TGFβ1 that suppress IL-2 activation of NK cell cytotoxicity and IFNγ secretion. IL-6 and TGFβ1 activate the STAT3 and SMAD2/3 pathways in NK cells and suppress IL-2 induction of cytotoxicity, granzymes A and B release, perforin expression, and IFNγ secretion. Lenalidomide blocks IL-6 and TGFβ1 activation of these signaling pathways and inhibits their suppression of NK cells. Neuroblastoma cells in NOD/SCID mice exhibit activated STAT3 and SMAD2/3 pathways. Their growth is most effectively inhibited by co-injected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) containing NK cells when mice are treated with both ch14.18 and lenalidomide.
Immunotherapy with anti-tumor cell antibodies may be improved by lenalidomide, which enhances activation of NK cells and inhibits their suppression by IL-6 and TGFβ1.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 08/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloablative chemoradiotherapy and immunomagnetically purged autologous bone marrow transplantation has been shown to improve outcome for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Currently, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) are infused after myeloablative therapy, but the effect of purging is unknown. We did a randomised study of tumour-selective PBSC purging in stem-cell transplantation for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.
Between March 16, 2001, and Feb 24, 2006, children and young adults (<30 years) with high-risk neuroblastoma were randomly assigned at diagnosis by a web-based system (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive either non-purged or immunomagnetically purged PBSC. Randomisation was done in blocks stratified by International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage, age, MYCN status, and International Neuroblastoma Pathology classification. Patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment assignment. All patients were treated with six cycles of induction chemotherapy, myeloablative consolidation, and radiation therapy to the primary tumour site plus meta-iodobenzylguanidine avid metastases present before myeloablative therapy, followed by oral isotretinoin. PBSC collection was done after two induction cycles. For purging, PBSC were mixed with carbonyl iron and phagocytic cells removed with samarium cobalt magnets. Remaining cells were mixed with immunomagnetic beads prepared with five monoclonal antibodies targeting neuroblastoma cell surface antigens and attached cells were removed using samarium cobalt magnets. Patients underwent autologous stem-cell transplantation with PBSC as randomly assigned after six cycles of induction therapy. The primary endpoint was event-free survival and was analysed by intention-to-treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00004188.
495 patients were enrolled, of whom 486 were randomly assigned to treatment: 243 patients to receive non-purged PBSC and 243 to received purged PBSC. PBSC were collected from 229 patients from the purged group and 236 patients from the non-purged group, and 180 patients from the purged group and 192 from the non-purged group received transplant. 5-year event-free survival was 40% (95% CI 33-46) in the purged group versus 36% (30-42) in the non-purged group (p=0·77); 5-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 43-56) in the purged group compared with 51% (44-57) in the non-purged group (p=0·81). Toxic deaths occurred in 15 patients during induction (eight in the purged group and seven in the non-purged group) and 12 during consolidation (eight in the purged group and four in the non-purged group). The most common adverse event reported was grade 3 or worse stomatitis during both induction (87 of 242 patients in the purged group and 93 of 243 patients in the non-purged group) and consolidation (131 of 177 in the purged group vs 145 of 191 in the non-purged group). Serious adverse events during induction were grade 3 or higher decreased cardiac function (four of 242 in the purged group and five of 243 in the non-purged group) and elevated creatinine (five of 242 in the purged group and six of 243 non-purged group) and during consolidation were sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (12 of 177 in the purged group and 17 of 191 in the non-purged group), acute vascular leak (11 of 177 in the purged group and nine of 191 in the non-purged group), and decreased cardiac function (one of 177 in the purged group and four of 191 in the non-purged group).
Immunomagnetic purging of PBSC for autologous stem-cell transplantation did not improve outcome, perhaps because of incomplete purging or residual tumour in patients. Non-purged PBSC are acceptable for support of myeloablative therapy of high-risk neuroblastoma.
National Cancer Institute and Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation.
The Lancet Oncology 07/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality among US breast cancer patients are well documented. Our knowledge of the contribution of lifestyle factors to disease prognosis is based primarily on non-Latina Whites and is limited for Latina, African American, and Asian American women. To address this knowledge gap, the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC) harmonized and pooled interview information (e.g., demographics, family history of breast cancer, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption) from six California-based breast cancer studies and assembled corresponding cancer registry data (clinical characteristics, mortality), resulting in 12,210 patients (6,501 non-Latina Whites, 2,060 African Americans, 2,032 Latinas, 1,505 Asian Americans, 112 other race/ethnicity) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2007. In total, 3,047 deaths (1,570 breast cancer specific) were observed with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.3 (3.5) years. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to data to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with non-Latina Whites, the HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was 1.13 (95 % CI 0.97-1.33) for African Americans, 0.84 (95 % CI 0.70-1.00) for Latinas, and 0.60 (95 % CI 0.37-0.97) for Asian Americans after adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and select lifestyle factors. The CBCSC represents a large and racially/ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients from California. This cohort will enable analyses to jointly consider a variety of clinical, lifestyle, and contextual factors in attempting to explain the long-standing disparities in breast cancer outcomes.
Cancer Causes and Control 07/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To identify the incidence and the risk factors for pulmonary toxicity in children treated for cancer with contemporary lung irradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to the lung fields over a 10-year period. RESULTS: We identified 109 patients (75 male patients). The median age at irradiation was 13.8 years (range, 0.04-20.9 years). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy (range, 0.4-64.8 Gy). Pulmonary toxic chemotherapy included bleomycin in 58.7% of patients and cyclophosphamide in 83.5%. The following pulmonary outcomes were identified and the 5-year cumulative incidence after irradiation was determined: pneumonitis, 6%; chronic cough, 10%; pneumonia, 35%; dyspnea, 11%; supplemental oxygen requirement, 2%; radiographic interstitial lung disease, 40%; and chest wall deformity, 12%. One patient died of progressive respiratory failure. Post-irradiation pulmonary function tests available from 44 patients showed evidence of obstructive lung disease (25%), restrictive disease (11%), hyperinflation (32%), and abnormal diffusion capacity (12%). Thoracic surgery, bleomycin, age, mean lung irradiation dose (MLD), maximum lung dose, prescribed dose, and dosimetric parameters between V22 (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥22 Gy) and V30 (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥30 Gy) were significant for the development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. MLD, maximum lung dose, and Vdose (percentage of volume of lung receiving the threshold dose or greater) were highly correlated. On multivariate analysis, MLD was the sole significant predictor of adverse pulmonary outcome (P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: Significant pulmonary dysfunction occurs in children receiving lung irradiation by contemporary techniques. MLD rather than prescribed dose should be used to perform risk stratification of patients receiving lung irradiation.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 05/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor