Richard Sposto

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (148)974.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a critical role in the interaction of tumor cells and their microenvironment. HSPG activity is dictated by sulfation patterns controlled by sulfotransferases, which add sulfate groups, and sulfatases (Sulfs), which remove 6-O-sulfates. Here we report altered expression of these enzymes in human neuroblastoma cells with higher levels of Sulf-2 expression a specific feature of MYCN-amplified cells (MYCN-A cells) that represent a particularly aggressive subclass. Sulf-2 overexpression in neuroblastoma cells lacking MYCN amplification (MYCN-NA cells) increased their in vitro survival. Mechanistic investigations revealed evidence of a link between Sulf-2 expression and MYCN pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of Sulf-2 protein expression in 65 human neuroblastoma tumors demonstrated a higher level of Sulf-2 expression in MYCN-A tumors than in MYCN-NA tumors. In two different patient cohorts, we confirmed the association in expression patterns of Sulf-2 and MYCN and determined that Sulf-2 overexpression predicted poor outcomes in a non-independent manner with MYCN. Our findings define Sulf-2 as a novel positive regulator of neuroblastoma pathogenicity that contributes to MYCN oncogenicity.
    Cancer research. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) receiving packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions may have increased risk for vital organ iron deposition causing serious late effects. Methods: This cross-sectional cohort study of a CCS cohort quantified organ iron content by magnetic resonance imaging. Iron status by serum markers and hemochromatosis gene mutation status were assessed. Results: Seventy-five patients who had received a range (0-392 mL/kg) of cumulative PRBC transfusion volumes were enrolled (median age 14 years, range 8-25.6 years at evaluation). Median follow up time was 4.4 years, and median time since last transfusion was 4.9 years. Cancer diagnoses included acute lymphoblastic or myeloid leukemia (ALL/AML, n=33) and solid tumors (n=42). Liver and pancreatic iron concentrations were elevated in 36/73 (49.3%) and 19/72 (26.4%) subjects, respectively. Cardiac iron concentration was not increased in this cohort. In multivariate analysis, cumulative PRBC volume (p<0.0001) and older age at diagnosis (p<0.0001) predicted elevated liver iron concentration. Conclusions: Iron overload may occur in children and adolescents/young adults treated for cancer and is associated with cumulative PRBC transfusion volume and age at diagnosis. Impact: These findings have implications for development of monitoring and management guidelines for cancer patients and survivors at risk for iron overload, exploration of the additive risk of liver/pancreatic damage from chemotherapeutic exposures, and health education to minimize further liver/pancreatic damage from exposures such as excessive alcohol intake and hepatotoxic medications.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with relapsed/refractory stage 4 high-risk neuroblastoma were enrolled on a phase I study (NANT2004-03) of intravenous fenretinide emulsion. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected during and after the infusion, and the levels were measured using an HPLC system. A likely case of a fatal drug interaction between fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen is described, including the pharmacokinetics of fenretinide, laboratory data, and post-mortem autopsy in a pediatric neuroblastoma patient treated on this study. On Day 4 of a scheduled 5-day-infusion of intravenous fenretinide, the patient developed a fever, acetaminophen was started, ceftriaxone initiated for possible bacteremia, and fenretinide level doubled from 56 to 110 muM. Over the next three days, although blood cultures remained negative, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly. Acute liver failure was diagnosed on Day 7, and the patient expired on Day 20 of fulminant hepatic failure with associated renal, cardiac, and hemorrhagic/coagulation toxicities. Autopsy showed extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver, marked bile duct proliferation, and abundant hemosiderin, consistent with cholestasis and drug toxicity. After extensive review of patient data, the clinical course, and the literature, we conclude that observed hepatic toxicity was likely due to a drug interaction between fenretinide and concomitant ceftriaxone and acetaminophen. None of the other 16 patients treated on this study experienced significant hepatic toxicity. Although the prevalence of cholestasis with ceftriaxone usage is relatively high, the potential drug interaction with these concomitant medications has not been previously reported. Concomitant use of fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen should be avoided.
    BMC Research Notes 04/2014; 7(1):256.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies regarding the influence of weight on event-free survival (EFS) and treatment-related toxicity (TRT) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) considered only weight at diagnosis. Inasmuch as weight varies substantially over treatment, we hypothesized its impact on EFS is instead determined by cumulative time spent at an extreme weight during therapy and on TRT by weight at the time of toxicity. In a cohort of 2,008 children treated for high-risk ALL in Children's Oncology Group study CCG-1961, we determined the effect on EFS of cumulative time receiving therapy at an extreme weight (either obese or underweight) between end of induction and start of maintenance therapy. We also evaluated the association between weight category and incidence and patterns of TRT during 13,946 treatment courses. Being obese or underweight at diagnosis and for ≥ 50% of the time between end of induction and start of maintenance therapy resulted in inferior EFS (hazard ratios, 1.43 and 2.30, respectively; global P < .001). Normalization of weight during that period resulted in mitigation of this risk comparable to never being obese or underweight. Obese or underweight status at start of each treatment course was significantly associated with specific patterns of TRT. Influence of weight extremes on EFS and TRT is not set at diagnosis as previously reported but is moderated by subsequent weight status during intensive postinduction treatment phases. These observations suggest that weight is a potentially addressable risk factor to improve EFS and morbidity in pediatric ALL.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is limited data on pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities in children treated with modern irradiation techniques. PFT abnormalities have not been correlated with the dose and volume of irradiation.MethodsA retrospective chart review of PFTs and clinical outcomes in children who received radiation therapy (RT) at Children's Hospital Los Angeles between 1999 and 2009 was performed. Radiation dose distribution to normal lung tissue was calculated.ResultsForty-nine patients had PFTs available post-RT at a median time of 2.91 years (range, 0.01–8.28) from irradiation. Sixty-seven percent of patients had at least one PFT abnormality on their last available study. The most common abnormality was obstructive lung disease (24%) followed by hyperinflation (20%). Thoracic surgery prior to RT increased the odds of an abnormal FEV1, RV/TLC, and obstructive disease. The sex of the patient, age at the time of irradiation, and time of the PFT after irradiation did not have a significant association with abnormalities. The mean lung dose, maximum lung dose, and prescribed dose of radiation were significantly associated with the development of PFT abnormalities. The odds of developing an abnormal PFT increased with increase in the minimum threshold dose (Vdose) of radiation, mostly above V20.ConclusionPFT abnormalities are common even when modern radiation techniques are used. A significant correlation between radiation parameters and PFT abnormalities was noted. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 03/2014; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrence occurs in almost 50% of patients with intracranial ependymoma, and their outcome following recurrence is poor. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 22 patients with intracranial ependymoma and subsequent relapse(s) (59 recurrences) treated at Children's Hospital Los Angeles or New York University between January 1997 and December 2012. Median duration of follow-up was 52 months (7-171 months). Median age at initial diagnosis was 4 years (0.3-19 years) with 8 patients younger than 3 years at presentation. Eleven patients had anaplastic and 11 cellular pathologies. Eighteen patients had infratentorial tumors at diagnosis and 3 (all infratentorial) had metastatic spinal cord involvement at presentation. Cerebrospinal fluid involvement was not identified at diagnosis or relapse. Median time to first recurrence was 16 months (1.3 to 115 months). The number of recurrences in each patient ranged from 1 to 9 (median = 2). Thirty-seven recurrences (63%) were detected asymptomatically by surveillance imaging. Fifteen recurrences (26%) arose outside the initial tumor site. Recurrences were treated by surgical resection (45), with irradiation (30), and with various oral chemotherapies (23) with (7) or without (16) conventional chemotherapy. The 5 and 10 year overall survival rates from first recurrence were 0.37 ± 0.14 and 0.25 ± 0.14. Prolonged (5-10 year) survival from first relapse was noted in over one-quarter of our patients. It remains unclear whether early radiographic diagnosis, differing treatment modalities beyond radical surgical resection or possibly unrecognized biological differences contributed towards this prolonged survival. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 02/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in pulmonary function tests (PFT) and clinical symptoms have been reported in up to one third of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with irradiation. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of pulmonary complications in HL patients treated using contemporary protocols. Eligible patients at Children's Hospital Los Angeles from 1999 to 2009 were identified from the radiation oncology database. Clinical features, radiographic findings, PFT, and radiation details were retrospectively ascertained. The median age at diagnosis of 65 patients with HL was 13.6 years and the median follow-up was 3.7 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy. The prevalence of clinical symptoms was low: chronic cough (3%), dyspnea (9.2%), and supplemental oxygen requirement (1.5%). Radiological interstitial lung changes were observed in 31% of the patients. PFT results following irradiation were available in 38 patients. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF25-75%) were decreased in 13% and 11% of patients respectively. Residual volume (RV) was elevated in 21%. Total Lung capacity (TLC) was decreased in 8%. Age at irradiation (P = 0.004), maximum lung dose (P = 0.03), and volume of lung receiving >25 Gy were associated with development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, older age was associated with worse outcomes. In survivors of pediatric HL, involved field irradiation was accompanied by a low prevalence of pulmonary symptoms but substantial subclinical dysfunction. Older age at irradiation was associated with worse pulmonary outcomes. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 01/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ferritin levels and trends are widely used to manage iron overload and assess the efficacy of prescribed iron chelation in patients with transfusional iron loading. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 134 patients with transfusion-dependent anemia, over a period of up to 9 years. To determine if the trends in ferritin adequately reflect the changes in total body iron, changes in ferritin between consecutive liver iron measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared to changes in liver iron concentrations (LIC), a measure of total body iron. The time period between two consecutive LIC measurements was defined as a segment. Trends in ferritin were considered to predict the change in LIC within a segment if the change in one parameter was less than two fold that of the other, and was in the same direction. Using the exclusion criteria detailed in methods, the trends in ferritin were compared to changes in LIC in 358 segments. An agreement between ferritin trends and LIC changes was found in only 38% of the 358 segments examined. Furthermore, the change in ferritin was in opposite direction to that of LIC in 26% of the segments. Trends in ferritin were a worse predictor of changes in LIC in sickle cell disease than in thalassemia (p<0·01).While ferritin is a convenient measure of iron status; ferritin trends were unable to predict changes in LIC in individual patients. Ferritin trends need to be interpreted with caution and confirmed by direct measurement of LIC.
    American Journal of Hematology 12/2013; · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present here the first report of PID1 (Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1; NYGGF4) in cancer. PID1 was first identified in 2006 as a gene that modulates insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in adipocytes and muscle cells. Quantitative RT-PCR, microarrays and cell culture RESULTS: Using four independent medulloblastoma datasets, we show that mean PID1 mRNA levels were lower in unfavorable medulloblastomas (Groups 3 and 4, and anaplastic histology) compared with favorable medulloblastomas (SHH and WNT groups, and desmoplastic/nodular histology) and with fetal cerebellum. In two large independent glioma datasets PID1 mRNA was lower in glioblastomas (GBMs), the most malignant gliomas, compared to other astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and non-tumor brains. Neural and proneural GBM subtypes had higher PID1 mRNA compared to classical and mesenchymal GBM. Importantly, overall survival and radiation-free progression-free survival were longer in medulloblastoma patients with higher PID1 mRNA (univariate and multivariate analyses). Higher PID1 mRNA also correlated with longer overall survival in glioma and GBM patients. In cell culture, overexpression of PID1 inhibited colony formation in medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) and GBM cell lines. Increasing PID1 also increased cell death and apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, induced mitochondrial depolarization, and decreased serum-mediated phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in medulloblastoma, ATRT and/or GBM cell lines, whereas siRNA to PID1 diminished mitochondrial depolarization. These data are the first to link PID1 to cancer and suggest that PID1 may have a tumor inhibitory function in these pediatric and adult brain tumors.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We present here the first report of PID1 (Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1; NYGGF4) in cancer. PID1 was first identified in 2006 as a gene that modulates insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in adipocytes and muscle cells. Experimental Design: Quantitative RT-PCR, microarrays and cell culture Results: Using four independent medulloblastoma datasets, we show that mean PID1 mRNA levels were lower in unfavorable medulloblastomas (Groups 3 and 4, and anaplastic histology) compared with favorable medulloblastomas (SHH and WNT groups, and desmoplastic/nodular histology) and with fetal cerebellum. In two large independent glioma datasets PID1 mRNA was lower in glioblastomas (GBMs), the most malignant gliomas, compared to other astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and non-tumor brains. Neural and proneural GBM subtypes had higher PID1 mRNA compared to classical and mesenchymal GBM. Importantly, overall survival and radiation-free progression-free survival were longer in medulloblastoma patients with higher PID1 mRNA (univariate and multivariate analyses). Higher PID1 mRNA also correlated with longer overall survival in glioma and GBM patients. In cell culture, overexpression of PID1 inhibited colony formation in medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) and GBM cell lines. Increasing PID1 also increased cell death and apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, induced mitochondrial depolarization, and decreased serum-mediated phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in medulloblastoma, ATRT and/or GBM cell lines, whereas siRNA to PID1 diminished mitochondrial depolarization. Conclusions: These data are the first to link PID1 to cancer and suggest that PID1 may have a tumor inhibitory function in these pediatric and adult brain tumors.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To address the therapeutic challenges in childhood relapsed ALL, a phase 1 study combining a survivin mRNA antagonist, EZN-3042, with reinduction chemotherapy was developed for pediatric patients with second or greater bone marrow relapses of B-lymphoblastic leukemia. EZN-3042 was administered as a single agent on days -5 and -2 and then in combination with a 4-drug reinduction platform on days 8, 15, 22, and 29. Toxicity and the biological activity of EZN-3042 were assessed. Six patients were enrolled at dose level 1 (EZN-3042 2.5 mg/kg/dose). Two dose-limiting toxicities were observed: 1 patient developed a grade 3 γ-glutamyl transferase elevation and another patient developed a grade 3 gastrointestinal bleeding. Downmodulation of survivin mRNA and protein were assessed after single-agent dosing and decreased expression was observed in 2 of 5 patients with sufficient material for analysis. Although some biological activity was observed, the combination of EZN-3042 with intensive reinduction chemotherapy was not tolerated at a dose that led to consistent downregulation of survivin expression. The trial was terminated following the completion of dose level 1, after further clinical development of this agent was halted.
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 10/2013; · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model-estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ≥40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI-mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients' risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups.
    American journal of epidemiology 10/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment for children with high-risk neuroblastoma with anti-disialoganglioside mAb ch14.18, IL-2, and GM-CSF plus 13-cis-retinoic acid after myeloablative chemotherapy improves survival, but 40 % of patients still relapse during or after this therapy. The microenvironment of high-risk neuroblastoma tumors includes macrophages, IL-6, and TGFβ1. We hypothesized that this microenvironment suppresses anti-tumor functions of natural killer (NK) cells and that lenalidomide, an immune-modulating drug, could overcome suppression. Purified NK cells were cultured with IL-2, neuroblastoma/monocyte-conditioned culture medium (CM), IL-6, TGFβ1, and lenalidomide in various combinations and then characterized using cytotoxicity (direct and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity), cytokine, flow cytometry, and Western blotting assays. Anti-tumor activity of NK cells with lenalidomide, ch14.18, or both was evaluated with a xenograft model of neuroblastoma. CM from neuroblastoma/monocyte co-cultures contains IL-6 and TGFβ1 that suppress IL-2 activation of NK cell cytotoxicity and IFNγ secretion. IL-6 and TGFβ1 activate the STAT3 and SMAD2/3 pathways in NK cells and suppress IL-2 induction of cytotoxicity, granzymes A and B release, perforin expression, and IFNγ secretion. Lenalidomide blocks IL-6 and TGFβ1 activation of these signaling pathways and inhibits their suppression of NK cells. Neuroblastoma cells in NOD/SCID mice exhibit activated STAT3 and SMAD2/3 pathways. Their growth is most effectively inhibited by co-injected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) containing NK cells when mice are treated with both ch14.18 and lenalidomide. Immunotherapy with anti-tumor cell antibodies may be improved by lenalidomide, which enhances activation of NK cells and inhibits their suppression by IL-6 and TGFβ1.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 08/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare embryonal neoplasm of early childhood with dismal outcome and no current uniformly accepted treatment. Given its highly aggressive nature and predilection for dissemination at diagnosis, intensive multimodal therapy is required. Nineteen children with newly diagnosed CNS AT/RT were treated on the head start (HS) III protocol. Treatment consisted of surgical resection, 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy, followed by consolidation with myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell rescue (AuHCR). Irradiation was given following recovery from consolidation based on patient age, disease extent at diagnosis, and treatment response to induction. Nineteen children (median age of 14 months) were treated on HS III between 2003 and 2009. Only four finished induction and three proceeded to consolidation. There are presently four survivors at 40, 42, 46, and 79 months from study enrollment. Eleven patients experienced tumor progression at a median time to progression of 4.1 months of whom 10 died with a median time from progression to death of 2.6 months. Five toxic deaths occurred, three of them while on the study. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for the whole group was 21 ± 9% and 26 ± 10%, respectively. Five patients received irradiation at progression with only one long-term survivor. A minority of children with CNS AT/RT treated on HS III may be long-term survivors without irradiation. More effective therapies are desperately needed. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013;9999:1-7. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 08/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloablative chemoradiotherapy and immunomagnetically purged autologous bone marrow transplantation has been shown to improve outcome for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Currently, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) are infused after myeloablative therapy, but the effect of purging is unknown. We did a randomised study of tumour-selective PBSC purging in stem-cell transplantation for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Between March 16, 2001, and Feb 24, 2006, children and young adults (<30 years) with high-risk neuroblastoma were randomly assigned at diagnosis by a web-based system (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive either non-purged or immunomagnetically purged PBSC. Randomisation was done in blocks stratified by International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage, age, MYCN status, and International Neuroblastoma Pathology classification. Patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment assignment. All patients were treated with six cycles of induction chemotherapy, myeloablative consolidation, and radiation therapy to the primary tumour site plus meta-iodobenzylguanidine avid metastases present before myeloablative therapy, followed by oral isotretinoin. PBSC collection was done after two induction cycles. For purging, PBSC were mixed with carbonyl iron and phagocytic cells removed with samarium cobalt magnets. Remaining cells were mixed with immunomagnetic beads prepared with five monoclonal antibodies targeting neuroblastoma cell surface antigens and attached cells were removed using samarium cobalt magnets. Patients underwent autologous stem-cell transplantation with PBSC as randomly assigned after six cycles of induction therapy. The primary endpoint was event-free survival and was analysed by intention-to-treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00004188. 495 patients were enrolled, of whom 486 were randomly assigned to treatment: 243 patients to receive non-purged PBSC and 243 to received purged PBSC. PBSC were collected from 229 patients from the purged group and 236 patients from the non-purged group, and 180 patients from the purged group and 192 from the non-purged group received transplant. 5-year event-free survival was 40% (95% CI 33-46) in the purged group versus 36% (30-42) in the non-purged group (p=0·77); 5-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 43-56) in the purged group compared with 51% (44-57) in the non-purged group (p=0·81). Toxic deaths occurred in 15 patients during induction (eight in the purged group and seven in the non-purged group) and 12 during consolidation (eight in the purged group and four in the non-purged group). The most common adverse event reported was grade 3 or worse stomatitis during both induction (87 of 242 patients in the purged group and 93 of 243 patients in the non-purged group) and consolidation (131 of 177 in the purged group vs 145 of 191 in the non-purged group). Serious adverse events during induction were grade 3 or higher decreased cardiac function (four of 242 in the purged group and five of 243 in the non-purged group) and elevated creatinine (five of 242 in the purged group and six of 243 non-purged group) and during consolidation were sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (12 of 177 in the purged group and 17 of 191 in the non-purged group), acute vascular leak (11 of 177 in the purged group and nine of 191 in the non-purged group), and decreased cardiac function (one of 177 in the purged group and four of 191 in the non-purged group). Immunomagnetic purging of PBSC for autologous stem-cell transplantation did not improve outcome, perhaps because of incomplete purging or residual tumour in patients. Non-purged PBSC are acceptable for support of myeloablative therapy of high-risk neuroblastoma. National Cancer Institute and Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation.
    The Lancet Oncology 07/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality among US breast cancer patients are well documented. Our knowledge of the contribution of lifestyle factors to disease prognosis is based primarily on non-Latina Whites and is limited for Latina, African American, and Asian American women. To address this knowledge gap, the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC) harmonized and pooled interview information (e.g., demographics, family history of breast cancer, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption) from six California-based breast cancer studies and assembled corresponding cancer registry data (clinical characteristics, mortality), resulting in 12,210 patients (6,501 non-Latina Whites, 2,060 African Americans, 2,032 Latinas, 1,505 Asian Americans, 112 other race/ethnicity) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2007. In total, 3,047 deaths (1,570 breast cancer specific) were observed with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.3 (3.5) years. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to data to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with non-Latina Whites, the HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was 1.13 (95 % CI 0.97-1.33) for African Americans, 0.84 (95 % CI 0.70-1.00) for Latinas, and 0.60 (95 % CI 0.37-0.97) for Asian Americans after adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and select lifestyle factors. The CBCSC represents a large and racially/ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients from California. This cohort will enable analyses to jointly consider a variety of clinical, lifestyle, and contextual factors in attempting to explain the long-standing disparities in breast cancer outcomes.
    Cancer Causes and Control 07/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To identify the incidence and the risk factors for pulmonary toxicity in children treated for cancer with contemporary lung irradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to the lung fields over a 10-year period. RESULTS: We identified 109 patients (75 male patients). The median age at irradiation was 13.8 years (range, 0.04-20.9 years). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy (range, 0.4-64.8 Gy). Pulmonary toxic chemotherapy included bleomycin in 58.7% of patients and cyclophosphamide in 83.5%. The following pulmonary outcomes were identified and the 5-year cumulative incidence after irradiation was determined: pneumonitis, 6%; chronic cough, 10%; pneumonia, 35%; dyspnea, 11%; supplemental oxygen requirement, 2%; radiographic interstitial lung disease, 40%; and chest wall deformity, 12%. One patient died of progressive respiratory failure. Post-irradiation pulmonary function tests available from 44 patients showed evidence of obstructive lung disease (25%), restrictive disease (11%), hyperinflation (32%), and abnormal diffusion capacity (12%). Thoracic surgery, bleomycin, age, mean lung irradiation dose (MLD), maximum lung dose, prescribed dose, and dosimetric parameters between V22 (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥22 Gy) and V30 (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥30 Gy) were significant for the development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. MLD, maximum lung dose, and Vdose (percentage of volume of lung receiving the threshold dose or greater) were highly correlated. On multivariate analysis, MLD was the sole significant predictor of adverse pulmonary outcome (P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: Significant pulmonary dysfunction occurs in children receiving lung irradiation by contemporary techniques. MLD rather than prescribed dose should be used to perform risk stratification of patients receiving lung irradiation.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 05/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    Christian Michel Zwaan, Richard Sposto
    Haematologica 05/2013; 98(5):655-6. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the outcome of children <10 years old with newly-diagnosed ependymoma treated on the prospective multinational "Head Start" III clinical trial. Between April 2004 and July 2009, 19 children with newly-diagnosed ependymoma were enrolled. All children were to receive five induction chemotherapy cycles followed by one consolidation cycle of myelo-ablative chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell rescue. Children between 6 and 10 years of age or with residual tumor prior to consolidation were to receive irradiation thereafter. Median age of 19 children (8 female) was 20 months at diagnosis. Median follow up was 44 months. The primary site was infratentorial in 11 and supratentorial in 8 patients. Gross total resection was achieved in 10 patients. After induction chemotherapy, all three supratentorial ependymoma patients with residual disease achieved a complete response (CR), while only one of six infratentorial patients with residual disease achieved CR. Three infratentorial patients developed progressive disease during induction chemotherapy. All four infratentorial patients with residual disease who underwent autologous hematopoietic cell transplant, failed to achieve CR. Four patients received focal irradiation following chemotherapy. The 3-year event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for supratentorial ependymoma were 86 ± 13 % and 100 % respectively. The 3-year EFS and OS for infratentorial ependymoma were 27 ± 13 % and 73 ± 13 % respectively. The role of intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy in deferring irradiation should be investigated further in children with supratentorial ependymoma with residual disease following surgery. This approach appears ineffective in children with infratentorial ependymoma in the absence of irradiation.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 03/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Adoptive transfer of natural killer (NK) cells combined with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has therapeutic potential for malignancies. We determined if large numbers of activated NK (aNK) cells can be grown ex vivo from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of children with high-risk neuroblastoma using artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Irradiated K562-derived Clone 9.mbIL21 aAPC were co-cultured with PBMC, and propagated NK cells were characterized with flow cytometry, cytotoxicity assays, Luminex® multi-cytokine assays, and a NOD/SCID mouse model of disseminated neuroblastoma. RESULTS: Co-culturing patient PBMC with aAPC for 14 days induced 2,363±443-fold expansion of CD56+CD3-CD14- NK cells with 83±4% purity (n=10). Results were similar with PBMC from normal donors (n=5). Expression of DNAM-1, NKG2D, FcγRIII/CD16 and CD56 increased 6±3, 10±2, 21±20, and 18±3-fold respectively on day 14 compared to day 0, demonstrating activation of NK cells. In vitro, aNK cells were highly cytotoxic against neuroblastoma cell lines, and killing was enhanced with GD2-specific monoclonal antibody ch14.18. When mediating cytotoxicity with ch14.18, release of TNFα, GM-CSF, IFNγ, sCD40L, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL9/MIG, and CXCL11/I-TAC by aNK cells increased 4-, 5- 6-, 15-, 265-, 917- and 363-fold (151 to 9,121 pg/mL), respectively, compared to aNK cells alone. Survival of NOD/SCID mice bearing disseminated neuroblastoma improved when treated with thawed and immediately intravenously infused cryopreserved aNK cells compared to un-treated mice and was further improved when ch14.18 was added. CONCLUSION: Propagation of large numbers of aNK cells that maintain potent anti-neuroblastoma activities when cryopreserved supports clinical testing of adoptive cell therapy with ch14.18.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
974.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      • • Division of Hematology-Oncology
      • • Division of Cancer and Blood Diseases
      • • Division of Neurosurgery
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1999–2014
    • University of Southern California
      • • Keck School of Medicine
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2012
    • New York Medical College
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Children's Oncology Group
      Monrovia, California, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      • Division of Oncology and Hematology
      Omaha, NE, United States
    • Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989–2012
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2010
    • Michiana Hematology Oncology
      Indiana, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2007
    • Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy
      Île-de-France, France
  • 2003–2007
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006
    • Children's National Medical Center
      • Department of Neurology
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2002–2004
    • Children's Hospital of Orange County
      Orange, California, United States
  • 2001–2002
    • Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • 1992
    • Radiation Effects Research Foundation
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan