Andrzej Manikowski

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans, Baton Rouge, LA, United States

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Publications (5)20.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 thymidine kinases (TK) are responsible for phosphorylation of antiherpes acyclonucleosides such as acyclovir (ACV) and 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine (HBG). Related compounds, the N(2)-phenyl-9-(hydroxyalkyl)guanines, are devoid of direct antiviral activity, but potently inhibit the viral TKs and block viral reactivation from latency in vivo. The similarity in structure between the acyclonucleosides and TK inhibitors raised the question of the relevance of phosphorylation of certain of the latter analogs in their mechanisms of action. Using recombinant TKs and HPLC analysis of reaction mixtures, we report that the lead TK inhibitor N(2)-phenyl-9 -(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine (HBPG) and its pentyl homolog (HPnPG) are excellent substrates for the enzymes, approaching the efficiency with which the natural substrate thymidine is phosphorylated, and significantly better than ACV or HBG. Other 9-hydroxyalkyl congeners are substrates for the enzymes, but with much poorer efficiency. HBPG triphosphate was a poor inhibitor of HSV DNA polymerase, the target of acyclonucleoside triphosphates, suggesting that phosphorylation of HBPG is not important in its mechanism of blocking viral reactivation in vivo. The fact that HBPG is an efficient substrate is consistent, however, with its binding mode based both on molecular modeling studies and x-ray structure of the HBPG:TK complex.
    Journal of molecular biochemistry. 01/2012; 1(1):21-25.
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    ABSTRACT: 2-Phenylamino-6-oxo-9-(4-hydroxybutyl)purine (HBPG) is a thymidine kinase inhibitor that prevents encephalitic death in mice caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, although its potency is somewhat less than that of acyclovir (ACV). The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of combinations of HBPG and either ACV, phosphonoformate (PFA), or cidofovir (CDF) against HSV encephalitis. BALB/c mice were given ocular infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2, and treated twice daily intraperitoneally for five days with HBPG, alone or in combination with ACV, PFA, or CDF. Animals were observed daily for up to 30 days, and the day of death of each was recorded. All of the combinations showed additivity, and the combination of HBPG + ACV appeared to be synergistic, ie, protected more mice against HSV-1 encephalitis compared with each drug given alone. Delay of treatment with HBPG for up to two days was still effective in preventing HSV-2 encephalitis. The combination of the thymidine kinase inhibitor HBPG and the antiherpes drug ACV may have synergistic activity against HSV encephalitis. The development of a potent and safe combination therapy for the prevention and/or treatment of HSV infection of the central nervous system can improve the outcome of this infection in humans.
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2009; 3:289-94. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel Gram-positive (Gram+) antibacterial compounds consisting of a DNA polymerase IIIC (pol IIIC) inhibitor covalently connected to a topoisomerase/gyrase inhibitor are described. Specifically, 3-substituted 6-(3-ethyl-4-methylanilino)uracils (EMAUs) in which the 3-substituent is a fluoroquinolone moiety (FQ) connected by various linkers were synthesized. The resulting "AU-FQ" hybrid compounds were significantly more potent than the parent EMAU compounds as inhibitors of pol IIIC and were up to 64-fold more potent as antibacterials in vitro against Gram+ bacteria. The hybrids inhibited the FQ targets, topoisomerase IV and gyrase, with potencies similar to norfloxacin but 10-fold lower than newer agents, for example, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. Representative hybrids protected mice from lethal Staphylococcus aureus infection after intravenous dosing, and one compound showed protective effect against several antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Gram+ infections in mice. The AU-FQ hybrids are a promising new family of antibacterials for treatment of antibiotic-resistant Gram+ infections.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2006; 49(4):1455-65. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous 3-substituted-6-(3-ethyl-4-methylanilino)uracils (EMAU) have been synthesized and screened for their capacity to inhibit the replication-specific bacterial DNA polymerase IIIC (pol IIIC) and the growth of Gram+ bacteria in culture. Direct alkylation of 2-methoxy-6-amino-4-pyrimidone produced the N3-substituted derivatives, which were separated from the byproduct 4-alkoxy analogues. The N3-substituted derivatives were heated with a mixture of 3-ethyl-4-methylaniline and its hydrochloride to effect displacement of the 6-amino group and simultaneous demethylation of the 2-methoxy group to yield target compounds in good yields. Certain intermediates, e.g. the 3-(iodoalkyl) compounds, were converted to a variety of (3-substituted-alkyl)-EMAUs by displacement. Most compounds were potent competitive inhibitors of pol IIIC (K(i)s 0.02-0.5 microM), and those with neutral, moderately polar 3-substituents had potent antibacterial activity against Gram+ organisms in culture (MICs 0.125-10 microg/mL). Several compounds protected mice from lethal intraperitoneal (ip) infections with S. aureus (Smith) when given by the ip route. A water soluble derivative, 3-(4-morpholinylbutyl)-EMAU hydrochloride, given subcutaneously, prolonged the life of infected mice in a dose dependent manner.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2005; 48(22):7063-74. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Derivatives of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase inhibitor HBPG [2-phenylamino-9-(4-hydroxybutyl)-6-oxopurine] have been synthesized and tested for inhibitory activity against recombinant enzymes (TK) from herpes simplex types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2). The compounds inhibited phosphorylation of [3H]thymidine by both enzymes, but potencies differed quantitatively from those of HBPG and were generally greater for HSV-2 than HSV-1 TKs. Changes in inhibitory potency were generally consistent with the inhibitor/substrate binding site structure based on published X-ray structures of HSV-1 TK. In particular, several 9-(4-aminobutyl) analogues with bulky tertiary amino substituents were among the most potent inhibitors. Variable substrate assays showed that the most potent compound, 2-phenylamino-9-[4-(1-decahydroquinolyl)butyl]-6-oxopurine, was a competitive inhibitor, with Ki values of 0.03 and 0.005 microM against HSV-1 and HSV-2 TKs, respectively. The parent compound HBPG was uniquely active in viral infection models in mice, both against ocular HSV-2 reactivation and against HSV-1 and HSV-2 encephalitis. In assays lacking [3H]thymidine, HBPG was found to be an efficient substrate for the enzymes. The ability of the TKs to phosphorylate HBPG may relate to its antiherpetic activity in vivo.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2005; 48(11):3919-29. · 5.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

31 Citations
20.33 Total Impact Points


  • 2009
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Baton Rouge, LA, United States
  • 2006
    • GLSynthesis Inc.
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States