D D Ho

The Rockefeller University, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (312)3418.41 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) have always been considered potential therapeutic options for the prophylactic and treatment of HIV infection, their lack of breadth against all HIV variants has been one of the limiting factors. To provide sufficient neutralization breadth and potency against diverse viruses, including neutralization escape variants, strategies to combine different bNAbs have been explored recently. We rationally designed and engineered a novel bispecific HIV-1 neutralizing antibody (bibNAb), iMabm36, for high potency and breadth against HIV. iMabm36 is composed of the anti-CD4 Ab ibalizumab (iMab) linked to two copies of the single-domain Ab m36 which targets a highly conserved CD4-induced epitope. iMabm36 neutralizes a majority of a large, multi-clade panel of pseudoviruses (96%, n=118) at an IC50 concentration of less than 10 µg/mL, with 83% neutralized at an IC50 concentration of less than 0.1µg/ml. In addition, iMabm36 neutralizes six replication-competent transmitted-founder viruses to 100% inhibition at a concentration of less than 0.1µg/ml in a PBMC-based neutralizing assay. Mechanistically, improved antiviral activity of iMabm36 is dependent on both CD4 binding activity of iMab component and CD4i binding activity of the m36 component. After characterizing viral resistance to iMabm36 neutralization was due to mutations residing in the bridging sheet of gp120, an optimized m36 variant was engineered that, when fused to iMab, improved antiviral activity significantly. Together inter-dependency of this dual mechanism of action enables iMabm36 to potently inhibit HIV-1 entry. These results demonstrate that mechanistic-based design of bibNAbs could generate potential preventive and therapeutic candidates for HIV/AIDS.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: GSK1265744 (GSK744) is an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor that has been formulated as a long-acting (LA) injectable suitable for monthly to quarterly clinical administration. GSK744 LA was administered at two time points 4 weeks apart beginning 1 week before virus administration, and macaques were challenged weekly for 8 weeks. GSK744 LA, at plasma concentrations achievable with quarterly injections in humans, protected all animals against repeated low-dose challenges. In a second experiment, macaques were given GSK744 LA 1 week before virus administration and challenged repeatedly until infection occurred. Protection decreased over time and correlated with the plasma drug levels. With a quarterly dosing schedule in humans, our results suggest that GSK744 LA could potentially decrease adherence problems associated with daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
    Science 03/2014; · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4-a key receptor for HIV-and blocks HIV-1 infection. However, HIV-1 strains with mutations resulting in loss of an N-linked glycan from the V5 loop of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 are resistant to ibalizumab. Previous structural analysis suggests that this glycan fills a void between the gp120 V5 loop and the ibalizumab light chain, perhaps causing steric hindrance that disrupts viral entry. If this void contributes to HIV-1 resistance to ibalizumab, we reasoned that 'refilling' it by engineering an N-linked glycan into the ibalizumab light chain at a position spatially proximal to gp120 V5 may restore susceptibility to ibalizumab. Indeed, one such ibalizumab variant neutralized 100% of 118 diverse HIV-1 strains tested in vitro, including 10 strains resistant to parental ibalizumab. These findings demonstrate that the strategic placement of a glycan in the variable region of a monoclonal antibody can substantially enhance its activity.
    Nature Biotechnology 10/2013; · 32.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, passive immunization using broadly neutralizing Abs or Ab-like molecules could provide an alternative to the daily administration of oral antiretroviral agents that has recently shown promise as preexposure prophylaxis. Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, we created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab (iMab), a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. These bispecific bNAbs (BibNAbs) exploit iMab's potent anti-HIV-1 activity and demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety to anchor and thereby concentrate a second broadly neutralizing agent at the site of viral entry. Two BibNabs, PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, exhibit exceptional breadth and potency, neutralizing 100% of the 118 viruses tested at low picomolar concentrations, including viruses resistant to both parental mAbs. The enhanced potency of these BibNAbs was entirely dependent on CD4 anchoring, not on membrane anchoring per se, and required optimal Ab geometry and linker length. We propose that iMab-based BibNAbs, such as PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, are promising candidates for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacillus that produces toxin-mediated enteric disease. C. difficile expresses two major virulence factors, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Human and animal studies demonstrate a clear association between humoral immunity to these toxins and protection against C. difficile infection (CDI). The receptor binding-domains (RBD) of TcdA and TcdB are known to be immunogenic. Here, we tested the immunadjuvantative properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium flagellin (FliC) subunit D1 as an innate immune agonist expressed as a recombinant fusion vaccine targeting the RBDs of TcdA and TcdB in mice. Intraperitoneally immunized mice developed prominent anti- TcdA and anti- TcdB immunoglobulin G in serum. The protective efficacy of the recombinant vaccines, with or without an adjuvant, was tested in a mouse model of CDI that closely represents the human disease. Following intraperitoneal immunization and oral challenge with C. difficile VPI 10463, C57BL/6 mice were able to mount a protective immune response that prevented diarrhea and death compared to control mice equivalent to two doses of toxoid A and toxoid B vaccine adjuvanted with alum when compared to control mice (P<.001). These results provide evidence that a recombinant protein-based vaccine targeting the RBDs of the C.difficile toxins adjuvanted with S.typhimurium flagellin can induce rapid, high level protection in a mouse model of CDI when challenged with the homologous strain from which the vaccine antigens were derived, and warrants further preclinical testing against clinically relevant C. difficile strains in the mouse and hamster models of CDI.
    Infection and immunity 04/2013; · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A key strategy to a successful vaccine against malaria is to identify and develop new adjuvants that can enhance T-cell responses and improve protective immunity. Upon co-administration with a rodent malaria vaccine in mice, 7DW8-5, a recently identified novel analog of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), enhances the level of malaria-specific protective immune responses more strongly than the parent compound. In this study, we sought to determine whether 7DW8-5 could provide a similar potent adjuvant effect on a candidate human malaria vaccine in the more relevant non-human primate (NHP) model, prior to committing to clinical development. The candidate human malaria vaccine, AdPfCA (NMRC-M3V-Ad-PfCA), consists of two non-replicating recombinant adenoviral (Ad) vectors, one expressing the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and another expressing the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) of Plasmodium falciparum. In several phase 1 clinical trials, AdPfCA was well tolerated and demonstrated immunogenicity for both humoral and cell-mediated responses. In the study described herein, 25 rhesus macaques received prime and boost intramuscular (IM) immunizations of AdPfCA alone or with an ascending dose of 7DW8-5. Our results indicate that 7DW8-5 is safe and well-tolerated and provides a significant enhancement (up to 9-fold) in malaria-specific CD8+ T-cell responses after both priming and boosting phases, supporting further clinical development.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e78407. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To combat the possibility of a zoonotic H5N1 pandemic in a timely fashion, it is necessary to develop a vaccine that would confer protection against homologous and heterologous human H5N1 influenza viruses. Using a replicating modified vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (MVTT) as a vaccine vector, we constructed MVTTHA-QH and MVTTHA-AH, which expresses the H5 gene of a goose-derived Qinghai strain A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 or human-derived Anhui Strain A/Anhui/1/2005. The immunogenicity profiles of both vaccine candidates were evaluated. Vaccination with MVTTHA-QH induced a significant level of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) against a homologous strain and a wide range of H5N1 pseudoviruses (clades 1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.2, and 2.3.4). Neutralization tests (NT) and Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies inhibit the live autologous virus as well as a homologous A/Xingjiang/1/2006 and a heterologous A/Vietnam/1194/2004, representing two human isolates from clade 2.2 and clade 1, respectively. Importantly, mice vaccinated with intranasal MVTTHA-QH were completely protected from challenge with lethal dosages of A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 and the A/Viet Nam/1194/2004, respectively, but not control mice that received a mock MVTTS vaccine. However, MVTTHA-AH induced much lower levels of NT against its autologous strain. Our results suggest that it is feasible to use the H5 gene from A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 to construct an effective vaccine, when using MVTT as a vector, to prevent infections against homologous and genetically divergent human H5N1 influenza viruses.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83274. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: Passive immunization for the prevention of HIV-1 infection is currently being reenergized. The anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody ibalizumab has demonstrated safety and efficacy in Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials for treatment of HIV-1 infection and is undergoing a Phase 1 clinical trial in HIV-1 uninfected individuals for prevention. Here, we sought to assess ibalizumab's antiviral breadth and potency and identify determinants of natural, pre-existing resistance. METHODS:: Ibalizumab's breadth and potency was assessed against a large, clinically relevant panel of HIV-1 pseudoviruses (n=116) commonly used to assess vaccine candidates. Determinants of resistance were assessed by sequence analysis. RESULTS:: Ibalizumab neutralized 92% and 66% of viruses as defined by 50% and 80% inhibition, respectively. Median in vitro neutralization potency by IC50 was 0.03 µg/mL, substantially lower than the broadly neutralizing mAbs, PG9 or VRC01. The dominant determinant of resistance was the absence of a potential N-linked glycosylation site (PNGS) at the V5 N-terminus (p<0.001), with the V2 loop length possibly influencing the degree of resistance afforded by the absence of the V5 N-terminal PNGS (p=0.001). Other significant independent correlates of resistance included PNGS at position 386 and the side chain length of residue 375. Ibalizumab exhibited complementary resistance to VRC01 (p=0.006) and sCD4 (p<0.001), in part mediated by the V5 PNGS. CONCLUSIONS:: Ibalizumab's breadth and potency compared favorably to broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies, supporting the clinical development of ibalizumab, alone or in combination, for HIV-1 prevention.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 09/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, more clinical trials are being conducted in Africa and Asia, therefore, background morbidity in the respective populations is of interest. Between 2000 and 2007, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative sponsored 19 Phase 1 or 2A preventive HIV vaccine trials in the US, Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and India, enrolling 900 healthy HIV-1 uninfected volunteers. To assess background morbidity as reflected by unsolicited adverse events (AEs), unrelated to study vaccine, reported in clinical trials from four continents. All but three clinical trials were double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Study procedures and data collection methods were standardized. The frequency and severity of AEs reported during the first year of the trials were analyzed. To avoid confounding by vaccine-related events, solicited reactogenicity and other AEs occurring within 28 d after any vaccination were excluded. In total, 2134 AEs were reported by 76% of all participants; 73% of all events were mild. The rate of AEs did not differ between placebo and vaccine recipients. Overall, the percentage of participants with any AE was higher in Africa (83%) compared with Europe (71%), US (74%) and India (65%), while the percentage of participants with AEs of moderate or greater severity was similar in all regions except India. In all regions, the most frequently reported AEs were infectious diseases, followed by gastrointestinal disorders. Despite some regional differences, in these healthy participants selected for low risk of HIV infection, background morbidity posed no obstacle to clinical trial conduct and interpretation. Data from controlled clinical trials of preventive interventions can offer valuable insights into the health of the eligible population.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 05/2012; 8(5):630-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Using murine IgG subclass molecules (IgG1 or IgG2a) synthetically fused to HIV-1 or influenza test antigens, we explored the potential for IgG Fc scaffolds to augment immunogenicity. Each antigen (Ag) was grafted onto a hinge-Fc scaffold containing all critical residues necessary for interaction with effector cells, thus retaining effector functions of the native IgG subclass. We hypothesized that the differential affinity of FcγRs for specific IgG subclasses would influence the magnitude of immune responses elicited by immunization with an Ag-IgG Fc fusion vaccine. We demonstrate here that the antigen-specific humoral response elicited by Ag-IgG2a fusion vaccines is at least tenfold greater than that elicited by native antigen, that this response is superior to that elicited by Ag-IgG1, and that the augmented antigen-specific humoral response elicited is Fcγ receptor-dependent.
    Vaccine 11/2011; 30(1):42-50. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies can prevent infection, which suggests that vaccines that elicit such antibodies would be protective. Thus far, however, few broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies that occur naturally have been characterized. To determine whether these antibodies are part of a larger group of related molecules, we cloned 576 new HIV antibodies from four unrelated individuals. All four individuals produced expanded clones of potent broadly neutralizing CD4-binding-site antibodies that mimic binding to CD4. Despite extensive hypermutation, the new antibodies shared a consensus sequence of 68 immunoglobulin H (IgH) chain amino acids and arise independently from two related IgH genes. Comparison of the crystal structure of one of the antibodies to the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 revealed conservation of the contacts to the HIV spike.
    Science 08/2011; 333(6049):1633-7. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rapid genetic drift of influenza virus hemagglutinin is an obstacle to vaccine efficacy. Previously, we found that the consensus hemagglutinin DNA vaccine (pCHA5) can only elicit moderate neutralization activities toward the H5N1 clade 2.1 and clade 2.3 viruses. Two approaches were thus taken to improve the protection broadness of CHA5. The first one was to include certain surface amino acids that are characteristic of clade 2.3 viruses to improve the protection profiles. When we immunized mice with CHA5 harboring individual mutations, the antibodies elicited by CHA5 containing P157S elicited higher neutralizing activity against the clade 2.3 viruses. Likewise, the viruses pseudotyped with hemagglutinin containing 157S became more susceptible to neutralization. The second approach was to update the consensus sequence with more recent H5N1 strains, generating a second-generation DNA vaccine pCHA5II. We showed that pCHA5II was able to elicit higher cross-neutralization activities against all H5N1 viruses. Comparison of the neutralization profiles of CHA5 and CHA5II, and the animal challenge studies, revealed that CHA5II induced the broadest protection profile. We concluded that CHA5II combined with electroporation delivery is a promising strategy to induce antibodies with broad cross-reactivities against divergent H5N1 influenza viruses.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2011; 108(9):3510-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DC-SIGN, a C-type lection expressed on dendritic cells, enhances HIV-1 infection in cis and in trans. HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 07_BC viruses have been the predominant strain found among injection drug users in southern China and Taiwan. The goal of this study was to map the DC-SIGN-interactive domain on the gp120 of CRF07_BC. Pseudotyped viruses containing single (N233Q, N275Q, N330Q, N351Q, N355Q, N381Q, and N387Q), double (N233Q + N275Q, N233Q + N351Q, N275Q + N351Q), or triple (N233Q + N275Q + N351Q) N-glycan mutant gp120 were generated. Capture assays showed that the DC-SIGN-binding capacity of pseudoviruses with N275Q or N351Q decreased significantly. Rabbit antisera against synthetic peptides covering the N275 (R72 antiserum) or N351 (R77 antiserum) region blocked the interaction between wild-type gp120 and DC-SIGN in the capture assay. Furthermore, pseudotype viruses containing gp120 from five different CRF07_BC isolates were generated and R72 and R77 antisera blocked their interactions with DC-SIGN (80% for R72 and 40% for R77, respectively) in the capture assays. In conclusion, the N275 and N351 glycan sites on the CRF07_BC gp120 play an important role in mediating the interaction between gp120 and DC-SIGN. This information is valuable for developing both therapeutic and preventive agents for HIV-1 infection.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 01/2011; 27(8):831-9. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA-based vaccines have been safe but weakly immunogenic in humans to date. We sought to determine the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of ADVAX, a multigenic HIV-1 DNA vaccine candidate, injected intramuscularly by in vivo electroporation (EP) in a Phase-1, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in healthy volunteers. Eight volunteers each received 0.2 mg, 1 mg, or 4 mg ADVAX or saline placebo via EP, or 4 mg ADVAX via standard intramuscular injection at weeks 0 and 8. A third vaccination was administered to eleven volunteers at week 36. EP was safe, well-tolerated and considered acceptable for a prophylactic vaccine. EP delivery of ADVAX increased the magnitude of HIV-1-specific cell mediated immunity by up to 70-fold over IM injection, as measured by gamma interferon ELISpot. The number of antigens to which the response was detected improved with EP and increasing dosage. Intracellular cytokine staining analysis of ELISpot responders revealed both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, with co-secretion of multiple cytokines. This is the first demonstration in healthy volunteers that EP is safe, tolerable, and effective in improving the magnitude, breadth and durability of cellular immune responses to a DNA vaccine candidate. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00545987.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19252. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The central role of dendritic cell (DC) in mounting an immune response to a novel antigen is now well established. We sought to demonstrate the use of a particular vaccine strategy based on directing HIV-1 Gag proteins to DCs in conjunction with an activation signal. CD40L was expressed on the surface of virus-like particles (VLPs) to target HIV-1 Gag antigens to the CD40 receptor on DCs, whereas CD40L-CD40 interaction would also result in cellular activation. Multiple CD40L VLP constructs were made and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, one VLP that expressed CD40L to the highest level showed greatest capacity to activate DCs in vitro. Correspondingly, this CD40L-VLP also proved to be most immunogenic in mice in raising both humoral and cellular responses to HIV-1 Gag. Confirmatory studies were performed to demonstrate the increased immunogenicity of CD40L-VLP is no longer observed when tested in CD40-/- mice. Our findings lend support to the belief that vaccine strategies that both target and activate DCs could yield a superior immune response.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 01/2011; 56(5):393-400. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ibalizumab is a humanized, anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. It potently blocks HIV-1 infection and targets an epitope in the second domain of CD4 without interfering with immune functions mediated by interaction of CD4 with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. We report here the crystal structure of ibalizumab Fab fragment in complex with the first two domains (D1-D2) of CD4 at 2.2 Å resolution. Ibalizumab grips CD4 primarily by the BC-loop (residues 121-125) of D2, sitting on the opposite side of gp120 and MHC-II binding sites. No major conformational change in CD4 accompanies binding to ibalizumab. Both monovalent and bivalent forms of ibalizumab effectively block viral infection, suggesting that it does not need to crosslink CD4 to exert antiviral activity. While gp120-induced structural rearrangements in CD4 are probably minimal, CD4 structural rigidity is dispensable for ibalizumab inhibition. These results could guide CD4-based immunogen design and lead to a better understanding of HIV-1 entry.
    Structure 12/2010; 18(12):1632-41. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During immune responses, antibodies are selected for their ability to bind to foreign antigens with high affinity, in part by their ability to undergo homotypic bivalent binding. However, this type of binding is not always possible. For example, the small number of gp140 glycoprotein spikes displayed on the surface of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disfavours homotypic bivalent antibody binding. Here we show that during the human antibody response to HIV, somatic mutations that increase antibody affinity also increase breadth and neutralizing potency. Surprisingly, the responding naive and memory B cells produce polyreactive antibodies, which are capable of bivalent heteroligation between one high-affinity anti-HIV-gp140 combining site and a second low-affinity site on another molecular structure on HIV. Although cross-reactivity to self-antigens or polyreactivity is strongly selected against during B-cell development, it is a common serologic feature of certain infections in humans, including HIV, Epstein-Barr virus and hepatitis C virus. Seventy-five per cent of the 134 monoclonal anti-HIV-gp140 antibodies cloned from six patients with high titres of neutralizing antibodies are polyreactive. Despite the low affinity of the polyreactive combining site, heteroligation demonstrably increases the apparent affinity of polyreactive antibodies to HIV.
    Nature 09/2010; 467(7315):591-5. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The failure to develop an effective vaccine against HIV-1 infection has led the research community to seek new ways of raising qualitatively different antibody and cellular immune responses. Towards this goal, we investigated the yellow fever 17D vaccine strain (YF17D), one of the most effective vaccines ever made, as a platform for HIV-1 vaccine development. A test antigen, HIV-1 p24 (clade B consensus), was inserted near the 5' end of YF17D, in frame and upstream of the polyprotein (YF-5'/p24), or between the envelope and the first non-structural protein (YF-E/p24/NS1). In vitro characterization of these recombinants indicated that the gene insert was more stable in the context of YF-E/p24/NS1. This was confirmed in immunogenicity studies in mice. CD8(+) IFN-gamma T-cell responses against p24 were elicited by the YF17D recombinants, as were specific CD4(+) T cells expressing IFN-gamma and IL-2. A balanced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell response was notable, as was the polyfunctionality of the responding cells. Finally, the protective efficacy of the YF17D recombinants, particularly YF-E/p24/NS1, in mice challenged with a vaccinia expressing HIV-1 Gag was demonstrated. These results suggest that YF17D warrants serious consideration as a live-attenuated vector for HIV-1 vaccine development.
    Vaccine 08/2010; 28(35):5676-85. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) has been shown to bind CD1d molecules to activate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, and subsequently induce activation of various immune-competent cells, including dendritic cells, thereby providing a significant adjuvant effect for various vaccines. However, in phase I clinical trials, alpha-GalCer was shown to display only marginal biological activity. In our search for a glycolipid that can exert more potent stimulatory activity against iNKT cells and dendritic cells and produce an adjuvant effect superior to alpha-GalCer, we performed step-wise screening assays on a focused library of 25 alpha-GalCer analogues. Assays included quantification of the magnitude of stimulatory activity against human iNKT cells in vitro, binding affinity to human and murine CD1d molecules, and binding affinity to the invariant t cell receptor of human iNKT cells. Through this rigorous and iterative screening process, we have identified a lead candidate glycolipid, 7DW8-5, that exhibits a superior adjuvant effect than alpha-GalCer on HIV and malaria vaccines in mice.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2010; 107(29):13010-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). With its unique specificity for domain 2 of CD4, this antibody potently and broadly blocks HIV-1 infection in vitro by inhibiting a postbinding step required for viral entry but without interfering with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-mediated immune function. In clinical trials, ibalizumab has demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity in patients without causing immunosuppression. Thus, a characterization of the ibalizumab epitope was conducted in an attempt to gain insight into the underlying mechanism of its antiviral activity as well as its safety profile. By studying mouse/human chimeric CD4 molecules and site-directed point mutants of CD4, amino acids L96, P121, P122, and Q163 in domain 2 were found to be important for ibalizumab binding, with E77 and S79 in domain 1 also contributing. All these residues appear to cluster on the interface between domains 1 and 2 of human CD4 on a surface opposite the site where gp120 and the MHC-II molecule bind on domain 1. Separately, the epitope of M-T441, a weakly neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody that competes with ibalizumab, was localized entirely within domain 2 on residues 123 to 125 and 138 to 140. The results reported herein not only provide an appreciation for why ibalizumab has not had significant adverse immunological consequences in infected patients to date but also raise possible steric hindrance mechanisms by which this antibody blocks HIV-1 entry into a CD4-positive cell.
    Journal of Virology 07/2010; 84(14):6935-42. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

36k Citations
3,418.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2014
    • The Rockefeller University
      • • Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease
      • • Laboratory of Molecular Immunology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
    • New York University
      • Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Division of Theoretical Biology and Bioinformatics
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Abbott Laboratories
      • Abbott Laboratories
      North Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • Academia Sinica
      • Genomics Research Center
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2006–2008
    • Yunnan Center for Disease Control and Prevention
      Yün-nan, Yunnan, China
  • 2007
    • Wuhan Institute Of Virology
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 1997–2006
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 1995–2005
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      • Theoretical Division
      Los Alamos, NM, United States
    • Nicosia General Hospital
      Lefkoşa, Lefkosia, Cyprus
  • 2004
    • Peking Union Medical College Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2002
    • American Society of Hematology
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2000
    • Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi
      Corpus Christi, Texas, United States
    • Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1998
    • New York State
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1992–1993
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1991
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1988–1991
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1990
    • State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Brooklyn, NY, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Honolulu, HI, United States
  • 1986–1988
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1985–1986
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States