[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Reliable noninvasive estimation of haemodyna-mics may be helpful in decision making in critically ill patients to improve outcome. We have compared the clinical utility of elec-trical cardiometry (EC) and pulmonary artery catheterisation (PAC) derived parameters in awake, spontaneously breathing patients undergoing percutaneous trans-mitral commissurotomy (PTMC). The parameters compared were cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and their respective indices. Materials and methods: Prospective observational clinical study was conducted in cardiac catheterisation laboratory of a tertiary hospital in rheumatic heart disease patients (n = 50) undergoing PTMC, for comparison of the two techniques. CO and other parameters by EC and PAC were collected simulta-neously at T1 (pre-PTMC) and T2 (post-PTMC). Intraclass corre-lation coefficient (ICC), limits of agreement and mean bias within the data set group and within each patient over time were calculated. Accuracy of CO measured was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis. Results: EC-CO 3.91 ± 1.16 Lmin –1 and PAC-CO 3.94 ± 1.12 Lmin –1 were measured at T1 and EC-CO 4.54 ± 1.15 Lmin –1 and PAC-CO 4.55 ± 1.13 Lmin –1 were measured at T2. ICC, mean bias and limits of agreement for CO at T1 were 0.98 – 0.03 and – 0.41 to + 0.35 respectively and T2 were 0.99 – 0.00 and – 0.22 to + 0.21 respectively. Bland-Altman analysis showed a good agreement between EC and PAC derived parameters. Conclusion: Electrical cardiometry is equivalent to PAC-derived cardiac output in patients undergoing PTMC, provides a novel monitoring technique and a noninvasive, low-cost alter-native ideally suited for use during interventional catheter pro-cedures.
International Journal of Perioperative Ultrasound and Applied Technologies 09/2013; 2(3):102-107. DOI:10.5005/jp-journals-10027-1045
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare external and internal jugular venous pressures to monitor pulmonary artery pressure during the Fontan procedure.
During the Fontan procedure, the internal jugular vein is used to assess pulmonary artery pressure. The risk of venous thrombosis in the low-pressure Fontan circuit may compromise the long-term success of cavopulmonary anastomosis. This study compared external and internal jugular venous pressures, femoral venous pressure, and actual pulmonary artery pressure during the Fontan procedure.
32 children undergoing a single-stage Fontan on cardiopulmonary bypass were monitored for mean external and internal jugular venous pressures and femoral venous pressure pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass. Pulmonary artery pressure was also recorded directly after cardiopulmonary bypass. The pressure data were analyzed using analysis of variance, and the coefficient of correlation was found.
The differences between external jugular, internal jugular, and femoral venous pressure pre-cardiopulmonary bypass, and between the 3 venous pressures and the pulmonary artery pressure after cardiopulmonary bypass were found to be non-significant. The coefficient of correlation of external jugular venous pressure and internal jugular venous pressure was 0.8163 (p < 0.0001) pre-cardiopulmonary bypass, and 0.6465 (p = 0.0001) post-cardiopulmonary bypass.
The external jugular venous pressure correlates well with both internal jugular venous pressure and femoral venous pressure as a marker of pulmonary artery pressure in children undergoing the Fontan procedure. The use of external jugular venous pressure may also preclude the risk of thrombosis.
Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 06/2013; 21(3):303-5. DOI:10.1177/0218492312454020
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Volatile anesthetic agents may precondition the myocardium and protect against ischemia and infarction. Preconditioning by volatile anesthetic agents is well documented in adults but is underinvestigated in children. The present study compares the effect of preconditioning in children by three volatile anesthetic agents along with several other variables associated with cardioprotection.
Eighty children scheduled for ventricular septal defect closure under cardioplegic arrest were assigned to preconditioning for five minutes after commencement of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with one minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of one of the following agents: isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, or placebo (oxygen-air mixture). The plasma concentration of creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) was determined after initiation of CPB, and again 6 and 24 hours after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery. Duration of inotropic support, mechanical ventilation, and length of ICU stay in all the groups were also recorded.
Preconditioning with isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane was associated with significantly decreased postoperative release of CK-MB as compared to placebo group at 6 (group 1: 237.2 ± 189, group 2: 69.8 ± 15.8, group 3: 64.7 ± 37.8, and group 4: 70.4 ± 26.7) and 24 hours (group 1: 192.4 ± 158.2, group 2: 67.7 ± 25.0, group 3: 85.7 ± 66.8, and group 4: 50.4 ± 31.6) after admission to ICU. No significant differences were observed in the CK-MB levels among the three volatile anesthetic agents. Duration of inotropic support, mechanical ventilation, and length of ICU stay were greater in placebo group as compared to other groups without reaching statistical significance.
Volatile anesthetic appear to provide definite cardioprotection to pediatric myocardium. No conclusion can be drawn regarding the best preconditioning agent among isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane.
World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Hearth Surgery 01/2013; 4(1):24-29. DOI:10.1177/2150135112457580
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study aimed to compare preoperative baseline Sonoclot variables between acyanotic and cyanotic congenital heart disease patients.
100 patients aged from infancy to 9-years were studied. Fifty patients each from the cyanotic and acyanotic groups were studied for Sonoclot parameters preoperatively. After inhalational anesthetic induction, blood was collected from the arterial line and analyzed in a Sonoclot analyzer to measure Sonoclot activated coagulation time, clot rate, and platelet function.
Sonoclot activated coagulation time was normal in both groups, but lower in the cyanotic group (127.95 ± 51.4 s) than the acyanotic group (147.85 ± 45.48 s; p = 0.54). Both groups had abnormal clot rates and platelet function. The clot rate was significantly lower in the cyanotic group (19.31 ± 10.68 U·min(-1)) than acyanotic group (24.88 ± 9.23 U·min(-1); p = 0.009). Platelet function was deranged in 31% of patients (cyanotic, 59%; acyanotic, 8%; p <0.001). Platelet function was the most severely affected baseline parameter.
Pediatric acyanotic and cyanotic congenital heart disease patients have deranged coagulation parameters as assessed by the Sonoclot analyzer. The abnormality is more marked in cyanotic patients. Platelet function is the most severely affected parameter. These baseline parameters in conjunction with post-bypass parameters for an individual patient will help in the formulation of specific blood component transfusion guidelines.
Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 10/2012; 20(5):544-7. DOI:10.1177/0218492312439480
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to study the effect of monitoring site, radial or femoral, for arterial pressure waveform derived cardiac output using FloTrac/Vigileo system with third generation software version 3.02 during cardiac surgery. The cardiac output derived from the two sites was also compared to the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) derived cardiac output to reevaluate the relation between them using the newer software. The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was also studied by doing the sub analysis before and after bypass. Forty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled in the study. Cardiac output derived from radial artery (RADCO), femoral artery (FEMCO) using FloTrac/Vigileo system with third generation software version 3.02 and cardiac output using pulmonary artery catheter (PACCO) at predefined nine time points were recorded. Three hundred and forty two cardiac output data triplets were analysed. The Bland-Altman analysis of RADCO and FEMCO revealed a mean bias of -0.28 with percentage error of 20%. The pre CPB precision of both RADCO and FEMCO was 1.25 times as that of PACCO. The post CPB precision of FEMCO was 1.2 times of PACCO while that of RADCO was 1.7 times of PACCO. The third generation of FloTrac/Vigileo system shows good correlation between the radial and femoral derived cardiac outputs in both pre and post bypass periods. The newer software correlates better to PAC derived cardiac output in the post bypass period for femoral artery than radial artery.
International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 02/2012; 26(2):115-20. DOI:10.1007/s10877-012-9341-5 · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative bleeding is a common complication after pediatric cardiac surgery. Use of recombinant activated factor VII for intractable hemorrhage after cardiac, pediatric, and neurosurgery has been shown to decrease postoperative bleeding, but data in children are limited. This retrospective study analyzed 20 children <15 years-old who underwent cardiac surgery and received recombinant activated factor VII for refractory postoperative hemorrhage. All patients underwent mediastinal reexploration before recombinant activated factor VII was administered as a bolus dose over 2-3 min as rescue therapy. If no significant decrease in chest tube drainage was observed, the dose was repeated after an interval of at least 2 h. The median dose of recombinant activated factor VII administered per bleeding episode was 83.33 μg·kg(-1) (range, 72.47-87.50 μg·kg(-1)), and the dose per patient was 154.16 μg·kg(-1) (range, 93.06-180.52 μg·kg(-1)). The median number of doses found to be effective in these children was 1.76. There were significant decreases in mediastinal chest tube drainage and the volume of packed red blood cells, platelet concentrates, and cryoprecipitate administered after recombinant activated factor VII. No complications were observed during the therapy.
Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 02/2012; 20(1):19-23. DOI:10.1177/0218492311432584
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
For patients with dextro-transposition of great arteries (d-TGAs), ventricular septal defect (VSD), and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the common surgical options are palliative arterial switch operation (ASO) or palliative atrial switch operation leaving the VSD open. We evaluated the role of ASO with VSD closure using a fenestrated unidirectional valved patch (UVP).
Between July 2009 and February 2011, six patients with TGAs, VSD, and severe PAH (mean age 39.8 ± 47.4 months, median 21, range 8-132 months), weighing 10.7 ± 9.2 kg (median 8.6, range 4.3-29 kg), underwent ASO with VSD closure using our simple technique of UVP. Mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure before the operation was 106 ± 12.7 mm Hg (median 107.5, range 95-126 mm Hg) and pulmonary vascular resistance was 9.5 ± 4.22 units (median 9.5, range 6.6-17.1 Wood units).
There were no deaths. All patients had a postoperative systemic arterial saturation of more than 95%, although there were frequent episodes of systemic desaturation due to right-to-left shunt across the valved VSD patch (as seen on transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiograms). Mean follow-up was 10 ± 7.6 months (median 7.5, range 1-22 months). At most recent follow-up, all patients had systemic arterial saturation of more than 95% and no right-to-left shunt through the VSD patch. In one patient, the follow-up cardiac catheterization showed a fall in pulmonary artery systolic pressure to 49 mm Hg.
Arterial switch operation with UVP VSD closure is feasible with acceptable early results. It avoids complications of palliative atrial switch (arrhythmia and baffle obstruction) and partially or completely open VSD.
World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Hearth Surgery 01/2012; 3(1):21-25. DOI:10.1177/2150135111421939
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To compare the effects of propofol and etomidate induction on hemodynamic parameters and serum cortisol lev-els in patients with normal left ventricular function undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery on cardio-pulmonary bypass. Material and Method: After approval from the Institute Ethics committee hundred American Soci-ety of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade II or III patients undergoing scheduled coronary artery bypass surgery on cardio-pulmonary bypass were enrolled in the study. Patients were allocated randomly to receive either propofol or etomidate for anesthesia induction. Anesthesia was maintained in both groups with sevoflurane, vecuronium bromide for muscle relaxation (0.1 mg/kg, boluses) and fentanyl up to a total dose of 20 mcg/kg. Result: The baseline serum cortisol values were within normal limits in both the groups. The serum cortisol levels in the propofol group increased more than two fold, whereas the values in the etomidate group decreased by close to fifty percent on weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). There was no significant difference in serum cortisol levels in the two groups at twenty-four hours after induction, although the values were close to double the baseline levels. Hemodynamically, etomidate group was more stable than propofol group following induction of anesthesia (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The surge in serum cortisol levels on the initiation of CPB seen after the use of propofol is prevented by the use of etomidate. Serum cortisol levels in both groups are well above the baseline at twenty-four hours without any untoward effects. Etomidate provides more stable hemodynamic parameters when used for induction of anesthesia as compared to propofol.
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 01/2012; 02(03). DOI:10.4236/wjcs.2012.23011
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 0.5% ropivacaine used for parasternal intercostal blocks for postoperative analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
A randomized, controlled, prospective, double-blind study.
A tertiary care teaching hospital.
Thirty children scheduled for cardiac surgery with a median sternotomy.
A 0.5% ropivacaine injection with 5 doses of 0.5 to 2.0 mL on each side in the 2nd to 6th parasternal intercostal space with a total dose of ropivacaine below 5 mg/kg or the same volume of saline before sternal wound closure.
The time to extubation was significantly lower in patients administered the parasternal blocks with ropivacaine than in the control group; the mean values were 2.66 hours and 5.31 hours, respectively (p < 0.001). The pain scores were lower in the ropivacaine group compared with the saline group; mean values were 2.20 for the ropivacaine group and 4.83 for the saline group on a scale of 10. The cumulative fentanyl dose requirement over a 24-hour period was higher in the saline group than the ropivacaine group (p < 0.001).
Parasternal blocks with ropivacaine appear to be a simple, safe, and useful technique of supplementation of postoperative analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery with a median sternotomy.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 12/2011; 26(3):439-42. DOI:10.1053/j.jvca.2011.10.012 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 45-year-old patient with known history of Aortic arch aneurysm presented in the emergency ward with features of rupture of the aneurysm into the left lung with compressive signs in the pulmonary parenchyma. Diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm with left upper lobectomy under general anesthesia and cardio-pulmonary bypass support. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was used for an intraoperative monitoring. While imaging the thoracic aorta with TEE was underway, we accidentally visualized an image that was confirmed to be the spinal cord. So, in this article we discuss how the spinal cord monitoring can be made possible with TEE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The internal jugular vein continues to be the preferred site for cannulation to monitor central venous pressure despite the reported evidence of the accuracy of external jugular venous pressure (EJVP) to reliably predict internal jugular venous pressure (IJVP). Internal jugular venous cannulation carries a risk of thrombosis that can be life-threatening in children undergoing superior cavopulmonary anastomosis and a subsequent Fontan procedure. The present study compared IJVP and EJVP in children undergoing superior cavopulmonary anastomosis and found no statistical and clinical difference between IJVP and EJVP. Thus, external jugular vein cannulation reliably predicts IJVP and pulmonary artery pressures in children undergoing superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, and may obviate the risk of life-threatening cavopulmonary thrombosis.
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 09/2011; 13(6):566-8. DOI:10.1510/icvts.2011.280727 · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the case of a young man diagnosed with a right atrial mass and a large pericardial effusion. The patient had presented in the emergency department with chest pain, shortness of breath, pedal oedema and loss of appetite. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a bright echodensity in the right atrium with a large pericardial effusion. He was treated for presumed tubercular pericardial effusion. Pericardiocentesis showed a straw-coloured non-tubercular pericardial effusion. Surgical removal of the right atrial tumour was planned with cardiopulmonary bypass support. The tumour could only be partially resected due to large adhesions with the myocardium. The patient suffered a cardiorespiratory arrest in the intensive care unit 3 hours after surgery due to persistent bleeding in the pericardial cavity with refractory hypovolemic shock and could not be revived. The pathological examination performed later revealed a primary cardiac angiosarcoma. The case highlights the initial clinical presentation, current diagnostic modalities, and anaesthetic management options for cardiac angiosarcoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of combined low-dose ketamine and etomidate on hemodynamics during cardiac catheterization in children with congenital cardiac shunts. Sixty children undergoing routine diagnostic cardiac catheterization were included: 30 had a right-to-left shunt, and 30 had a left-to-right shunt. Both groups were given a single dose of etomidate 0.3 mg·kg(-1) with ketamine 1 mg·kg(-1). There were no hemodynamic changes in the group with a right-to-left shunt. In cases of left-to-right shunt, there were significant differences in heart rate, right atrial pressure, mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, and systemic vascular resistance index. Decreases in pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary-systemic shunt ratio were also observed. Further studies are required with dose titration of this anesthetic combination in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease involving a left-to-right shunt.
Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 04/2011; 19(2):143-8. DOI:10.1177/0218492311402132