[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) type 6/11/16/18 vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD®) has been licensed in many countries around the world for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers and pre-cancers, as well as external genital warts causally related to HPV types 6/11/16/18. Across 7 phase 3 clinical trials involving more than 29,000 males and females ages 9-45, vaccination was generally well tolerated. Because of its expected public health benefit in reducing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, the vaccine has been implemented in the national vaccination programs of several countries, with over 178 million doses distributed worldwide.
Extensive efforts to assess the safety of the vaccine in routine practice have been conducted over the past 8 years since licensure, including more than 15 studies in more than one million pre-adolescents, adolescents, and adults from various countries. Most have been performed in the general population though there have been some in special populations (pregnant women, human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals, and those with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus).
We present a summary of the published, post-licensure safety data from active and passive surveillance. Only syncope, and possibly skin infections were associated with vaccination in the post-licensure setting. Serious adverse events such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, autoimmune diseases (including Guillain-Barre Syndrome and multiple sclerosis), anaphylaxis, venous thromboembolism, and stroke, were extensively studied, and no increase in the incidence of these events was found compared with background rates.
These results, along with the safety data from the pre-licensure clinical trials, confirm that the HPV4 vaccine has a favorable safety profile. Key policy, medical, and regulatory organizations around the world have independently reviewed these data and continue to recommend routine HPV vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined algorithms that adjusted for multiple-type infected lesions. Methods: A total of 10,656 women ages 15 to 26 years and 1,858 women ages 24 to 45 years were enrolled in the placebo arms of one of three clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine. We estimated the cumulative incidence of persistent infection and the proportion of CIN/AIS attributable to individual carcinogenic HPV genotypes, as well as the proportion of CIN/AIS lesions potentially preventable by a prophylactic 9-valent HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. Results: The cumulative incidence of persistent infection with >= 1 of the seven high-risk types included in the 9-valent vaccine was 29%, 12%, and 6% for women ages 15 to 26, 24 to 34, and 35 to 45 years, respectively. A total of 2,507 lesions were diagnosed as CIN or AIS by an expert pathology panel. After adjusting for multiple-type infected lesions, among women ages 15 to 45 years, these seven high-risk types were attributed to 43% to 55% of CIN1, 70% to 78% of CIN2, 85% to 91% of CIN3, and 95% to 100% of AIS lesions, respectively. The other tested types (HPV35/39/51/56/59) were attributed to 23% to 30% of CIN1, 7% to 14% of CIN2, 3% to 4% of CIN3, and 0% of AIS lesions, respectively. Conclusions: Approximately 85% or more of CIN3/AIS, >70% CIN2, and approximately 50% of CIN1 lesions worldwide are attributed to HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58. Impact: If 9-valent HPV vaccination programs are effectively implemented, the majority of CIN2 and CIN3 lesions worldwide could be prevented, in addition to approximately one-half of CIN1. (C)2014 AACR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. We assessed if risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2-3) or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is associated with a short interval between menarche and first sexual intercourse (FSI).Methods. 1009 Colombian and 1012 Finnish non-virgins aged 16-23 enrolled in the phase 3 trials of a quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine had non-missing data for age of menarche and first sexual intercourse. The impact of menarche interval on the odds of developing CIN2-3/AIS was evaluated in placebo recipients who were DNA-negative to HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59 and seronegative to HPV 6/11/16/18 at Day 1, and had a normal Pap result at Day 1 and Month 7, thus approximating sexually-naïve adolescents (n=504).Results. The mean age of menarche and FSI was 12.4 and 16.0 years, respectively. Among the women approximating sexually-naïve adolescents, 18 developed CIN2-3/AIS. Compared with women who postponed first intercourse beyond 3 years, those with first intercourse within 3 years of menarche had a greater risk of cytologic abnormalities (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.02─2.68; p=0.04) and CIN2-3/AIS (OR=3.56, 95%CI: 1.02─12.47; p=0.05).Conclusions. A short interval between menarche and FSI was a risk factor for cytologic abnormalities and high-grade cervical disease. These data emphasize the importance of primary prevention through education and vaccination.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2012; 206(12). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jis612 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Black women are disproportionally diagnosed and have higher mortality from cervical cancer in the United States. Here we describe the prophylactic efficacy and safety of a quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in black women.
A total of 700 black women from Latin America, Europe, and North America (aged 16-24 years) received the vaccine or placebo in one of two studies. Analyses focused on the efficacy and safety of the vaccine.
Baseline rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and history of past pregnancy were more than twice as high in black women compared with the non-black women who were enrolled in these trials. HPV-6/11/16 or 18 DNA was detected in 18% of black women versus 14.6% in non-black women at day 1. For black women, vaccine efficacy against disease caused by HPV-6/11/16/18 was 100% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (0 vs. 15 cases; 95% confidence interval, 64.5%-100%) and 100% for vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and condylomata acuminata (0 vs. 17 cases; 95% confidence interval, 69.3%-100%). There were no serious vaccine-related adverse experiences. A similar proportion of pregnancies resulted in live births (75.8% vaccine; 72.7% placebo) and fetal loss (24.2% vaccine; 27.3% placebo).
Prophylactic quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccination of young black women demonstrated high efficacy, safety, and tolerability. HPV vaccination has the potential to reduce cervical cancer-related health disparities both in the United States and around the world.
Journal of Adolescent Health 08/2012; 52(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.07.003 · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine on the risk of developing subsequent disease after an excisional procedure for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or diagnosis of genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.
Retrospective analysis of data from two international, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised efficacy trials of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (protocol 013 (FUTURE I) and protocol 015 (FUTURE II)).
Primary care centres and university or hospital associated health centres in 24 countries and territories around the world.
Among 17,622 women aged 15-26 years who underwent 1:1 randomisation to vaccine or placebo, 2054 received cervical surgery or were diagnosed with genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.
Three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine or placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6.
Incidence of HPV related disease from 60 days after treatment or diagnosis, expressed as the number of women with an end point per 100 person years at risk.
A total of 587 vaccine and 763 placebo recipients underwent cervical surgery. The incidence of any subsequent HPV related disease was 6.6 and 12.2 in vaccine and placebo recipients respectively (46.2% reduction (95% confidence interval 22.5% to 63.2%) with vaccination). Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in risk of any subsequent high grade disease of the cervix by 64.9% (20.1% to 86.3%). A total of 229 vaccine recipients and 475 placebo recipients were diagnosed with genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and the incidence of any subsequent HPV related disease was 20.1 and 31.0 in vaccine and placebo recipients respectively (35.2% reduction (13.8% to 51.8%)).
Previous vaccination with quadrivalent HPV vaccine among women who had surgical treatment for HPV related disease significantly reduced the incidence of subsequent HPV related disease, including high grade disease.
NCT00092521 and NCT00092534.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this report is to describe the detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and associated human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution that was observed in the context of two phase 3 clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. In this intention-to-treat analysis, we include all women who had at least one follow-up visit postenrollment. Healthy women (17,622) aged 15-26 with no history of HPV disease and a lifetime number of less than five sex partners (average follow-up of 3.6 years) were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at day 1, months 2, and 6. Women underwent colposcopy and biopsy according to a Papanicolaou triage algorithm. All tissue specimens were tested for 14 HPV types and were adjudicated by a pathology panel. During the trials, 22 women were diagnosed with AIS (six vaccine and 16 placebo). There were 25 AIS lesions in total, with HPV16/18 present in 96% (24 of 25 with 15 of 25 as single infections). Only two of 22 women had concomitant cytology results suggesting glandular abnormality. Colposcopic impressions (25 total) were either negative or indicated squamous lesions only. Of women with AIS, all six in the vaccine cohort and seven of 16 in the placebo cohort were infected at baseline with the same HPV type that was detected in the AIS lesion. Concurrent squamous lesions were detected in 20 of these 22 women. In summary, our findings show that AIS evades colposcopic and cervical cytologic detection. As most AIS lesions were HPV16/18-related, prophylactic HPV vaccination should reduce the incidence of invasive adenocarcinoma.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2011; 128(6):1344-53. DOI:10.1002/ijc.25723 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the overall agreement between colposcopically directed biopsies and the definitive excisional specimens within the context of three clinical trials. A total of 737 women aged 16-45 who had a cervical biopsy taken within 6 months before their definitive therapy were included. Per-protocol, colposcopists were to also obtain a representative cervical biopsy immediately before definitive therapy. Using adjudicated histological diagnoses, the initial biopsies and the same day biopsies were correlated with the surgically excised specimens. The overall agreement between the biopsies taken within 6 months of definitive therapy, and the definitive therapy diagnoses was 42% (weighted kappa = 0.34) (95% CI: 0.29-0.39). The overall underestimation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2-3/AIS) and CIN3/AIS was 26 and 42%, respectively. When allowing for one degree of variance in the correlation, the overall agreement was 92% for CIN2-3/AIS. The overall agreement between the same day biopsy and definitive therapy specimen was 56% (weighted kappa = 0.41) (95% CI: 0.36-0.47), and the underestimation of CIN2-3/AIS was 57%. There were significant associations in the agreement between biopsies and excisional specimen diagnoses when patients were stratified by age, number of biopsies, lesion size, presence of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 and region. Of 178 diagnostic endocervical curettages performed, 14 (7.9%) found any HPV disease. Colposcopic accuracy improved when CIN2 and CIN3/AIS were grouped as a single predictive measure of high-grade disease. Colposcopy functioned well when allowed a one-degree difference between the biopsy and the surgical histologic interpretations, as done in clinical practice. Taking more than one biopsy improved colposcopic accuracy and could improve patient management.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2011; 128(6):1354-62. DOI:10.1002/ijc.25470 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe transition probabilities for incident human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18/31/33/35/45/52/58/59 infections and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 lesions.
Women ages 16 to 23 years underwent cytology and cervical swab PCR testing for HPV at approximately 6-month intervals for up to 4 years in the placebo arm of an HPV vaccine trial. The cumulative proportion of incident HPV infections with diagnosed CIN, clearing (infection undetectable), or persisting without CIN, were estimated.
Most incident infections cleared, without detection of CIN, ranging at 36 months from 66.9% for HPV31 to 91.1% for HPV59. There was little variation in the 36-month proportion of incident HPV16, 18, and 31 infections followed by a CIN1 lesion positive for the relevant HPV type (range 16.7%-18.6%), with lower risks for HPV59 (6.4%) and HPV33 (2.9%). Thirty-six-month transition probabilities for CIN2 ranged across types from 2.2% to 9.1%; however, the number of events was generally too small for statistically significant differences to be seen across types for this endpoint, or CIN3.
Some incident HPV types appear more likely to result in diagnosed CIN1 than others. The relative predominance of HPV16, vis-à-vis some other high-risk HPV types (e.g., HPV33) in prevalent CIN2/3, appears more directly associated with relatively greater frequency of incident HPV16 infections within the population, than a higher risk of infection progression to CIN2/3.
Nearly all incident HPV infections either manifest as detectable CIN or become undetectable within 36 months. Some HPV types (e.g., 16 and 33) appear to have similar risk of CIN2/3 despite widely varied incidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).
Data from two international, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised efficacy trials of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (protocol 013 (FUTURE I) and protocol 015 (FUTURE II)). The trials were to be 4 years in length, and the results reported are from final study data of 42 months' follow-up.
Primary care centres and university or hospital associated health centres in 24 countries and territories around the world.
17 622 women aged 16-26 years enrolled between December 2001 and May 2003. Major exclusion criteria were lifetime number of sexual partners (>4), history of abnormal cervical smear test results, and pregnancy.
Three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (for serotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18) or placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6.
Vaccine efficacy against cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I and condyloma in a per protocol susceptible population that included subjects who received all three vaccine doses, tested negative for the relevant vaccine HPV types at day 1 and remained negative through month 7, and had no major protocol violations. Intention to treat, generally HPV naive, and unrestricted susceptible populations were also studied.
In the per protocol susceptible population, vaccine efficacy against lesions related to the HPV types in the vaccine was 96% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (95% confidence interval 91% to 98%), 100% for both vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (95% CIs 74% to 100%, 64% to 100% respectively), and 99% for condyloma (96% to 100%). Vaccine efficacy against any lesion (regardless of HPV type) in the generally naive population was 30% (17% to 41%), 75% (22% to 94%), and 48% (10% to 71%) for cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I, respectively, and 83% (74% to 89%) for condyloma.
Quadrivalent HPV vaccine provided sustained protection against low grade lesions attributable to vaccine HPV types (6, 11, 16, and 18) and a substantial reduction in the burden of these diseases through 42 months of follow-up.
NCT00092521 and NCT00092534.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the incidence and duration of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection episodes along with the risk of infection reappearance following a period of nondetection.
Women (1,788) ages 16 to 23 years underwent cytologic testing and PCR-based testing of cervical swab samples for HPV DNA (HPV-16/18/31/33/35/45/52/58/59) at approximately 6-month intervals for up to 4 years in the context of a phase 3 clinical trial (placebo arm). HPV type-specific incidence rates were estimated per 100 person-years. Duration of type-specific cervical infection episodes and risk of reappearance following a period of nondetection were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods.
HPV-16 exhibited the highest (5.9), and HPV-35 and HPV-33 exhibited the lowest (1.0) incidence rates per 100 person-years. Mean cervical infection durations ranged from 13 months for HPV-59 to 20 months for HPV-16 and 58 (with ongoing infections censored at the time of treatment, if done). The risk of cervical infection reappearance within approximately 3 years following a period of nondetection ranged from 0% to 16% across HPV types, with a mean of 8%. Limited evidence was found for a role of false-positive HPV tests, missed infections that were above the threshold for detection, or new acquisition of infection in accounting for patterns of infection reappearance.
Incidence of high-risk cervical infection was observed to vary considerably more across HPV types than infection duration. A nontrivial proportion of women exhibited infection reappearance following a period of nondetection, with a potential explanation for many such events observed within this analysis being a return to detectable levels of a previously acquired infection.
The risk of HPV infection reappearance following a period of nondetection has not been previously reported for individual HPV types, and this study finds that a nontrivial proportion of infected women exhibit reappearances. Future studies could ascertain subject-level factors that potentially modify the risk of infection reappearance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population of HPV-exposed and -unexposed women (intention-to-treat group).
This analysis studied 17 622 women aged 15-26 years who were enrolled in one of two randomized, placebo-controlled, efficacy trials for the HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine (first patient on December 28, 2001, and studies completed July 31, 2007). Vaccine or placebo was given at day 1, month 2, and month 6. All women underwent cervicovaginal sampling and Papanicolaou (Pap) testing at day 1 and every 6-12 months thereafter. Outcomes were any cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; any external anogenital and vaginal lesions; Pap test abnormalities; and procedures such as colposcopy and definitive therapy. Absolute rates are expressed as women with endpoint per 100 person-years at risk.
The average follow-up was 3.6 years (maximum of 4.9 years). In the population that was negative to 14 HPV types, vaccination was up to 100% effective in reducing the risk of HPV16/18-related high-grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal lesions and of HPV6/11-related genital warts. In the intention-to-treat group, vaccination also statistically significantly reduced the risk of any high-grade cervical lesions (19.0% reduction; rate vaccine = 1.43, rate placebo = 1.76, difference = 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13 to 0.54), vulvar and vaginal lesions (50.7% reduction; rate vaccine = 0.10, rate placebo = 0.20, difference = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.16), genital warts (62.0% reduction; rate vaccine = 0.44, rate placebo = 1.17, difference = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.87), Pap abnormalities (11.3% reduction; rate vaccine = 10.36, rate placebo = 11.68, difference = 1.32, 95% CI = 0.74 to 1.90), and cervical definitive therapy (23.0% reduction; rate vaccine = 1.97, rate placebo = 2.56, difference = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.83), irrespective of causal HPV type.
High-coverage HPV vaccination programs among adolescents and young women may result in a rapid reduction of genital warts, cervical cytological abnormalities, and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In the longer term, substantial reductions in the rates of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers may follow.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 02/2010; 102(5):325-39. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djp534 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical disease. Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external anogenital disease related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed.
18,174 women were enrolled into 3 clinical studies. The data presented comprise a subset of these subjects (n = 2,617) who were HPV seropositive and DNA negative at enrollment (for >or=1 vaccine type). In each study, subjects were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine or placebo at day 1, month 2 and month 6 (without knowledge of baseline HPV status). Procedures performed for efficacy data evaluation included detailed genital examination, Pap testing, and collection of cervicovaginal and external genital specimens. Analyses of efficacy were carried out in a population stratified by HPV serology and HPV DNA status at enrollment.
Subjects were followed for an average of 40 months. Seven subjects in the placebo group developed cervical disease, and eight subjects developed external genital disease related to a vaccine HPV type they had previously encountered. No subject receiving HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine developed disease to a vaccine HPV type to which they were seropositive and DNA negative at enrolment.
These results suggest that natural HPV infection-elicited antibodies may not provide complete protection over time, however the immune response to the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine appears to prevent reinfection or reactivation of disease with vaccine HPV types. Vaccine-related adverse experiences were higher among subjects receiving vaccine, mostly due to increased injection site adverse experiences.
Human vaccines 10/2009; 5(10):696-704. DOI:10.4161/hv.5.10.9515 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to provide protection from HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease through 3 years. We provide an update on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions based on end-of-study data from three clinical trials. Additionally, we stratify vaccine efficacy by several baseline characteristics, including age, smoking status, and Papanicolaou (Pap) test results. A total of 18,174 females ages 16 to 26 years were randomized and allocated into one of three clinical trials (protocols 007, 013, and 015). Vaccine or placebo was given at baseline, month 2, and month 6. Pap testing was conducted at regular intervals. Cervical and anogenital swabs were collected for HPV DNA testing. Examination for the presence of vulvar and vaginal lesions was also done. Endpoints included high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal lesions (CIN 2/3, VIN 2/3, or VaIN 2/3). Mean follow-up time was 42 months post dose 1. Vaccine efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18-related high-grade cervical lesions in the per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations was 98.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 93.3-99.8] and 51.5% (95% CI, 40.6-60.6), respectively. Vaccine efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18-related high-grade vulvar and vaginal lesions in the per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations was 100.0% (95% CI, 82.6-100.0) and 79.0% (95% CI, 56.4-91.0), respectively. Efficacy in the intention-to-treat population tended to be lower in older women, women with more partners, and women with abnormal Pap test results. The efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical and external anogenital neoplasia remains high through 42 months post vaccination.
Cancer Prevention Research 10/2009; 2(10):868-78. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0031 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recognition of human papillomavirus (HPV) as a necessary cause of cervical cancer (CC) led to new perspectives for its control and the demonstration of an effective primary prevention strategy through vaccination. We undertook this study to evaluate the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine in Mexican women.
A total of 679 Mexican women between 18 and 23 years old participated in two Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine. Women were enrolled who tested negative for pregnancy and reported having four or less sexual partners during their lifetime. Vaccine or placebo was administered at day 1, month 2 and month 6.
Among Mexican women who were naïve to the respective vaccine type at enrollment, the quadrivalent vaccine was highly efficacious, preventing 100% of HPV6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3, adenocarcinoma in situ, condyloma and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Statistical significance was not reached for every endpoint due to the limited sample size. Vaccination was generally well tolerated and immunogenic.
To widely administer the vaccine, collaborative efforts should be coordinated among public, private and local community sectors. In light of the scarce knowledge of many health professionals with respect to the primary prevention of CC, it will be necessary to educate health providers on the advantages and specific recommendations of HPV vaccines and secondary prevention. Decision making should be based on scientific evidence, allowing health professionals to provide an organized social response that supports the universal right to health.
Archives of medical research 08/2009; 40(6):514-24. DOI:10.1016/j.arcmed.2009.07.008 · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the impact of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on infection and cervical disease related to 10 nonvaccine HPV types (31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59) associated with >20% of cervical cancers. The population evaluated included HPV-naive women and women with preexisting HPV infection and/or HPV-related disease at enrollment.
Phase 3 efficacy studies enrolled 17,622 women aged 16-26 years. Subjects underwent cervicovaginal sampling and Pap testing on day 1 and then at 6-12-month intervals for up to 4 years. HPV typing was performed on samples from enrollment and follow-up visits, including samples obtained for diagnosis or treatment of HPV-related disease. All subjects who received 1 dose and returned for follow-up were included.
Vaccination reduced the rate of HPV-31/33/45/52/58 infection by 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.1% to 28.7%) and of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1-3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) by 18.8% (95% CI, 7.4% to 28.9%). Vaccination also reduced the rate of HPV-31/58/59-related CIN1-3/AIS by 26.0% (95% CI, 6.7% to 41.4%), 28.1% (95% CI, 5.3% to 45.6%), and 37.6% (95% CI, 6.0% to 59.1%), respectively. Although a modest reduction in HPV-31/33/45/52/58-related CIN2 or worse was observed, the estimated reduction was not statistically significant.
These cross-protection results complement the vaccine's prophylactic efficacy against disease associated with HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18. Long-term monitoring of vaccinated populations are needed to fully ascertain the population-based impact and public health significance of these findings.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00092521 , NCT00092534 , and NCT00092482.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2009; 199(7):936-44. DOI:10.1086/597309 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine reduces the risk of HPV-6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1-3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Here, its impact on CIN1-3/AIS associated with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types was evaluated.
We enrolled 17,622 women aged 16-26 years. All underwent cervicovaginal sampling and Pap testing at regular intervals for up to 4 years. HPV genotyping was performed for biopsy samples, and histological diagnoses were determined by a pathology panel. Analyses were conducted among subjects who were negative for 14 HPV types on day 1. Prespecified analyses included infection of 6 months' duration and CIN1-3/AIS due to the 2 and 5 most common HPV types in cervical cancer after HPV types 16 and 18, as well as all tested nonvaccine types.
Vaccination reduced the incidence of HPV-31/45 infection by 40.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.9% to 59.0%) and of CIN1-3/AIS by 43.6% (95% CI, 12.9% to 64.1%), respectively. The reduction in HPV-31/33/45/52/58 infection and CIN1-3/AIS was 25.0% (95% CI, 5.0% to 40.9%) and 29.2% (95% CI, 8.3% to 45.5%), respectively. Efficacy for CIN2-3/AIS associated with the 10 nonvaccine HPV types was 32.5% (95% CI, 6.0% to 51.9%). Reductions were most notable for HPV-31.
HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine reduced the risk of CIN2-3/AIS associated with nonvaccine types responsible for approximately 20% of cervical cancers. The clinical benefit of cross-protection is not expected to be fully additive to the efficacy already observed against HPV-6/11/16/18-related disease, because women may have >1 CIN lesion, each associated with a different HPV type.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00092521 , NCT00092534 , and NCT00092482.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2009; 199(7):926-35. DOI:10.1086/597307 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of the quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is thought to be mediated by humoral immunity. We evaluated the correlation between quadrivalent HPV vaccine-induced serum anti-HPV responses and efficacy. 17,622 women were vaccinated at day 1, and months 2 and 6. At day 1 and at 6-12 months intervals for up to 48 months, subjects underwent Papanicolaou and genital HPV testing. No immune correlate of protection could be found due to low number of cases. Although 40% of vaccine subjects were anti-HPV 18 seronegative at end-of-study, efficacy against HPV 18-related disease remained high (98.4%; 95% CI: 90.5-100.0) despite high attack rates in the placebo group. These results suggest vaccine-induced protection via immune memory, or lower than detectable HPV 18 antibody titers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is among the highest in the world. Because there are major demographic shifts happening in LAC countries (population growth, urbanization and ageing) cervical cancer incidence and mortality will likely continue to be a significant public health problem. Overall human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the LAC general population has been found to be 2-fold higher than the average worldwide prevalence. The large HPV and cancer burden may be explained by the highly prevalent HPV variants of HPV types -16 and 18, which have an increased oncogenic potential. Given the major mode of transmission of genital HPV is sexual, certain, patterns of sexual behaviour (early age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners and sexual behaviour of the partner) are associated with an increased risk of HPV genital acquisition. Although HPV infection is necessary for carcinogenesis, certain co-factors (high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives, smoking and co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) help in the progression from infection to cancer. Many studies that have contributed to this evidence have been carried out in LAC and are reviewed and summarised in this article. Since HPV vaccines will likely take years to implement, and many more years to show impact on disease, cervical cancer screening programmes remain as the key intervention to control disease in LAC in the years to come.