Wengang Chai

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (99)665.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Glucans are polymers of D-glucose with differing linkages in linear or branched sequences. They are constituents of microbial and plant cell-walls and involved in important bio-recognition processes including immunomodulation, anti-cancer activities, pathogen virulence and plant cell-wall biodegradation. Translational possibilities for these activities in medicine and biotechnology are considerable. High-throughput micro-methods are needed to screen proteins for recognition of specific glucan sequences as a lead to structure-function studies and their exploitation. We describe construction of a glucome microarray, the first sequence-defined glycome-scale microarray, using a designer approach from targeted ligand-bearing glucans in conjunction with a novel high-sensitivity mass spectrometric sequencing method, as a screening tool to assign glucan recognition motifs. The glucome microarray comprises 153 oligosaccharide probes with high purity, representing major sequences in glucans. The negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation was used for complete linkage analysis of gluco-oligosaccharides in linear homo and hetero and branched sequences. The system is validated using antibodies and carbohydrate-binding modules known to target α- or β-glucans in different biological contexts, extending knowledge on their specificities, and applied to reveal new information on glucan recognition by two signalling molecules of the immune system against pathogens: Dectin-1 and DC-SIGN. The sequencing of the glucan oligosaccharides by the MS method and their interrogation on the microarrays provides detailed information on linkage, sequence and chain length requirements of glucan-recognizing proteins, and are a sensitive means of revealing unsuspected sequences in the polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 02/2015; 14(4). DOI:10.1074/mcp.M115.048272 · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: →3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1→4) [FucαX(1→3)]GlcAβ(1→ where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%) and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and MD simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high-affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins, as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+ catalysed Fenton type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. While the polysaccharide shows some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments have much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable to dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the presented data support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention using fCS fragments or their mimetics.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2014; 289(41). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.572297 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For a subset of pathogenic microorganisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the recognition and degradation of host hyaluronan contributes to bacterial spreading through the extracellular matrix and enhancing access to host-cell surfaces. The hyaluronate lyase, Hyl, presented on the surface of S. pneumoniae performs this role. Using glycan microarray screening, affinity electrophoresis, and isothermal titration calorimetry we show that the N-terminal module of Hyl is a hyaluronan-specific carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and the founding member of CBM family 70. The 1.2 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of CBM70 revealed it to have a β-sandwich fold similar to other CBMs. The electrostatic properties of the binding site, which was identified by site-directed mutagenesis, are distinct from other CBMs and complementary to its acidic ligand, hyaluronan. Dynamic light scattering and solution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed the full-length Hyl protein to exist as a monomer-dimer mixture in solution. Through a detailed analysis of the SAXS data we report the pseudo-atomic solution structures of the monomer and dimer forms of the full-length multimodular Hyl.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2014; 289(39). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.578435 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 08/2014; 21:170. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.06.009 · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ZG16p is a soluble mammalian lectin, the first to be described with a Jacalin-related β-prism fold. ZG16p has been reported to bind both to glycosaminoglycans and mannose. In order to determine the structural basis of the multiple sugar-binding properties, we conducted glycan microarray analyses of human ZG16p. We observed that ZG16p preferentially binds to alpha-mannose-terminating short glycans such as Ser/Thr-linked O-mannose, but not to high-mannose type N-glycans. Among sulfated glycosaminoglycan oligomers examined, chondroitin sulfate B and heparin oligosaccharides showed significant binding. Crystallographic studies of human ZG16p lectin in the presence of selected ligands revealed the mechanism of multiple sugar recognition. Manα1-3Man and Glcβ1-3Glc bound in different orientations: the nonreducing end of the former and the reducing end of the latter fitted in the canonical shallow mannose-binding pocket. Solution NMR analysis using 15N-labeled ZG16p defined the heparin-binding region which is on an adjacent flat surface of the protein. On-array competitive binding assays suggest that it is possible for ZG16p to bind simultaneously to both types of ligands. Recognition of a broad spectrum of ligands by ZG16p may account for the multiple functions of this lectin in the formation of zymogen granules via glycosaminoglycan-binding, and in the recognition of pathogens in the digestive system through α-mannose-related recognition.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2014; 289(24). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.539114 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibody F77 was previously raised against human prostate cancer cells and shown to recognize a carbohydrate antigen, but the carbohydrate sequence of the antigen was elusive. Here we make multifaceted approaches to characterize F77 antigen, including binding analyses with the glycolipid extract of the prostate cancer cell line PC3, microarrays with sequence-defined glycan probes, and designer arrays from the O-glycome of an antigen-positive mucin, in conjunction with mass spectrometry. Our results reveal F77 antigen to be expressed on blood group H on a 6-linked branch of a poly-N-acetyllactosamine backbone. We show that mAb F77 can bind also to the blood group A and B analogs but with lower intensities. We propose that the close association of F77 antigen with prostate cancers is a consequence of increased blood group H expression together with upregulated branching enzymes. This is in contrast to other epithelial cancers which have upregulated branching enzymes, but diminished expression of H antigen. With knowledge of the structure and prevalence of F77 antigen in prostate cancer, the way is open to explore rationally its application as a biomarker to detect F77-positive circulating prostate cancer-derived glycoproteins and tumor cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2014; 289(23). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.558932 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neoglycolipid (NGL) technology is the basis of a state-of-the-art oligosaccharide microarray system. The NGL-based microarray system in the Glycosciences Laboratory Imperial College London (http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/glycosciences) is one of the two leading platforms for glycan microarrays, being offered for screening analyses to the broad biomedical community. Highlighted in this review are the sensitivity of the analysis system and, coupled with mass spectrometry, the provision for generating 'designer' microarrays from glycomes to identify novel ligands of biological relevance. Among recent applications are assignments of ligands for apicomplexan parasites, pandemic 2009 influenza virus, polyoma and reoviruses, an innate immune receptor against fungal pathogens, Dectin-1, and a novel protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, malectin; also the characterization of an elusive cancer-associated antigen. Some other contemporary advances in glycolipid-containing arrays and microarrays are also discussed.
    Current opinion in chemical biology 02/2014; 18C:87-94. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.01.007 · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and Africa, global concerns of an imminent pandemic persist. Recent experimental studies suggest that efficient transmission between humans of current H5N1 viruses only requires a few genetic changes. An essential step is alteration of the virus hemagglutinin from preferential binding to avian receptors for the recognition of human receptors present in the upper airway. We have identified receptor-binding changes which emerged during H5N1 infection of humans, due to single amino acid substitutions, Ala134Val and Ile151Phe, in the hemagglutinin. Detailed biological, receptor-binding, and structural analyses revealed reduced binding of the mutated viruses to avian-like receptors, but without commensurate increased binding to the human-like receptors investigated, possibly reflecting a receptor-binding phenotype intermediate in adaptation to more human-like characteristics. These observations emphasize that evolution in nature of avian H5N1 viruses to efficient binding of human receptors is a complex multistep process.
    Virology 09/2013; 447(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2013.08.010 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    Nature 07/2013; DOI:10.1038/nature12383 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ι-Carrageenases belong to family 82 of glycoside hydrolases that degrade sulfated galactans in the red algae known as ι-carrageenans. The catalytic mechanism and some substrate-binding residues of family GH82 have been studied but the substrate recognition and binding mechanism of this family have not been fully elucidated. We report here the purification, cloning and characterization of a new ι-carrageenase CgiA_Ce from the marine bacterium Cellulophaga sp. QY3. CgiA_Ce was the most thermostable carrageenase described so far. It was most active at 50°C and pH 7.0 and retained more than 70% of the original activity after incubation at 50°C for 1 h at pH 7.0 or at pH 5.0-10.6 for 24 h. CgiA_Ce was an endo-type ι-carrageenase; it cleaved ι-carrageenan yielding neo-ι-carrabiose and neo-ι-carratetraose as the main end products, and neo-ι-carrahexaose was the minimum substrate. Sequence analysis and structure modeling showed that CgiA_Ce is indeed a new member of family GH82. Moreover, sequence analysis of ι-carrageenases revealed that the amino acid residues at subsites -1 and +1 were more conserved than those at other subsites. Site-directed mutagenesis followed by kinetic analysis identified three strictly conserved residues at subsites -1 and +1 of ι-carrageenases, G228, Y229 and R254 in CgiA_Ce, which played important roles for substrate binding. Furthermore, our results suggested that Y229 and R254 in CgiA_Ce interacted specifically with the sulfate groups of the sugar moieties located at subsites -1 and +1, shedding light on the mechanism of ι-carrageenan recognition in the family GH82.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64666. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064666 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood group antigens, such as those containing fucose and bearing the ABO(H)- and Lewis-type determinants expressed on the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids, and also on unconjugated free oligosaccharides in human milk and other secretions, are associated with various biological functions. We have previously shown the utility of negative-ion electrospay ionization tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) for typing of Lewis (Le) determinants, e.g. Lea, Lex, Leb, and Ley on neutral and sialylated oligosaccharide chains. In the present report we extended the strategy to characterization of blood-group A-, B- and H-determinants on type 1 and type 2, and also on type 4 globoside chains to provide a high sensitivity method for typing of all the major blood-group antigens, including the A, B, H, Lea, Lex, Leb, and Ley determinants, present in oligosaccharides. Using the principles established we identified two minor unknown oligosaccharide components present in the products of enzymatic synthesis by bacterial fermentation. We also demonstrated that the unique fragmentations derived from the D- and 0,2A-type cleavages observed in ESI-CID-MS/MS, which are important for assigning blood-group and chain types, only occur under the negative-ion conditions for reducing sugars but not for reduced alditols or under positive-ion conditions.
    Analytical Chemistry 05/2013; 85(12). DOI:10.1021/ac400700e · 5.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most prevalent type. Several HPVs require heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for cell-binding. Here, we analyze the phenomenon that preincubation of HPV-16 with increasing concentrations of heparin results in partial restoration rather than more efficient inhibition of infection. While corroborating that the HSPGs are cell-binding receptors for HPV-16, heparin-preincubated virus bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM) via laminin-332. Furthermore, the interaction of virions with heparin, a representative of the highly sulfated S-domains of heparan sulfate (HS) chains of HSPGs, allowed HPV-16 infection in the absence of cell surface HSPGs. Therefore, we concluded that specific glycan moieties but not specific HSPG protein backbones are required for infection. The increased binding of an epitope-specific antibody to the viral capsid after heparin-binding suggested that initial conformational changes in the HPV-16 virion occur during infection by interaction with 'heparin-like' domains of cellular HSPGs. We propose that HS sequences with specific sulfation patterns are required to facilitate HPV-16 infection.
    Cellular Microbiology 04/2013; 15(11). DOI:10.1111/cmi.12150 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim is to compare the structures, anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg), which were known to have different sulfation patterns on the fucose branches. METHODS: The structures of fCSs were identified using 2D NMR. Anticoagulant activities were measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), and inhibition of factors IIa, Xa and XIIa was assessed in vitro. Antithrombotic activity was determined ex vivo by measuring the length and weight of the thrombus generated. RESULTS: The two fCSs had identical chondroitin sulfate E backbones and similar fucose branches, but different sulfation patterns of the fucose branches. The fucose branch in fCS-Ib was mainly 2,4-O-sulfated whereas that in fCS-Pg was mainly 3,4-O-sulfated. In vitro assay indicated that fCS-Pg possessed much lower potency than fCS-Ib in prolonging APTT/TT and in inhibition of thrombin. However, they both exhibited similar inhibitory effects on factor X activation by intrinsic tenase complex, and on thrombus generation. Furthermore, both fCSs significantly activated factor XII, which has been proved to be associated with adverse clinical events associated with heparin contaminated by oversulfated chondroitin sulfate. CONCLUSION: The 2,4-O-sulfated fucose branch is the key structural factor of fCSs for prolonged APTT/TT and inhibition of thrombin, whereas the inhibitory effect of fCSs on factor X, XII activation and thrombus generation was attributed to the overall structure of fCS polysaccharide. General importance Both fCSs have well defined structures and can be readily quality-controlled, and therefore may be potential alternatives for heparin as anticoagulant and antithrombotic drugs.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2013; 1830. DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.01.001 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A charge and size uniform polysaccharide GW2M was extracted with cold water from red alga Gloiopeltis furcata and purified by strong anion ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Its chemical structure was identified by methylation, 1H–1H COSY, 1H–13C HMQC and 1H–13C HMBC techniques. The experimental data showed that GW2M was composed of galactose (40.3%), 3,6-anhydro-galactose (34.1%) and sulfate (24.8%) with an average molecular mass of 20.6 kDa. The results proved GW2M was a linear repeating sequence of alternating (1 → 3)-linked 6-O-sulfated-β-d-galactose (G6S) and (1 → 4)-linked 3,6-anhydro-α-l-galactose (A) which made it to be an ideal 6-O-sulfated-agarose. The sequences of serial oligosaccharides prepared by mild acid and reductive acid hydrolysis from GW2M were confirmed using electrospray collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ES-CID-MS/MS) technique.
    Carbohydrate Polymers 07/2012; 89(3):883–889. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.04.026 · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim is to analyze the structure, anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of a sulfated fucan isolated from sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus (fucan-Ib). Fucan-Ib was hydrolyzed under mild acid conditions. The oligosaccharide fragments were fractionated by gel-filtration chromatography and the structures were determined by negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation and two-dimensional NMR. Anticoagulant activities were measured by activated partial thromboplastin, thrombin and prothrombin times, and by in vitro inhibition experiments with factors IIa and Xa. Antithrombotic activities were determined in vitro by measuring the length and weight of the thrombus generated. The linear polysaccharide sequence of fucan-Ib was deduced from the structures of its oligosaccharide fragments produced by acid hydrolysis. Under mild conditions, the glycosidic bonds between the non-sulfated and 2,4-O-disulfated fucose residues were selectively cleaved and highly ordered oligosaccharide fragments with a tetrasaccharide repeating unit [→3Fuc(2S,4S)α1→3Fuc(2S)α1→3Fuc(2S)α1→3Fucα1→]n were obtained. In in vitro assays fucan-Ib showed good anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities compared with heparin and the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate isolated from the same source (fCS-Ib). The two polysaccharides, fucan-Ib and fCS-Ib, differ in the mechanism of action; the former exhibited activity mainly by potentiation of antithrombin acted on thrombin and factor Xa whereas the latter mainly through heparin cofactor II. Fucan-Ib has a well defined structure with tetrasaccharide tandem repeats and good anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. GENERAL IMPORTANCE: Fucan-Ib has a well defined structure and can be readily quality-controlled, and therefore has potential therapeutic value as an affective antithrombotic drug with low risk of bleeding.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2012; 1820(7):989-1000. DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.03.002 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toxosplasma gondii is the model parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which contains numerous obligate intracellular parasites of medical and veterinary importance, including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Plasmodium species. Members of this phylum actively enter host cells by a multistep process with the help of microneme protein (MIC) complexes that play important roles in motility, host cell attachment, moving junction formation, and invasion. T. gondii (Tg)MIC1-4-6 complex is the most extensively investigated microneme complex, which contributes to host cell recognition and attachment via the action of TgMIC1, a sialic acid-binding adhesin. Here, we report the structure of TgMIC4 and reveal its carbohydrate-binding specificity to a variety of galactose-containing carbohydrate ligands. The lectin is composed of six apple domains in which the fifth domain displays a potent galactose-binding activity, and which is cleaved from the complex during parasite invasion. We propose that galactose recognition by TgMIC4 may compromise host protection from galectin-mediated activation of the host immune system.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(20):16720-33. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.325928 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbohydrate microarrays, since their advent in 2002, are revolutionizing studies of the molecular basis of protein-carbohydrate interactions both in endogenous recognition systems and pathogen-host interactions. We have developed a unique carbohydrate microarray system based on the neoglycolipid (NGL) technology, a well-validated microscale approach for generating lipid-tagged oligosaccharide probes for use in carbohydrate recognition studies. This chapter provides an overview of the principles and key features of the NGL-based oligosaccharide microarrays, and describes in detail the basic techniques - from the preparation of NGL probes to the generation of microarrays using robotic arraying hardware, as well as a general protocol for probing the microarrays with carbohydrate-binding proteins.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 808:117-36. DOI:10.1007/978-1-61779-373-8_8 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this chapter, we describe the key steps of the "designer" oligosaccharide microarray approach we followed to prove the carbohydrate binding activity and define the oligosaccharide ligands for Dectin-1, an atypical C-type lectin-like signaling receptor of the mammalian innate immune system with a key role in anti-fungal immunity. The term "designer" microarray, which we introduced in the course of the Dectin-1 study refers to a microarray of oligosaccharide probes generated from ligand-bearing glycoconjugates to reveal the oligosaccharide ligands they harbor, so that these can be isolated and characterized. Oligosaccharide probes were generated from two polysaccharides, one that was bound by Dectin-1 and known to be rich in β1,3-glucose sequence and another that was not bound and was rich in β1,6-glucose sequence and served as a negative control. The approach involved: classic ELISA-type binding assays to select the polysaccharides; partial depolymerization of the polysaccharides by chemical hydrolysis; fractionation by size of the glucan oligosaccharides obtained and determination of their chain lengths by mass spectrometry; detection of Dectin-1 ligand-positive and ligand-negative oligosaccharides using the neoglycolipid (NGL) technology; methylation analysis of oligosaccharides to derive glucose linkage information, and incorporation of the newly generated glucan oligosaccharide probes into microarrays encompassing diverse mammalian-type and exogenous sequences for microarray analysis of Dectin-1.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 808:337-59. DOI:10.1007/978-1-61779-373-8_23 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lectins are used extensively as research tools to detect and target specific oligosaccharide sequences. Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA(120)) recognizes non-reducing terminal β-D-galactose (Galβ) and its specificities of interactions with neutral and sialylated oligosaccharides have been well documented. Here we use carbohydrate arrays of sulfated Galβ-containing oligosaccharide probes, prepared from marine-derived galactans, to investigate their interactions with RCA(120). Our results showed that RCA(120) binding to Galβ1-4 was enhanced by 2-O- or 6-O-sulfation but abolished by 4-O-sulfation. The results were corroborated with competition experiments. Erythrina cristagalli lectin is also a Galβ-binding protein but it cannot accommodate any sulfation on Galβ.
    FEBS letters 11/2011; 585(24):3927-34. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2011.10.035 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell surface mucins configure the cell surface by presenting extended protein backbones that are heavily O-glycosylated. The glycopeptide structures establish physicochemical properties at the cell surface that enable and block the formation of biologically important molecular complexes. Some mucins, such as MUC1, associate with receptor tyrosine kinases and other cell surface receptors, and engage in signal transduction in order to communicate information regarding conditions at the cell surface to the nucleus. In that context, the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail (MUC1CT) receives phosphorylation signals from receptor tyrosine kinases and serine/threonine kinases, which enables its association with different signaling complexes that conduct these signals to the nucleus and perhaps other subcellular organelles. We have detected the MUC1CT at promoters of over 500 genes, in association with several different transcription factors, and have shown that promoter occupancy can vary under different growth factor conditions. However, the full biochemical nature of the nuclear forms of MUC1 and its function at these promoter regions remain undefined. I will present evidence that nuclear forms of the MUC1CT include extracellular and cytoplasmic tail domains. In addition, I will discuss evidence for a hypothesis that the MUC1CT possesses a novel catalytic function that enables remodeling of the transcription factor occupancy of promoters, and thereby engages in regulation of gene expression.
    Glycobiology 11/2011; 21(11):1454-531. DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwr126 · 3.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
665.69 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • Imperial College London
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2012
    • Ocean University of China
      • • Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education
      • • Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Glycoscience and Glycotechnology
      Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2002–2007
    • Royal Melbourne Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2005
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 1990–1995
    • MRC Clinical Sciences Centre
      London Borough of Harrow, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • Charles University in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic