Gudrun Nürnberg

University of Cologne, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Are you Gudrun Nürnberg?

Claim your profile

Publications (108)1032.82 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the genetic basis of a chorioretinal dystrophy with high myopia of unknown origin in a child of a consanguineous marriage. The proband and ten family members of Iranian ancestry participated in this study. Linkage analysis was carried out with DNA samples of the proband and her parents by using the Human SNP Array 6.0. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed with the patients’ DNA. Specific sequence alterations within the homozygous regions identified by whole exome sequencing were verified by Sanger sequencing. Upon genetic analysis, a novel homozygous frameshift mutation was found in exon 42 of the COL18A1 gene in the patient. Both parents were heterozygous for this sequence variation. Mutations in COL18A1 are known to cause Knobloch syndrome (KS). Retrospective analysis of clinical records of the patient revealed surgical removal of a meningocele present at birth. The clinical features shown by our patient were typical of KS with the exception of chorioretinal degeneration which is a rare manifestation. This is the first case of KS reported in a family of Iranian ancestry. We identified a novel disease-causing (deletion) mutation in the COL18A1 gene leading to a frameshift and premature stop codon in the last exon. The mutation was not present in SNP databases and was also not found in 192 control individuals. Its localization within the endostatin domain implicates a functional relevance of endostatin in KS. A combined approach of linkage analysis and WES led to a rapid identification of the disease-causing mutation even though the clinical description was not completely clear at the beginning.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Filippi syndrome is a rare, presumably autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by microcephaly, pre- and postnatal growth failure, syndactyly, and distinctive facial features, including a broad nasal bridge and underdeveloped alae nasi. Some affected individuals have intellectual disability, seizures, undescended testicles in males, and teeth and hair abnormalities. We performed homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in a Sardinian family with two affected children and identified a homozygous frameshift mutation, c.571dupA (p.Ile191Asnfs*6), in CKAP2L , encoding the protein cytoskeleton-associated protein 2-like (CKAP2L). The func- tion of this protein was unknown until it was rediscovered in mice as Radmis (radial fiber and mitotic spindle) and shown to play a pivotal role in cell division of neural progenitors. Sanger sequencing of CKAP2L in a further eight unrelated individuals with clinical features consistent with Filippi syndrome revealed biallelic mutations in four subjects. In contrast to wild-type lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), dividing LCLs established from the individuals homozygous for the c.571dupA mutation did not show CKAP2L at the spindle poles. Furthermore, in cells from the affected individuals, we observed an increase in the number of disorganized spindle microtubules owing to multipolar configurations and defects in chromosome segregation. The observed cellular phenotypes are in keeping with data from in vitro and in vivo knockdown studies performed in human cells and mice, respectively. Our findings show that loss-of-function mutations in CKAP2L are a major cause of Filippi syndrome
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 11/2014; · 11.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Centrioles are essential for ciliogenesis. However, mutations in centriole biogenesis genes have been reported in primary microcephaly and Seckel syndrome, disorders without the hallmark clinical features of ciliopathies. Here we identify mutations in the genes encoding PLK4 kinase, a master regulator of centriole duplication, and its substrate TUBGCP6 in individuals with microcephalic primordial dwarfism and additional congenital anomalies, including retinopathy, thereby extending the human phenotypic spectrum associated with centriole dysfunction. Furthermore, we establish that different levels of impaired PLK4 activity result in growth and cilia phenotypes, providing a mechanism by which microcephaly disorders can occur with or without ciliopathic features
    Nature Genetics 10/2014; · 35.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe a consanguineous Iraqi family with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Joubert syndrome (JBTS), and polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Targeted next‐generation sequencing for excluding mutations in known LCA and JBTS genes, homozygosity mapping, and whole‐exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense variant, c.317G>C (p.Arg106Pro), in POC1B, a gene essential for ciliogenesis, basal body, and centrosome integrity. In silico modeling suggested a requirement of p.Arg106 for the formation of the third WD40 repeat and a protein interaction interface. In human and mouse retina, POC1B localized to the basal body and centriole adjacent to the connecting cilium of photoreceptors and in synapses of the outer plexiform layer. Knockdown of Poc1b in zebrafish caused cystic kidneys and retinal degeneration with shortened and reduced photoreceptor connecting cilia, compatible with the human syndromic ciliopathy. A recent study describes homozygosity for p.Arg106Pro POC1B in a family with nonsyndromic cone‐rod dystrophy. The phenotype associated with homozygous p.Arg106Pro POC1B may thus be highly variable, analogous to homozygous p.Leu710Ser in WDR19 causing either isolated retinitis pigmentosa or Jeune syndrome. Our study indicates that POC1B is required for retinal integrity, and we propose POC1B mutations as a probable cause for JBTS with severe PKD. We describe a family with severe congenital retinal degeneration (LCA), Joubert syndrome and massively enlarged polycystic kidneys. It results from a homozygous missense mutation in POC1B, a gene essential for ciliogenesis, basal body and centrosome integrity. Knockdown in zebrafish evokes a corresponding ocular‐renal phenotype. In view of simultaneous studies reporting mutations in non‐syndromic cone‐rod dystrophy, our findings suggest that POC1B mutations may cause retinal ciliopathies of variable severity.
    Human Mutation 10/2014; 35(10). · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Age-related degenerative and malignant diseases represent major challenges for health care systems. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and age-associated pathologies is thus of growing biomedical relevance. We identified biallelic germline mutations in SPRTN (also called C1orf124 or DVC1) in three patients from two unrelated families. All three patients are affected by a new segmental progeroid syndrome characterized by genomic instability and susceptibility toward early onset hepatocellular carcinoma. SPRTN was recently proposed to have a function in translesional DNA synthesis and the prevention of mutagenesis. Our in vivo and in vitro characterization of identified mutations has uncovered an essential role for SPRTN in the prevention of DNA replication stress during general DNA replication and in replication-related G2/M-checkpoint regulation. In addition to demonstrating the pathogenicity of identified SPRTN mutations, our findings provide a molecular explanation of how SPRTN dysfunction causes accelerated aging and susceptibility toward carcinoma.
    Nature genetics. 09/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asymmetric cell division is essential for normal human brain development. Mutations in several genes encoding centrosomal proteins that participate in accurate cell division have been reported to cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH). By homozygosity mapping including three affected individuals from a consanguineous MCPH family from Pakistan, we delineated a critical region of 18.53Mb on chromosome 1p21.3-1p13.1. This region contains the gene encoding HsSAS-6, a centrosomal protein primordial for seeding the formation of new centrioles during the cell cycle. Both next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous c.185T>C missense mutation in the HsSAS-6 gene, resulting in a p.Ile62Thr substitution within a highly conserved region of the PISA domain of HsSAS-6. This variant is neither present in any single nucleotide polymorphism or exome sequencing databases nor in a Pakistani control cohort. Experiments in tissue culture cells revealed that the Ile62Thr mutant of HsSAS-6 is substantially less efficient than the wild-type protein in sustaining centriole formation. Together, our findings demonstrate a dramatic impact of the mutation p.Ile62Thr on HsSAS-6 function and add this component to the list of genes mutated in primary microcephaly.
    Human Molecular Genetics 06/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asymmetric cell division is essential for normal human brain development. Mutations in several genes encoding centrosomal proteins that participate in accurate cell division have been reported to cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH). By homozygosity mapping including three affected individuals from a consanguineous MCPH family from Pakistan, we delineated a critical region of 18.53Mb on chromosome 1p21.3-1p13.1. This region contains the gene encoding HsSAS-6, a centrosomal protein primordial for seeding the formation of new centrioles during the cell cycle. Both next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous c.185T>C missense mutation in the HsSAS-6 gene, resulting in a p.Ile62Thr substitution within a highly conserved region of the PISA domain of HsSAS-6. This variant is neither present in any single nucleotide polymorphism or exome sequencing databases nor in a Pakistani control cohort. Experiments in tissue culture cells revealed that the Ile62Thr mutant of HsSAS-6 is substantially less efficient than the wild-type protein in sustaining centriole formation. Together, our findings demonstrate a dramatic impact of the mutation p.Ile62Thr on HsSAS-6 function and add this component to the list of genes mutated in primary microcephaly.
    Human Molecular Genetics 06/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Athelia is a very rare entity that is defined by the absence of the nipple-areola complex. It can affect either sex and is mostly part of syndromes including other congenital or ectodermal anomalies, such as limb-mammary syndrome, scalp-ear-nipple syndrome, or ectodermal dysplasias. Here, we report on three children from two branches of an extended consanguineous Israeli Arab family, a girl and two boys, who presented with a spectrum of nipple anomalies ranging from unilateral hypothelia to bilateral athelia but no other consistently associated anomalies except a characteristic eyebrow shape. Using homozygosity mapping after single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array genotyping and candidate gene sequencing we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in PTPRF as the likely cause of nipple anomalies in this family. PTPRF encodes a receptor-type protein phosphatase that localizes to adherens junctions and may be involved in the regulation of epithelial cell-cell contacts, peptide growth factor signaling, and the canonical Wnt pathway. Together with previous reports on female mutant Ptprf mice, which have a lactation defect, and disruption of one allele of PTPRF by a balanced translocation in a woman with amastia, our results indicate a key role for PTPRF in the development of the nipple-areola region.
    Human Genetics 04/2014; · 4.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose:Treacher Collins syndrome is a mandibulofacial dysostosis caused by mutations in genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and synthesis. TCOF1 mutations are observed in ~80% of the patients and are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Recently, two other genes have been reported in <2% of patients-POLR1D in patients with autosomal dominant inheritance, and POLR1C in patients with autosomal recessive inheritance.Methods:We performed direct sequencing of TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D in two unrelated consanguineous families.Results:The four affected children shared the same homozygous mutation in POLR1D (c.163C>G, p.Leu55Val). This mutation is localized in a region encoding the dimerization domain of the RNA polymerase. It is supposed that this mutation impairs RNA polymerase, resulting in a lower amount of mature dimeric ribosomes. A functional analysis of the transcripts of TCOF1 by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed in the first family, demonstrating a 50% reduction in the index case, compatible with this hypothesis.Conclusion:This is the first report of POLR1D mutation being responsible for an autosomal recessive inherited Treacher Collins syndrome. These results reinforce the concept of genetic heterogeneity of Treacher Collins syndrome and underline the importance of combining clinical expertise and familial molecular analyses for appropriate genetic counseling.Genet Med advance online publication 6 March 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.12.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 03/2014; · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rare single-gene disorders cause chronic disease. However, half of the 6000 recessive single gene causes of disease are still unknown. Because recessive disease genes can illuminate, at least in part, disease pathomechanism, their identification offers direct opportunities for improved clinical management and potentially treatment. Rare diseases comprise the majority of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children but are notoriously difficult to diagnose. Whole-exome resequencing facilitates identification of recessive disease genes. However, its utility is impeded by the large number of genetic variants detected. We here overcome this limitation by combining homozygosity mapping with whole-exome resequencing in 10 sib pairs with a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy, which represents the most frequent genetic cause of CKD in the first three decades of life. In 7 of 10 sibships with a histologic or ultrasonographic diagnosis of nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy, we detect the causative gene. In six sibships, we identify mutations of known nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy genes, while in two additional sibships we found mutations in the known CKD-causing genes SLC4A1 and AGXT as phenocopies of nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy. Thus, whole-exome resequencing establishes an efficient, noninvasive approach towards early detection and causation-based diagnosis of rare kidney diseases. This approach can be extended to other rare recessive disorders, thereby providing accurate diagnosis and facilitating the study of disease mechanisms.Kidney International advance online publication, 20 November 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.450.
    Kidney International 11/2013; · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-mannose pyrophosphorylase A (GMPPA), we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation that segregated with achalasia and alacrima, delayed developmental milestones, and gait abnormalities in a consanguineous Pakistani pedigree. Mutations in GMPPA were subsequently found in ten additional individuals from eight independent families affected by the combination of achalasia, alacrima, and neurological deficits. This autosomal-recessive disorder shows many similarities with triple A syndrome, which is characterized by achalasia, alacrima, and variable neurological deficits in combination with adrenal insufficiency. GMPPA is a largely uncharacterized homolog of GMPPB. GMPPB catalyzes the formation of GDP-mannose, which is an essential precursor of glycan moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids and is associated with congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies with hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan. Surprisingly, GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase activity was unchanged and GDP-mannose levels were strongly increased in lymphoblasts of individuals with GMPPA mutations. This suggests that GMPPA might serve as a GMPPB regulatory subunit mediating feedback inhibition of GMPPB instead of displaying catalytic enzyme activity itself. Thus, a triple-A-like syndrome can be added to the growing list of congenital disorders of glycosylation, in which dysregulation rather than mere enzyme deficiency is the basal pathophysiological mechanism.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 09/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis begins with the sequential addition of a "linker chain", made up of four sugar residues, to a specific region of a core protein. Defects in the enzymes catalyzing steps two to four of the linker chain synthesis have been shown to cause autosomal recessive human phenotypes while no mutation has yet been reported in humans for the xylosyltransferases 1 and 2 (XT1 and XT2), the initiating enzymes in the linker chain formation. Here, we present a consanguineous Turkish family with two affected individuals presenting with short stature, distinct facial features, alterations of fat distribution, and moderate intellectual disability. X-rays showed only mild skeletal changes in the form of a short femoral neck, stocky and plump long bones and thickened ribs. Using a combination of whole-exome sequencing (WES), determination of homozygous stretches by WES variants, and classical linkage analysis, we identified the homozygous missense mutation c.C1441T in XYLT1, encoding XT1, within a large homozygous stretch on chromosome 16p13.12-p12.1. The mutation co-segregated with the phenotype in the family, is not found in over 13,000 alleles in the exome variant server and is predicted to change a highly conserved arginine at position 481 (p.R481W) located in the putative catalytical domain. Immunostaining of primary patient fibroblasts showed a loss of predominance of Golgi localization in mutant cells. Moreover, western blot analysis of decorin in cell culture supernatant demonstrated glycosylation differences between patient and control cells. Our data provide evidence that functional alterations of XT1 cause an autosomal recessive short stature syndrome associated with intellectual disability.
    Human Genetics 08/2013; · 4.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is characterized by reduced head circumference, reduction in the size of the cerebral cortex with otherwise grossly normal brain structure, and variable intellectual disability. MCPH is caused by mutations of eleven different genes which code for proteins implicated in cell division and cell cycle regulation. We studied a consanguineous eight-generation family from Pakistan with ten microcephalic children using homozygosity mapping and found a new MCPH locus at HSA 7q21.11-q21.3. Sanger sequencing of the most relevant candidate genes in this region revealed a homozygous single nucleotide substitution c.589G>A in CDK6, which encodes cyclin-dependent kinase 6. The mutation changes a highly conserved alanine at position 197 into threonine (p.Ala197Thr). Post hoc whole-exome sequencing corroborated this mutation's identification as the causal variant. CDK6 is an important protein for the control of the cell cycle and differentiation of various cell types. We show here for the first time that CDK6 associates with the centrosome during mitosis, however, this was not observed in patient fibroblasts. Moreover, the mutant primary fibroblasts exhibited supernumerary centrosomes, disorganized microtubules and mitotic spindles, an increased centrosome nucleus distance, reduced cell proliferation and impaired cell motility and polarity. Upon ectopic expression of the mutant protein and knockdown of CDK6 through shRNA we noted similar effects. We propose that the identified CDK6 mutation leads to reduced cell proliferation and impairs the correct functioning of the centrosome in microtubule organization and its positioning near the nucleus which are key determinants during neurogenesis.
    Human Molecular Genetics 08/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although many genes have been identified for the autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCAs), several patients are unlinked to the respective loci, suggesting further genetic heterogeneity. We combined homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing in a consanguineous Egyptian family with congenital ARCA, mental retardation and pyramidal signs. A homozygous 5-bp deletion in SPTBN2, the gene whose in-frame mutations cause autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 5, was shown to segregate with ataxia in the family. Our findings are compatible with the concept of truncating SPTBN2 mutations acting recessively, which is supported by disease expression in homozygous, but not heterozygous, knockout mice, ataxia in Beagle dogs with a homozygous frameshift mutation and, very recently, a homozygous SPTBN2 nonsense mutation underlying infantile ataxia and psychomotor delay in a human family. As there was no evidence for mutations in 23 additional consanguineous families, SPTBN2-related ARCA is probably rare.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 July 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.150.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 07/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myopathies are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of disorders that can range from limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) to syndromic forms with associated features including intellectual disability. Here, we report the identification of mutations in transport protein particle complex 11 (TRAPPC11) in three individuals of a consanguineous Syrian family presenting with LGMD and in five individuals of Hutterite descent presenting with myopathy, infantile hyperkinetic movements, ataxia, and intellectual disability. By using a combination of whole-exome or genome sequencing with homozygosity mapping, we identified the homozygous c.2938G>A (p.Gly980Arg) missense mutation within the gryzun domain of TRAPPC11 in the Syrian LGMD family and the homozygous c.1287+5G>A splice-site mutation resulting in a 58 amino acid in-frame deletion (p.Ala372_Ser429del) in the foie gras domain of TRAPPC11 in the Hutterite families. TRAPPC11 encodes a component of the multiprotein TRAPP complex involved in membrane trafficking. We demonstrate that both mutations impair the binding ability of TRAPPC11 to other TRAPP complex components and disrupt the Golgi apparatus architecture. Marker trafficking experiments for the p.Ala372_Ser429del deletion indicated normal ER-to-Golgi trafficking but dramatically delayed exit from the Golgi to the cell surface. Moreover, we observed alterations of the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and LAMP2 as a consequence of TRAPPC11 dysfunction supporting a defect in the transport of secretory proteins as the underlying pathomechanism.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Werner syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple features consistent with accelerated aging. It is caused by mutations in the WRN gene, which encodes a RecQ type helicase. To date, more than 70 disease-causing mutations have been reported. While founder mutations and a corresponding relatively high incidence of WS have been reported in Japan and Sardinia, such mutations have not been previously described among patients of South Asian descent. Here we report two novel WRN mutations in three pedigrees. A homozygous c.561A>G mutation in exon 6 was identified both in a pedigree from Kerala, India and in a British patient of Pakistani ancestry. Although c.561A>G does not alter the corresponding amino acid (p.K187K), it creates a cryptic splice site resulting in a 98bp deletion at the mRNA level (r.557-654del98) followed by a frameshift (p.K187fs). These two cases shared the same haplotype across the WRN gene, and were distinct from another Indian Werner patient with a homozygous stop codon mutation, c.2855 C>A (p.S952*) in exon 24. As the Indian population increases and the awareness of Werner syndrome grows, we anticipate that more cases will be identified with these founder mutations among South Asian Werner syndrome patients.
    Molecular genetics & genomic medicine. 05/2013; 1(1):7-14.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE We sought to unravel the genetic cause in a consanguineous Pakistani family with a complex neurological phenotype. OBSERVATIONS Neurological and ophthalmological examination, including videotaping and fundoscopy, and genetic investigations, including homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, were performed at the University of the Punjab and the University of Lübeck. Participants included 2 severely affected cousins from consanguineous parents, 10 of their reportedly unaffected relatives, and 342 Pakistani controls. Motor symptoms in the 2 patients started at the age of 3 to 4 years and included chorea, cerebellar ataxia, dystonia, and pyramidal tract signs. Genome-wide genotyping delineated 2 regions of homozygosity on chromosomes 13q12.11 to 13q12.13 and 19q12 to 19q13.41. Exome sequencing revealed 2 rare, homozygous variants (c.32 T>A [p.L11Q] in OPA3 and c.941 C>G [p.A314G] in TSHZ3) that segregated with the disease. Only the OPA3 variant was absent in the control subjects and predicted to be damaging. Subsequent ophthalmological assessment revealed bilateral optic atrophy in both patients. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Mutations in OPA3 have been reported in Costeff optic atrophy syndrome. We identify a novel missense mutation in OPA3 as the cause of a complex neurological disorder, expanding the OPA3 -linked phenotype by early-onset pyramidal tract signs and marked lower limb dystonia. Investigation of optic atrophy was initiated only after genetic analysis, a phenomenon referred to as reverse phenotyping.
    JAMA neurology. 04/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations in MYO6 encoding an atypical myosin motor protein important for inner ear hair cell function have been associated with autosomal recessive (DFNB37) and autosomal dominant (DFNA22) types of hearing loss in a few families worldwide. After genome-wide linkage analysis, we identified a novel MYO6 mutation at the splice acceptor site of exon 7 (c.554-1G>A) in an extended German family with autosomal dominant postlingual non-syndromic hearing impairment. Analysis of blood-derived cDNA revealed different aberrantly spliced mRNAs caused by the mutation, which are predicted to severely interfere with protein function. Two of the family members underwent cochlear implantation at ages 53 and 65. Here, we present detailed clinical data of this family which suggest a favourable outcome of cochlear implantation in hearing-impaired individuals with a MYO6 mutation.
    Audiology and Neurotology 04/2013; 18(3):192-199. · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source

Publication Stats

3k Citations
1,032.82 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • University of Cologne
      • • Cologne Center for Genomics (CCG)
      • • Institute of Human Genetics
      • • Center for Molecular Medicine (CMMC)
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • Ain Shams University
      Al Qāhirah, Al Qāhirah, Egypt
    • Emory University
      • Department of Cell Biology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of Nephrology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Genome Analysis
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Istanbul University
      • Department of Family Medicine (Istanbul Medical Faculty)
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2011
    • Universität Ulm
      • Institute of Human Genetics
      Ulm, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
    • National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
      • Division of Health Biotechnology
      Faisalābād, Punjab, Pakistan
    • Karadeniz Technical University
      • Department of Medical Biology
      Trabzon, Trabzon, Turkey
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Michigan
      • • Division of Pediatric Genetics
      • • Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2009
    • Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
      • Center for Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine
      Freiburg, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • Saint Joseph University, Lebanon
      Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon
    • Universitätsklinikum Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2008
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • RWTH Aachen University
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005
    • Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany