[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Aberrant DNA methylation in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been reported in several previous studies. However, no comprehensive studies using medication-free subjects with MDD have been conducted. Furthermore, the majority of these previous studies has been limited to the analysis of the CpG sites in CpG islands (CGIs) in the gene promoter regions. The main aim of the present study is to identify DNA methylation markers that distinguish patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of peripheral leukocytes was conducted in two set of samples, a discovery set (20 medication-free patients with MDD and 19 controls) and a replication set (12 medication-free patients with MDD and 12 controls), using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Significant diagnostic differences in DNA methylation were observed at 363 CpG sites in the discovery set. All of these loci demonstrated lower DNA methylation in patients with MDD than in the controls, and most of them (85.7%) were located in the CGIs in the gene promoter regions. We were able to distinguish patients with MDD from the control subjects with high accuracy in the discriminant analysis using the top DNA methylation markers. We also validated these selected DNA methylation markers in the replication set. Our results indicate that multiplex DNA methylation markers may be useful for distinguishing patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls.
Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2015; 10(2). DOI:10.1080/15592294.2014.1003743 · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 59-year-old man with isolated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) deficiency. The patient presented with sudden onset of delusions and hallucinations at the age of 54, which resolved gradually without treatment. Subsequently, the patient manifested stereotypy, wandering, hypobulia, and autistic symptoms, and was treated with antipsychotics for 1 year without any improvement. He suffered from neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like symptoms at the age of 59. A thorough endocrine assessment revealed isolated ACTH deficiency. After hydrocortisone supplementation, the physical and psychiatric symptoms improved dramatically. Clinicians should consider this rare disease when diagnosing patients with refractory psychiatric symptoms and unique physical symptoms of isolated ACTH deficiency.
General hospital psychiatry 07/2014; 36(4). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.02.012 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The physical benefits of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are well documented, but the mental benefits are uncertain, particularly in Japanese patients. This study evaluated the clinical and neuropsychological characteristics before and after STN-DBS surgery in Japanese PD patients. PD patients (n=13, age 67.0±7.8years) were evaluated pre-surgery (baseline) and at 1 and 6months post-surgery by two trained psychiatrists. The motor symptoms were assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score. The neuropsychological and psychiatric tests performed were the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The UPDRS motor score (p<0.001) and HAM-A score (p=0.004) showed significant improvement at 1month post-surgery, but a significant decline was observed in the WCST total error (p=0.005) and the semantic VFT score (p<0.001). The phonetic VFT also showed a substantial decline (p=0.015) at 1month post-surgery. At 6months post-surgery, the improvement in the UPDRS motor score was maintained, and the scores on the neuropsychological and psychiatric tests had returned to baseline. Although bilateral STN-DBS did not appear to have long-term effects on neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes, the microlesion effects associated with STN-DBS appear to increase the risk of transient cognitive and psychiatric complications. These complications should be monitored by careful observation of neurological and psychiatric symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The physical benefits of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients are well documented, but the mental benefits are uncertain, particularly in Japanese patients. This study evaluated the clinical and neuropsychological characteristics before and after STN-DBS surgery in Japanese PD patients. PD patients (n = 13, age 67.0 ± 7.8 years) were evaluated pre-surgery (baseline) and at 1 and 6 months post-surgery by two trained psychiatrists. The motor symptoms were assessed by the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score. The neuropsychological and psychiatric tests performed were the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The UPDRS motor score (p < 0.001) and HAM-A score (p = 0.004) showed significant improvement at 1 month post-surgery, but a significant decline was observed in the WCST total error (p = 0.005) and the semantic VFT score (p < 0.001). The phonetic VFT also showed a substantial decline (p = 0.015) at 1 month post-surgery. At 6 months post-surgery, the improvement in the UPDRS motor score was maintained, and the scores on the neuropsychological and psychiatric tests had returned to baseline. Although bilateral STN-DBS did not appear to have long-term effects on neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes, the microlesion effects associated with STN-DBS appear to increase the risk of transient cognitive and psychiatric complications. These complications should be monitored by careful observation of neurological and psychiatric symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 of FTO gene is repeatedly confirmed to be associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity. The aim of this study is to elucidate effects of FTO gene polymorphism on BMI in Japanese patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects.
Three hundred fifty one patients with schizophrenia and 342 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects participated in the study. Information on BMI and antipsychotic medication was also collected from patients and healthy subjects. Genotype of the FTO SNP rs9939609 was determined by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays.
There was no significant difference in BMI between patients and healthy subjects. No significant difference in BMI was observed among any medications. We observed no significant difference in rs9939609 allele frequencies between patients and healthy subjects. There was a significant difference in BMI between healthy subjects with risk (AA or TA) genotypes and those with TT genotype. We also observed a significant positive correlation between the number of risk allele (A allele) and BMI in healthy subjects.
Our study suggested that FTO rs9939609 polymorphism might have some impacts on the BMI in healthy subjects, but might not have same impacts on the BMI of patients with schizophrenia.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 12/2012; 10(3):185-9. DOI:10.9758/cpn.2012.10.3.185
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex psychiatric disease with a lifetime morbidity rate of 0.5-1.0 %. To date, aberrant DNA methylation in SCZ has been reported in several studies. However, no comprehensive studies using medication-free subjects with SCZ have been conducted. In addition, most of these studies have been limited to the analysis of the CpG sites in CpG islands (CGIs) in the gene promoter regions, so little is known about the DNA methylation signatures across the whole genome in SCZ. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling (485,764 CpG sites) of peripheral leukocytes was conducted in the first set of samples (24 medication-free patients with SCZ and 23 non-psychiatric controls) using Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchips. Second, a monozygotic twin study was performed using three pairs of monozygotic twins that were discordant for SCZ. Finally, the data from these two independent cohorts were compared. A total of 234 differentially methylated CpG sites that were common between these two cohorts were identified. Of the 234 CpG sites, 153 sites (65.4 %) were located in the CGIs and in the regions flanking CGIs (CGI: 40.6 %; CGI shore: 13.3 %; CGI shelf: 11.5 %). Of the 95 differently methylated CpG sites in the CGIs, most of them were located in the promoter regions (promoter: 75.8 %; gene body: 14.7 %; 3'-UTR: 2.1 %). Aberrant DNA methylation in SCZ was identified at numerous loci across the whole genome in peripheral leukocytes using two independent sets of samples. These findings support the notion that altered DNA methylation could be involved in the pathophysiology of SCZ.
Neuromolecular medicine 09/2012; 15(1). DOI:10.1007/s12017-012-8198-6 · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) plays a role in neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth, which are involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). We sought to determine whether the EMP1 gene is implicated in MDD. We determined the mRNA expression levels of the EMP1 gene in peripheral-blood leukocytes of patients and control subjects (n=27 each). Next, we performed case-control association analyses (MDD, n=182; controls, n=350) in the Japanese population. The level of expression of the EMP1 mRNA was significantly lower in medication-free patients compared with control subjects (P<0.001). The association analysis revealed an absence of association between the polymorphisms studied and MDD, whereas a gender-specific association was observed between male controls and male patients for marker rs7315725 (permutation P=0.039). Our results suggest that the EMP1 gene may be implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD in the Japanese population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. High magnetic field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) provides a reliable measurement of GABA in specific regions of the brain. This study measured GABA concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the left basal ganglia (ltBG) in 38 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 29 healthy control subjects. There was no significant difference in GABA concentration between the schizophrenia patients and the healthy controls in either the ACC (1.36+/-0.45 mmol/l in schizophrenia patients and 1.52+/-0.54 mmol/l in control subjects) or the ltBG (1.13+/-0.26 mmol/l in schizophrenia patients and 1.18+/-0.20 mmol/l in control subjects). Among the right handed schizophrenia patients, the GABA concentration in the ltBG was significantly higher in patients taking typical antipsychotics (1.25+/-0.24 mmol/l) than in those taking atypical antipsychotics (1.03+/-0.24 mmol/l, p=0.026). In the ACC, the GABA concentration was negatively correlated with the dose of the antipsychotics (rs=-0.347, p=0.035). In the ltBG, the GABA concentration was positively correlated with the dose of the anticholinergics (rs=0.403, p=0.015). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have directly measured GABA concentrations in schizophrenia patients using (1)H-MRS. Our results suggest that there are no differences in GABA concentrations in the ACC or the ltBG of schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication may cause changes in GABA concentration, and atypical and typical antipsychotics may have differing effects. It is possible that medication effects conceal inherent differences in GABA concentrations between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.
Schizophrenia Research 12/2009; 117(1):83-91. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2009.11.011 · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a known genetic risk factor for schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD), interacts with several proteins and some of them are reported to be genetically associated with SZ. Pericentrin (PCNT) also interacts with DISC1 and recently single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PCNT gene have been found to show significant associations with SZ and MDD. In this study, case-controlled association analysis was performed to determine if the PCNT gene is implicated in SZ. Nine SNPs were analyzed in 1,477 individuals (726 patients with SZ and 751 healthy controls). No significant difference was observed between the controls and the patients in allelic frequencies or genotypic distributions of eight SNPs. Although allelic distribution of rs11702684 was different between the two groups (P = 0.042), the difference did not reach statistical significance after permutation correction for multiple comparisons. In the haplotypic analysis, we could not find any significant association in our subjects, either. This gene may not play a major role independently in the etiology of SZ in the Japanese population.
Neuromolecular medicine 11/2009; 12(3):243-7. DOI:10.1007/s12017-009-8106-x · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) interacts with disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), which is a known genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD). PDE4B is also important in the regulation of cAMP signaling, a second messenger implicated in learning, memory, and mood. In this study, we determined mRNA expression levels of the PDE4B gene in the peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with MDD and control subjects (n = 33, each). Next we performed two-stage case-controlled association analyses (first set; case = 174, controls = 348; second set; case = 481, controls = 812) in the Japanese population to determine if the PDE4B gene is implicated in MDD. In the leukocytes, a significantly higher expression of the PDE4B mRNA was observed in the drug-naïve MDD patients compared with control subjects (P < 0.0001) and the expression of the MDD patients significantly decreased after antidepressant treatment (P = 0.030). In the association analysis, we observed significant allelic associations of four SNPs (the most significant, rs472952; P = 0.002) and a significant haplotypic association (permutation P = 0.019) between the PDE4B gene and MDD in the first-set samples. However, we could not confirm these significant associations in the following independent second-set of samples. Our results suggest that the PDE4B gene itself does not link to MDD but the elevated mRNA levels of PDE4B might be implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 06/2009; 150B(4):527-34. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.30852 · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pericentrin (PCNT) interacts with disruption-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a known genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD). We sought to determine whether the PCNT gene is implicated in MDD.
We performed case-control association analyses in the Japanese population. We analyzed 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 173 patients with MDD and 348 healthy controls.
We found a significant allelic association between 3 SNPs (rs3788265, rs2073376 and rs2073380) of the PCNT gene and MDD (p = 0.006, 0.005 and 0.021, respectively). After correction for multiple testing, 2 SNPs (rs3788265 and rs2073376) retained significant allelic associations with MDD. In addition, we found a significant association between the 2 marker haplotypes (r3788265 and rs2073376) and MDD (permutation p = 0.011).
Our sample was small and comprised only Japanese participants. In addition, owing to the late onset of MDD, it is possible that the disorder will develop in at least some participants in our control group. Finally, we did not show how SNPs of the PCNT gene alter its function.
Our results suggest that genetic variations in the PCNT gene may play a significant role in the etiology of MDD in the Japanese population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A change in the glutamatergic system is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in metabolites, including glutamate (Glu), in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the left basal ganglia (ltBG) of patients with chronic schizophrenia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). In addition, since gender differences in this illness were known, we examined the effects of gender on these metabolites. The (1)H-MRS was performed on the ACC and ltBG of 30 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy individuals who acted as the control group. The levels of Glu, glutamine (Gln), creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cre), myo-inositol (mI), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and choline-containing compounds (Cho) were measured. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the illness significantly affected the levels of Glu and mI in the ACC; both metabolites were lower in the patients with schizophrenia as compared to the control subjects. The results also revealed that gender significantly affected the level of Gln in the ACC and the levels of Cre and NAA in the ltBG; the level of Gln in the ACC were higher in male subjects versus female subjects, whereas Cre and NAA levels in the ltBG were lower in male subjects as compared to female subjects. These results confirmed a change in the glutamatergic system and suggested an involvement of mI in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Research 03/2009; 108(1-3):69-77. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2008.11.014 · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, greater attention has been given to quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia and several studies reported that negative and depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction are related to patient QOL. But because a variety of QOL measures have been used in the previous studies, there seems to be no unanimous predictors for subjective and objective QOL. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between clinical variables and subjective and objective QOL in outpatients with schizophrenia, using schizophrenia disease-specific QOL measures. Particular attention was paid to cognitive function as a predictor of QOL.
Schizophrenia symptoms of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were divided into five factors: positive factor, negative factor, cognitive factor, emotional discomfort, and hostility. The study sample consisted of 84 schizophrenia outpatients. Subjective and objective QOL were assessed with Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS) and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS), respectively.
Subjective QOL correlated significantly with emotional discomfort, positive factor, negative factor, extrapyramidal symptoms and cognitive factor, while objective QOL correlated with negative factor, cognitive factor, emotional discomfort, extrapyramidal symptoms, and dose of antipsychotics. Total score and three of four subscales in the QLS correlated significantly with cognitive factor, while cognitive factor had a significant correlation with only one of three scales of SQLS. Stepwise regression showed that subjective QOL was significantly predicted by emotional discomfort and extrapyramidal symptoms, while negative factor was the most important predictor of objective QOL.
Cognitive dysfunction had a greater influence on objective QOL than subjective QOL. Treating depressive and negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms might contribute to enhanced subjective and objective QOL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TGFBR2 gene is a tumor suppressor gene located at chromosome 3p22, and the locus is reported to be linked with schizophrenia susceptibility. According to the previous studies, a reduced incidence of cancer is observed in schizophrenic patients compared with the general population and tumor suppressor genes may be associated with schizophrenia. We measured the mRNA expression of TGFBR2 gene in the peripheral leukocytes from 19 medication-free schizophrenics and 25 medication-free major depressive patients compared with age- and sex-matched control subjects using a quantitative real-time PCR method. We also followed up the TGFBR2 mRNA expression levels from 13 schizophrenics after several weeks - antipsychotic treatments. The TGFBR2 mRNA levels of medication free schizophrenics were significantly higher than those of control subjects and decreased to almost the same level as controls after antipsychotic treatment. On the other hand, the TGFBR2 mRNA levels of medication-free major depressive patients were not significantly different from controls. In genetic studies, we failed to find any association between the TGFBR2 gene and schizophrenia with 10 SNPs of TGFBR2 gene in Japanese subjects (279 subjects each) and there was no significant difference with haplotype analysis, either. Our results suggest that the TGFBR2 gene itself does not link to schizophrenia but that the TGFBR2 mRNA levels in the peripheral leukocytes may be a potential state marker for schizophrenia.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 06/2008; 42(6):425-32. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2007.04.002 · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) gene is located at 1p31, a susceptibility region for schizophrenia (SZ). Moreover, PDE4B interacts with DISC1, which is a known genetic risk factor for SZ. Recently, it was reported that the PDE4B gene is associated with SZ in Caucasian and African American populations. In this study, case-controlled association analyses were performed in the Japanese population to determine if the PDE4B gene is implicated in SZ. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in 444 schizophrenic patients and 452 control subjects. Three SNPs (rs2180335, rs910694 and rs472952) were significantly associated with SZ after applying multiple test correction (p=0.039, 0.004 and 0.028). In addition, a significant association was found between specific haplotypes (rs2180335 and rs910694) and SZ (permutation p=0.001). Our result suggests that variations at the PDE4B locus may play a significant role in the etiology of SZ in the Japanese population.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 04/2008; 43(1):7-12. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.01.013 · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been several evidences that the mRNA expressions in the peripheral leukocytes may indicate not only physical but also psychological states. The purpose of this study is whether the mRNA expressional changes in the leukocytes are related to the mental states across the menstrual cycle in reproductive healthy female subjects. Thirty-eight female subjects (22.4+/-1.4 year-old) were participated in this study at three menstruation cycle periods (menstrual, follicular and luteal phase). The FKBP5 (FK506-binding protein gene), SERT (serotonin transporter gene) and COMT (catechol-o-methyltransferase gene) mRNA expressions in the leukocytes were determined with hormonal data. The psychological changes were assessed with self-rating hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Only one thirds of subjects (n=12) had regular menstrual cycles during the experiment. So we analyzed the data from these 12 subjects. The anxiety score of each subject was changed across the menstrual cycle (Friedman test: P<0.05). The FKBP5 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the follicular phase than in the other phases but no changes were seen in either SERT or COMT mRNA expressions among the phases. In conclusion, there are differences of HADS anxiety score and FKBP5 mRNA expression in the leukocytes across the menstrual cycle but there is no correlation between anxiety scores and FKBP5 mRNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships among subjective and objective quality of life (QOL), and levels of life skills, and their clinical determinants in outpatients with schizophrenia by using schizophrenia disease-specific QOL measures. Data collected from 64 outpatients were analyzed. Subjective QOL was measured with the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS) and objective QOL with the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Patients' family members completed the Life Skills Profile (LSP). Clinical symptoms were also assessed with several scales including the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Only the motivation/energy scale, but not the other scales of the SQLS, correlated with the QLS. The LSP rated by the family showed significant correlations with both the SQLS and the QLS. The CDSS score predicted each scale of the SQLS, and the BPRS negative symptoms score predicted the QLS. The LSP was predicted by the BPRS negative symptoms score and the CDSS score independently. These results indicate that the patient's QOL could be predicted by the life skills measured by a family member and suggest that active treatment for depressive and negative symptoms might be recommended to improve the patient's QOL and life skills.
Psychiatry Research 03/2008; 158(1):19-25. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2006.05.017 · 2.68 Impact Factor