[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of cytosine deaminase (CD) to convert the antifungal agent 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into one of the most potent and largely used anticancer compound such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) raised considerable interest in this enzyme to model gene or antibody - directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT/ADEPT) aiming to improve the therapeutic ratio (benefit versus toxic side-effects) of cancer chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody in single chain fragment (scFv) format represents a powerful reagent to allow in in vitro and in vivo detection of CD expression in GDEPT/ADEPT studies.
An enzymatic active recombinant CD from yeast (yCD) was expressed in E. coli system and used as antigen for biopanning approach of the large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Several scFvs were isolated and specificity towards yCD was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. Further, biochemical and functional investigations demonstrated that the binding of specific scFv with yCD did not interfere with the activity of the enzyme in converting 5-FC into 5-FU.
The construction of libraries of recombinant antibody fragments that are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage, and the selection of phage antibodies against target antigens, have become an important biotechnological tool in generating new monoclonal antibodies for research and clinical applications. The scFvH5 generated by this method is the first human antibody which is able to detect yCD in routinary laboratory techniques without interfering with its enzymatic function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The new glutathione S-transferase inhibitor 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio)hexanol (NBDHEX) is cytotoxic toward P-glycoprotein-overexpressing tumor cell lines, i.e. CEM-VBL10, CEM-VBL100, and U-2 OS/DX580. The mechanism of cell death triggered by NBDHEX has been deeply investigated in leukemia cell lines. Kinetic data indicate a similar NBDHEX membrane permeability between multidrug resistance cells and their sensitive counterpart revealing that NBDHEX is not a substrate of the P-glycoprotein export pump. Unexpectedly, this molecule promotes a caspase-dependent apoptosis that is unusual in the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cells. The primary event of the apoptotic pathway is the dissociation of glutathione S-transferase P1-1 from the complex with c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Interestingly, leukemia MDR1-expressing cells show lower LC50 values and a higher degree of apoptosis and caspase-3 activity than their drug-sensitive counterparts. The increased susceptibility of the multidrug resistance cells toward the NBDHEX action may be related to a lower content of glutathione S-transferase P1-1. Given the low toxicity of NBDHEX in vivo, this compound may represent an attractive basis for the selective treatment of MDR1 P-glycoprotein-positive tumors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2006; 281(33):23725-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated an IgG2a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) termed MAb57, specifically reactive with multi-drug-resistant (MDR) human cells. Its specificity toward the MDRI gene product (P-glycoprotein) has been demonstrated by the concordant segregation of the MAb57 epitope with the MDRI gene in interspecific mouse × human cell hybrids, and the reactivity of several different MDRI gene-expressing cells with Mab57, particularly insect cells acutely infected with a baculovirus encoding the MDRI gene. Mab57 can be used to detect, by flow cytometry, variations in the relative drug-resistance levels of several MDR KB and CEM cell variants. This immunological probe has also proven useful in selectively destroying MDR target cells in an antibody-dependent cell-mediated (ADCC) assay system as well as in detecting P-glycoprotein expression in normal and malignant tissues and cells.
International Journal of Cancer 07/2006; 47(4):533 - 543. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of interleukin (IL)-2, a T cell growth factor capable of activating certain macrophage functions, on interferon (IFN)-gamma expression in resting mouse peritoneal macrophages (PM). IL-2 addition to PM from different mouse strains up-modulated IFN-gamma mRNA and protein secretion. It is notable that endogenous type I and II IFNs did not play any role in the IL-2-mediated effect, as comparable levels of secreted IFN-gamma were observed upon IL-2 stimulation of PM from deficient mice. In contrast, endogenous IFN-gamma was requested for the IL-12-induced IFN-gamma production. It is interesting that blocking of each component of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) by neutralizing antibodies almost completely abolished IL-2-induced IFN-gamma production, suggesting that all IL-2R chains contribute to the PM biological response to IL-2. The simultaneous treatment of PM with IL-2 and IL-12 resulted in a higher IFN-gamma secretion with respect to that obtained upon treatment with IL-2 or IL-12 alone. It is notable that IFN-gamma protein was expressed intracellularly in the majority of cells exhibiting a macrophage phenotype (i.e., F4/80+) and was secreted upon IL-2 stimulation. Overall, these findings demonstrate that IL-2 regulates at different levels IFN-gamma expression in macrophages, highlighting the crucial role of these cells and their regulated responsiveness to key cytokines in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 10/2005; 78(3):686-95. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein causing multidrug resistance (MDR) and limiting the efficacy of antineoplastic drugs and protease inhibitors (PIs) is expressed in human CD4+ T lymphocytes, one of the main targets of HIV, in a range of pharmacological barriers and at varying degrees in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma.
The differential effect of PIs on P-glycoprotein function was studied by measuring drug efflux inhibition, MDR-reversing ability and MAb UIC2 epitope modulation in MDR variants of the human T lymphoblastoid CEM cell line.
The treatment of MDR cells with PIs induces different UIC2 epitope modulations indicating a differential recognition and binding of these antiviral drugs by MDR1 P-glycoprotein. In fact, ritonavir, saquinavir and indinavir act differently to the P-glycoprotein blocker in CEM-VBL10 cells. The MDR level of these cells was markedly affected by ritonavir and saquinavir in the order, while the PI indinavir does not seem to compete with the P-glycoprotein drug transport function. In CEM-VBL100 cells, expressing a very high number of P-glycoprotein molecules, only ritonavir acts as an efficient drug efflux inhibitor and MDR-reversing agent.
The HIV-1 PIs ritonavir and saquinavir even at different levels act as genuine P-glycoprotein substrates by inhibiting dye substrate efflux, modulating UIC2 epitope and reversing drug resistance. Conversely, at least in the in vitro system used in the present study, the PI indinavir does not significantly alter P-glycoprotein drug transport activities and function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein is considered one of the most important member of the rapidly growing superfamily of integral proteins known as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) which in human also include several other multidrug resistance membrane proteins (i.e., MRP), the product of the cystic fibrosis gene, the TAP-1/TAP2 peptide transporters encoded by the major histocompatibility complex genes and the gene encoding for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) also known as MXR1 (mitoxantrone resistance protein). Many monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacting with distinct P-glycoprotein domains have been isolated and used to study the molecular organization and cellular functions of this ABC protein. MAbs have been used for multidrug resistance (mdr) gene cloning, delineation of the secondary and tertiary structure of P-glycoprotein and molecular analysis of the mechanisms involved in substrate recognition and transport. The immunodetection of the distinct products of the mdr gene family in normal and malignant cells and tissues has greatly contributed to the understanding of the physiological role of P-glycoprotein and its possible involvement in the refractory of tumors to chemotherapy. The present article deals with the immunological methods used for the structure-function studies of the P-glycoprotein. After introducing the basic structural features of this ABC transporter, the antibody based-approach is discussed with aiming to furnishing methodological perspectives for further investigations of the physiological role of P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance phenomenon.
Current Protein and Peptide Science 11/2002; 3(5):513-30. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vinblastine, vincristine and doxorubicyn are currently used in chemotherapeutic treatments of several malignancies including HIV-1 associated tumours Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hence, AIDS patients also affected by KS and NHL may be simultaneously subjected to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and cytotoxic drugs to combat HIV-1 infection and cancer aggressiveness. In order to assess if the combination of these therapies may affect cell growth and survival of P-glycoprotein expressing MDR variants of the human CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid CEM cell line, the protease inhibitors (PI's) ritonavir, saquinavir and indinavir were tested in an in vitro assay for their ability to potentiate the vinblastine, vincristine and doxorubicyn cytotoxicity. The results we obtained demonstrated that at the concentration of 10 micrograms/ml, ritonavir and in a lesser extent saquinavir act as MDR reversing agents. By contrast, the PI indinavir at least in the CEM cell system, does not affect the patterns of drug resistance. The level of chemosensitization exerted by ritonavir and saquinavir suggests that these PI's may render P-glycoprotein expressing MDR cells de novo susceptible to the antineoplastic drugs vinblastine, vincristine and doxorubicyn.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified a peptide region on CD18 molecule (the beta subunit of the LFA-1 molecule) involved in syncytia formation of HIV-1-infected lymphocytes. Several phage clones mimicking an epitope of the CD18 cell-surface determinant were isolated from two 9-mer random peptide phage-displayed libraries via their binding to the CD18-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) MHM23, which in in vitro assay inhibits syncytia formation in HIV-1-infected cells. The peptide sequences displayed on phages that blocked immunolabeling of this mAb on LFA-1-expressing cells were used to identify the epitope recognized by mAb MHM23 by sequence comparison. On the basis of this analysis, two peptides which inhibited syncytia formation in HIV-1-infected cells in vitro were synthesized, thus confirming that they mimic a CD18 domain that is involved in this phenomenon. The results here presented highlight the potential of phage-display technology for the study of biological processes at the basis of virus infection, but also suggest new approaches for the therapy of AIDS.
European Journal of Immunology 02/2001; 31(1):57-63. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MDR1-P-glycoprotein binding sites of three different murine monoclonal antibodies (MM4.17, MM6.15 and MC57), directed towards living, intact human multidrug-resistant cells were investigated in order to study P-glycoprotein topology. By using synthetic peptide scanning, we demonstrated that well-defined regions localized on the predicted first, fourth and sixth extracellular loops are external. On the basis of the structure of MM6.15 epitope, which is distributed on the above three different extracellular loops (and thus is discontinuous), P-glycoprotein molecules result to be differently organized in the lipid bilayer. Moreover, the outcome of the MC57 and MM4.17 epitopes localization experiments, obtained through the use of phage-displayed peptide libraries, represent an additional challenge to the classical 12-transmembrane domain model of P-glycoprotein, since they agree with the novel topography of the molecule (10-transmembrane domain), which was recently proposed on the basis of biochemical and expression studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), MM6.15, to human MDR1 P-glycoprotein was found to be reactive in ELISA with synthetic peptides selected from the predicted sequences of the first, fourth and sixth extracellular loop of MDR1-P-glycoprotein. In order to precisely define the MM6.15-binding site, a peptide library of overlapping 5- to 9-mer residues covering the entire sixth extracellular loop of both human and rodent class-1 P-glycoproteins was synthesized on polyethylene pins and tested for MAb binding. The results of this ELISA demonstrated that the MAb MM6.15 reacts only with human synthetic peptides and that the critical component of the MAb recognition is made up of the amino-acid sequence LVAHKL (residues 963-968 of the MDR1-P-glycoprotein) with histidine (H), lysine (K) and possibly leucine (L), key residues of this immunogenic domain.
International Journal of Cancer 04/1995; 61(1):142-7. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), MM4.17, to human multi-drug-resistant (MDR) cells was found to be reactive in an ELISA with a synthetic 16-amino acid peptide selected from the fourth loop of the P-glycoprotein extracellular domain. Immunohistochemistry indicated that this MAb reacted in human tissues in the same pattern as that previously found with other human-specific MAbs to P-glycoprotein. For a precise definition of the MM4.17 epitope, a peptide library consisting of overlapping 4- to 10-mer residues covering the entire P-glycoprotein-fragment was synthesized on polyethylene pins and tested for MAb binding. The results of this ELISA demonstrated that the MM4.17 epitope is constituted by the continuous-linear TRIDDPET amino-acid sequence (residues 750-757 of the human MDRI-P-glycoprotein). The MAb MM4.17 recognizes only the human MDRI-P-glycoprotein isoform, and excess TRIDDPET peptide blocks the binding of the MAb to MDR variants of CEM cells. These results demonstrate that the amino-acid sequence TRIDDPET from the human MDRI gene represents the first continuous-linear epitope identified in the P-glycoprotein extracellular domain.
International Journal of Cancer 02/1994; 56(1):153-60. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 31P NMR studies were carried out on the parental drug-sensitive human T-lymphoblastoid cell line CCRI-CEM (CEM) and its multi-drug-resistant (MDR) CEM-VBL100 variants, to assess the role of the pentose phosphate (PP) in MDR expression. CEM and CEM-VBL100 were incubated in the presence of 2-deoxyglucose, as recently proposed by our group (Clin. Chim. Acta 208: 39, 1992). Accumulation of 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate was much lower in the drug-resistant than in sensitive cells, indicating PP shunt activation in the MDR variants. This result was confirmed by enzymatic analyses, which demonstrated that, with respect to the parental line, the MDR variant was characterized by a) unaltered hexokinase activity; b) higher glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity; c) increased levels of reduced glutathione and marked increase of glutathione peroxidase activity after cell exposure to an oxidizing agent (tert-butylhydroperoxide). These results support the view that cell detoxification mechanisms mediated by the pentose phosphate pathway may contribute to the expression of MDR in tumours.
Anticancer research 01/1993; 13(4):867-72. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A panel of mouse x human B- and T-cell hybrids was analyzed for the expression of MC56 determinant which marks the drug-sensitive state of CEM cells. Karyotypic and phenotypic analyses of the tested clones showed that the expression of MC56 determinant correlated to the presence of human chromosome 11 and segregated concordantly to the epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies in the CD44 cluster. By using a particular class of interspecific rodent x human-cell hybrids in which the human genome counterpart is represented in the different clones only by human chromosome 11 or its fragments, we showed that the gene encoding for MC56 determinant is located on the region p13-pter of the short arm of chromosome 11. Therefore, the hypothesized homology between the drug-sensitivity marker MC56 and the CD44 determinant is supported also by gene mapping studies.
International Journal of Cancer 11/1992; 52(4):585-7. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2.2-kb human cDNA clone PBL32, encoding for the lymphocyte homing receptor (LHR) was used to study the expression of this determinant in multi-drug-resistant (MDR) variants of human T-lymphoblastoid CCRF-CEM (CEM) cells. LHR is significantly associated with the drug-sensitive phenotype, its expression being progressively and quantitatively reduced in MDR variants of CEM cells according to the extent of drug resistance.
International Journal of Cancer 10/1991; 49(3):394-7. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated an IgG2a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) termed MAb57, specifically reactive with multi-drug-resistant (MDR) human cells. Its specificity toward the MDRI gene product (P-glycoprotein) has been demonstrated by the concordant segregation of the MAb57 epitope with the MDRI gene in interspecific mouse x human cell hybrids, and the reactivity of several different MDRI gene-expressing cells with MAb57, particularly insect cells acutely infected with a baculovirus encoding the MDRI gene. MAb57 can be used to detect, by flow cytometry, variations in the relative drug-resistance levels of several MDR KB and CEM cell variants. This immunological probe has also proven useful in selectively destroying MDR target cells in an antibody-dependent cell-mediated (ADCC) assay system as well as in detecting P-glycoprotein expression in normal and malignant tissues and cells.
International Journal of Cancer 03/1991; 47(4):533-43. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the susceptibility to natural killer (NK) or lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell-mediated cytolysis of two pairs of drug sensitive/resistant tumor cell lines which were extensively characterized at phenotypic and genotypic level. In the DAUDI cell system, the acquired capability of tumor cell variants to grow in the presence of a relatively high concentration of vinblastine (VBL) is associated with a marked increase to NK and LAK susceptibility. In contrast in the K-562 cell system, no correlation between drug-resistance, P-glycoprotein expression and susceptibility to NK or LAK activity seems to occur.
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/1991; 5(4):137-41. · 5.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MAb56), specific for a cell-surface protein structure (MC56 determinant) expressed by the human CEM cell line. A large band of approximately 90 kDa was identified as the main specific component of the MC56 determinant. Such a 90-kDa protein is significantly associated with the drug-sensitive phenotype, its expression being progressively reduced quantitatively in multi-drug-resistant (MDR) variants of CEM cells, according to the extent of drug resistance. In addition, the MC56 determinant is expressed de novo in drug-sensitive revertant cell lines derived from MDR cells and unreactive with the MAb56. The MAb56 shows a high affinity towards the immunizing drug-sensitive CEM cell line (Ka = 1.86 x 10(9) L/mole) while not binding to MDR cell variants. The expression of the MC56 molecule on a variety of human cells and tissues makes such a cellular determinant a candidate as a marker for studying the MDR phenomenon both in vivo and in vitro.
International Journal of Cancer 02/1990; 45(1):95-103. · 6.20 Impact Factor