[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vertical transmission from mother to child, the main route of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the East Asia, is considered one of the most important predictors for the response to antiviral therapies as well as its complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, it is critical in both etiologic and prognostic aspects to confirm whether or not chronic HBV infection is acquired vertically. This study investigated whether mother-to-child infection could be proved by the phylogenetic analyses of HBV pre-S/S genes ever since several decades have elapsed in mother-child pairs with presumed vertical transmission. The pre-S and S regions of HBVs were compared and analyzed phylogenetically in a total of 36 adults (18 mother-child pairs) with chronic HBV infection. All of the isolates of HBV were genotype C and serotype adr. The divergence between mothers and offsprings was 0 to 1.5%. Phylogenetic trees revealed that 17 of 18 pairs (94%) with presumed vertical transmission were grouped into the same cluster. Vertical transmission from mother to child could be strongly suggested even in adults with a history of several decades of HBV infection using the phylogenetic analyses of pre-S and S genes.
Journal of Korean medical science 04/2014; 29(4):564-9. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the incidence rate of and mortality from pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) are increasing worldwide, it is important to study the simple predictive risk factors for PMC among patients with hospital-acquired diarrhea (HAD). This study focused on identifying the clinical risk factors that can easily predict PMC.
The presumed HAD patients were prospectively recruited at the Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital.
Age of 70 and older (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 0.75), use of proton pump inhibitors (adjusted OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.512 to 6.57), use of cephalosporins (adjusted OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.82 to 4.94), and underlying cancer (adjusted OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.82) were independent risk factors for PMC in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of PMC was very low in the patients with HAD who exhibited no risk factors.
The risk factors for PMC in patients with HAD included cephalosporin use, proton pump inhibitor use, old age, and cancer. Considering the strongly negative predictive values of these risk factors, endoscopic evaluation can be delayed in patients with HAD without risk of developing PMC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The clinical course of acute viral hepatitis A (AHA) is highly variable. Serum alphafetoprotein (AFP) level is often elevated in various types of acute liver injuries, indicating active liver regeneration. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum AFP level in the aspect of the early recovery in AHA. Methodology: A total of 238 patients with AHA, confirmed by IgM anti-hepatitis A virus, were included. The patients were classified according to serum AFP level. Multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards model using dichotomized clinical variables was performed to identify the independent predictors for early recovery (ALT normalization within 2 weeks). Results: The median age (range) was 30 (17-50) years and male dominant (62%, 147/238). Compared to low AFP group, high AFP group (>10 ng/mL) had significantly lower platelet counts (p <0.0001), lower albumin (p =0.003), lower AST (p <0.001), lower ALT (p = 0.001), higher total bilirubin level (p <0.0001) on univariate analysis. On Cox regression analysis, high AFP level (>10 ng/mL) was the only independent predictor for early recovery (Hazard ratio (HR); 2.392, 95% CI; 1.564-3.659, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: High serum AFP level (>10 ng/mL) may indicate the already-started recovery through active liver regeneration or the early recovery within 2 weeks in AHA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridial septicemia usually occurrs in patients with immunocompromised diseases such as diabetes and malignancy. Clostridial liver abscess is very rare but highly fatal. We experienced a case of Clostridial septicemia due to liver abscess in a 73-year-old man. He was presented with fever and chills. On admission, abdominal CT scan showed about 35 mm sized hypoattenuated lesion with multiple central air-bubbles. After the diagnosis of liver abscess, the patient underwent prompt empirical antimicrobial therapy and percutaneous drainage. In spite of early therapy, the patient had gone into shock and death. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;61:103-106).
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 02/2013; 61(2):103-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective intestinal decontamination (SID) with norfloxacin has been widely used for the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) because of a high recurrence rate and preventive effect of SID for SBP. However, it does select resistant gut flora and may lead to SBP caused by unusual pathogens such as quinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli or gram-positive cocci. Enterococcus hirae is known to cause infections mainly in animals, but is rarely encountered in humans. We report the first case of SBP by E. hirae in a cirrhotic patient who have previously received an oral administration of norfloxacin against SBP caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and presented in septic shock.
Journal of Korean medical science 12/2012; 27(12):1598-600. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of metastatic tumor antigen-1 (MTA-1) is suggested to be associated with frequent postoperative recurrence and poor survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In this study, we intended to determine clinical factors predisposing the overexpression of MTA-1 in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC and also examine whether MTA-1 overexpression affects the survival periods of these patients treated with curative surgical resection.
A total of 303 patients with HBV-associated HCC who underwent curative surgical resection were subjected. The expressions of MTA-1 in HCC and surrounding non-tumor liver tissues were evaluated using the immunohistochemical method. The clinical, radiological and histological characteristics of the patients were analyzed in relation to the expression of MTA-1 to find predisposing factors of MTA-1 overexpression.
MTA-1 was overexpressed in 104 HCC tissues (34.3 %) and none of the surrounding non-tumor tissues. Clinically, MTA-1 overexpression was significantly associated with younger age, female gender, higher serum alpha-fetoprotein level, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A. Also, portal vein thrombosis, microvascular invasion, capsular invasion and poorly histological differentiation were associated with overexpression of MTA-1. The cumulative survival rates were significantly lower in patients with MTA-1 overexpression compared with those in the MTA-1 negative group (P = 0.03). In addition to the overexpression of MTA-1, the presence of microvascular or capsular invasion was a significant factor determining the poor survival of the patients with HBV-associated HCC after curative resection.
MTA-1 is overexpressed in patients with HBV-associated HCC of invasive nature. MTA-1 overexpression is associated with shorter survival periods of patients with HBV-associated HCC after curative resection.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 07/2012; 57(11):2917-23. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential role of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 polymorphism has been reported in relation to the risk of gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Therefore, we investigated whether COX-2 polymorphisms are associated with the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in Korea, one of the areas with a high prevalence of this condition.
We evaluated the genotypic frequencies of COX-2-765 and -1195 in 100 peptic ulcer patients, 100 GC patients, and 100 healthy controls. The polymorphisms of the COX-2-765 and -1195 genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphisms.
The frequencies of the COX-2-1195 GG, GA, and AA genotype were 20%, 60%, and 20% in intestinal-type GC and 8%, 48%, and 44% in diffuse-type GC, respectively (p=0.021). There were no significant differences in the frequency of COX-2-765 genotypes between intestinal-type GC and diffuse-type GC (p=0.603). Age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that the COX-2-1195 AA genotype was the independent risk factor of diffuse-type GC compared with the COX-2-1195 GG genotype (p=0.041; odds ratio, 6.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.077 to 35.870).
The COX-2-1195 AA genotype may render subjects more susceptible to diffuse-type GC.
Gut and liver 07/2012; 6(3):321-7. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address a growing concern about drug-induced liver injury (DILI), a nationwide study was performed to investigate the significance of DILI in Korea.
From May 2005 to May 2007, cases of DILI (alanine transferase >3 × upper normal limit or total bilirubin >2 × upper normal limit) from 17 referral university hospitals were prospectively enrolled. Adjudication by the seven review boards was considered for the confirmation of causality and the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) scale was used.
A total of 371 cases were diagnosed with DILI. The extrapolated incidence of hospitalization at university hospital in Korea was 12/100,000 persons/year. The causes included "herbal medications" (102, 27.5%), "prescription or non-prescription medications" (101, 27.3%), "health foods or dietary supplements" (51, 13.7%), "medicinal herbs or plants" (35, 9.4%), "folk remedies" (32, 8.6%), "combined" (30, 8.2%), "herbal preparations" (12, 3.2%), and others (8, 2.2%). Nine cases were linked to acetaminophen. The frequencies of hepatocellular, mixed, and cholestatic types were 76.3, 14.8, and 8.9%, respectively. A total of 234 cases met the criteria for Hy's law. Five patients died or underwent transplantation. Twenty-five cases (21 herbs and 4 medications) did not meet the time-to-onset criteria of the RUCAM.
DILI appears to be a highly relevant health problem in Korea. "Herbal medications" are the principal cause of DILI. A more objective and reproducible causality assessment tool is strongly desired as the RUCAM scale frequently undercounts the cases caused by herbs owing to a lack of previous information and incompatible time criteria.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2012; 107(9):1380-7. · 7.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β(1)) expression and the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Five hundred and seventy-one patients with HCC were subjected. Plasma TGF-β(1) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at diagnosis and compared in accordance with clinical and radiological characteristics.
Plasma TGF-β(1) levels were significantly higher in the diffuse infiltrative type (n = 159) than in the nodular type of HCC (n = 412; 3.94 ± 0.34 vs. 3.79 ± 0.29 log(10) pg/ml; p < 0.001). They were much higher in patients with portal vein thrombosis or extrahepatic metastasis than in those without (3.88 ± 0.34 vs. 3.81 ± 0.29 log(10) pg/ml, p = 0.008; 3.94 ± 0.35 vs. 3.82 ± 0.30 log(10) pg/ml, p = 0.013, respectively). Also, plasma TGF-β(1) levels showed a positive correlation with the size of HCC (r = 0.014, p < 0.001). Additionally, plasma TGF-β(1) levels were inversely related to the survival periods (p < 0.001).
TGF-β(1) was overexpressed in invasive types of HCC and it may be involved in the rapid progression of HCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging is an useful system to assess the prognosis of any solid cancer. As new TNM staging classification of 7th stomach cancer was revised in 2009, we evaluated the prognostic predictability of the 7th International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) TNM classification compared to 6th UICC/AJCC TNM classification in gastric cancer.
From January 2000 to December 2009, 5-year survival rates of 266 patients with gastric cancer were calculated by the 6th and 7th UICC/AJCC TNM classification.
Using the 7th UICC/AJCC TNM classification, there was no significant difference in the 5-year cumulative survival rates (5 YSR) between stage IIA and IIB, IIB and IIIA, and IIIA and IIIB (70% vs. 71%, p=0.530; 71% vs. 80%, p=0.703; 80% vs. 75%, p=0.576, respectively) though significant differences of the survival rates were observed among stages of 6th edition. Using T stage of 7th edition, 5 YSR was not different between T2 and T3 (86% vs. 82%, p=0.655). Using N stage of 7th edition, 5 YSR were not different between N1 and N2, N3a and N3b (79% vs. 81%, p=0.506; 41% vs. 17%, p=0.895, respectively).
The 7th UICC/AJCC TNM classification had poor prognostic predictability in gastric cancer compared to the 6th edition.
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 11/2011; 58(5):258-63.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study the authors intended to investigate the relationship between intrahepatic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA concentrations and posthepatectomy recurrence of HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
High HBV-DNA level is strongly associated with HCC development in chronic HBV infection and considered to be a risk factor of HCC recurrence.
A total of 109 patients with HBV-associated HCC who underwent curative surgical resection were followed up every 3 to 6 months for a median of 82 months. Intrahepatic total HBV-DNA titer was measured in HCC and surrounding liver tissues using a TaqMan probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction method. HBV-DNA titers in HCC and surrounding liver were compared in accordance with patients' clinical, radiologic, and histopathological characteristics. The relationships between HBV-DNA titers in HCC or surrounding liver tissues and cumulative HCC recurrence rates were determined.
Of the 109 patients, 67 (62%) showed posthepatectomy recurrence of HCC. In all patients, total HBV-DNA titers were significantly higher in HCCs than in surrounding liver tissues (P=0.019). HCC recurred more frequently in patients with higher than those with lower HBV-DNA titers in surrounding liver tissues (P=0.009). In contrast, the HCC recurrence rates were similar in patients with higher and those with lower HBV-DNA titers in HCC specimens (P=0.301). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size >5 cm (P=0.008), the presence of portal vein thrombus (P=0.001), and high HBV-DNA titer in surrounding liver tissues (P=0.002) were independent risk factors for posthepatectomy HCC recurrence in patients with HBV-associated HCC.
In patients with HBV-associated HCC, high HBV-DNA titer in surrounding liver rather than in the HCC itself is associated with posthepatectomy HCC recurrence after curative surgical resection.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology 11/2011; 46(5):413-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of entecavir (ETV) in adefovir (ADV)-refractory chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with prior lamivudine (LMV) resistance. A total of 55 ADV-refractory CHB patients with prior LMV resistance, who received rescue therapy with ETV 1 mg daily for at least 12 months, were consecutively enrolled and analysed. Forty-four patients were men, and their median age was 47 (25-69). Ten patients had liver cirrhosis and 46 patients were positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Median hepatitis B virus DNA levels were 6.6 (4.3-8.0) log(10) copies/mL, and the median duration of ETV therapy was 24 (12-47) months. Cumulative virologic response rates at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months were 18%, 29%, 58% and 75%, respectively. HBeAg loss occurred in 10 (21.7%) of 46 HBeAg-positive patients. In multivariate analysis, only initial virologic response at 3 months remained as an independent predictor for virologic response (RR 3.143; 95% CI 1.387-7.120; P = 0.006). The patients with a virological response at 3 months had not only a significantly higher probability of achieving a virologic response (P < 0.001) but also lower probability of experiencing a virologic breakthrough (P = 0.043) than the patients without an early response. Viral breakthrough was observed in 29 patients during the follow-up period. Cumulative breakthrough rates at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months were 0%, 15%, 45% and 73%, respectively. ETV monotherapy may be considerably efficacious in cases with an initial virological response but its efficacy is attenuated by frequent emergence of ETV resistance in ADV-refractory CHB patients with prior LMV resistance.
Journal of Viral Hepatitis 10/2011; 18(10):e475-81. · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Longstanding liver inflammation leads to hepatic regeneration and fibrosis, which subsequently progresses to cirrhosis in some patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. It remains unclear, however, if the histological severity of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may determine the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of necroinflammation and fibrosis at presentation of CHB on the development of HCC.
Medical records and radiographs of 796 biopsy-confirmed CHB patients were reviewed retrospectively for a median period of 107 months (6-218) (median age 34 years (18-64), male:female 636:160). Eighty-five per cent (680/796) of patients were treated with antiviral agents such as interferon alpha and/or lamivudine. All the patients were followed at a regular interval of 3-6 months with routine laboratory tests. Abdominal imagings together with serum alpha-fetoprotein were checked every 6-12 months to detect new HCC. Necroinflammation and fibrosis were assessed semiquantitatively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify significant risk factors for HCC.
HCC developed in 3.4% (27/796) of patients during follow-up. The overall cumulative occurrence rates of HCC were 0.5% and 3.5% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age over 40 years (p<0.001), advanced fibrosis (p=0.006) and severe lobular activity (p=0.038) at presentation were independent risk factors for the development of HCC.
Advanced fibrosis and severe lobular activity rather than porto-periportal activity on histology at presentation of CHB are independent predisposing risk factors for the development of HCC.
Journal of clinical pathology 07/2011; 64(7):599-604. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection can cause severe acute and chronic liver disease in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite the significant decline in the global HDV infection, it remains a major health concern in some countries. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical features of HDV co-infection in patients with chronic HBV infection in Korea, where HBV infection is endemic. Nine hundred forty patients [median age, 48 (18-94) years; men, 64.5%] infected chronically with HBV were enrolled consecutively. All patients who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for at least 6 months and were tested for anti-HDV. A portion of the HDV delta antigen was amplified, sequenced, and subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analysis using sera from the patients who were anti-HDV positive. Clinical features and virologic markers were evaluated. Inactive HBsAg carriers, chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma accounted for 29.5%, 44.7%, 17.9%, and 8.0%, respectively. Only three patients were positive for anti-HDV, corresponding to a 0.32% positive rate. All patients who were positive for anti-HDV were inactive HBsAg carriers. HDV RNA could be amplified by PCR from the sera of two patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both carried HDV genotype 1. In conclusion, the prevalence of HDV infection is very low (0.32%) in Korea. All HDVs were genotype 1 and detected in inactive HBsAg carriers. Therefore, HDV co-infection may not have a significant clinical impact in Korean patients with chronic HBV infection.
Journal of Medical Virology 07/2011; 83(7):1172-7. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver. Most such hemangiomas are small, asymptomatic, and have an excellent prognosis. Giant hepatic hemangioma has been reported in the literature, but the exophytic and pedunculated forms of hepatic hemangioma are rare. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital under the suspicion of having a gastric submucosal tumor. Abdominal computer tomography (CT) scans showed a pedunculated mass from the left lateral segment of the liver into the gastric fundus, exhibiting the atypical CT findings of hepatic hemangioma. We therefore decided to perform laparoscopic resection based on the symptoms, relatively large diameter, inability to exclude malignancy, and risk of rupture of the exophytic lesion. The pathology indicated it to be a cavernous hemangioma of the liver. Herein we report a case of pedunculated hepatic hemangioma mimicking a submucosal tumor of the stomach due to extrinsic compression of the gastric fundus.
The Korean Journal of Hepatology 03/2011; 17(1):66-70.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroepidemiology in Koreans with chronic liver disease (CLD). This study compared the prevalence of IgG anti-HAV between the general healthy population and patients with hepatitis B virus-related CLD (HBV-CLD), with the aim of identifying predictors of HAV prior exposure.
In total, 1,319 patients were recruited between June 2008 and April 2010. All patients were tested for IgG anti-HAV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and antibodies to hepatitis C virus. The patients were divided into the general healthy population group and the HBV-CLD group based on the presence of HBsAg. The seroprevalence of IgG anti-HAV was compared between these two groups.
The age-standardized seroprevalence rates of IgG anti-HAV in the general healthy population and patients with HBV-CLD were 52.5% and 49.1%, respectively. The age-stratified IgG anti-HAV seroprevalence rates for ages ≤19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ≥60 years were 14.3%, 11.2%, 45.5%, 90.5%, 97.6% and 98.3%, respectively, in the general healthy population, and 0%, 9.8%, 46.3%, 91.1%, 97.7%, and 100% in the HBV-CLD group. In multivariate analysis, age (<30 vs. 30-59 years: OR=19.339, 95% CI=12.504-29.911, P<0.001; <30 vs. ≥60 years: OR=1060.5, 95% CI=142.233-7907.964, P<0.001) and advanced status of HBV-CLD (OR=19.180, 95% CI=4.550-80.856, P<0.001) were independent predictors of HAV prior exposure.
The seroprevalence of IgG anti-HAV did not differ significantly between the general-healthy-population and HBV-CLD groups. An HAV vaccination strategy might be warranted in people younger than 35 years, especially in patients with HBV-CLD.
The Korean Journal of Hepatology 12/2010; 16(4):362-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (anti-HBs) can exist in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To date, little is known about the association of concurrent HBsAg and anti-HBs (concurrent HBsAg/ anti-HBs) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs with preS deletion mutations and HCC in chronic HBV infection. A total of 755 patients with chronic HBV infection were included consecutively at a tertiary center. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for HCC, and serum HBV DNA was amplified, followed by direct sequencing to detect preS deletions. The prevalence of concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs was 6.4% (48/755) and all HBVs tested were genotype C. HCC occurred more frequently in the concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs group than in the HBsAg only group [22.9% (11/48) vs. 7.9% (56/707), P = 0.002]. In multivariate analyses, age >40 years [odds ratio (OR), 14.712; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.365-49.579; P < 0.001], male gender (OR 2.431; 95% CI, 1.226-4.820; P = 0.011), decompensated cirrhosis (OR, 3.642; 95% CI, 1.788-7.421; P < 0.001) and concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs (OR, 4.336; 95% CI, 1.956-9.613; P < 0.001) were associated independently with HCC. In molecular analysis, preS deletion mutations were more frequent in the concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs and HCC groups than in the HBsAg without HCC group (42.3% and 32.5% vs. 11.3%; P = 0.002 and 0.012, respectively). In conclusion, concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs is associated with preS deletion mutations and may be one of the risk factors for HCC in chronic HBV infection with genotype C.
Journal of Medical Virology 10/2009; 81(9):1531-8. · 2.37 Impact Factor