ABSTRACT: To review early results of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs).
The first 100 patients who underwent endovascular repair of AAA (EVAR) between June 26,1996, and October 31, 2001, at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn, were studied retrospectively to evaluate technical success, freedom from reinterventions, and early clinical outcome.
A total of 89 men and 11 women (mean +/- SD age, 76 +/- 7 years; range, 47-92 years) underwent EVAR. The procedure was successful in 97 patients. There was no early death. Major complications occurred in 25 patients. The 30-day technical success rate was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77%-92%). The median intensive care unit stay was 1 day (range, 1-15 days), and the median hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1-35 days). Median follow-up was 7 months (range, 1-60 months). Endoleak (incomplete seal of the endovascular graft) at discharge was observed in 14 patients; 13 developed endoleak during follow-up. There were 23 reinterventions, 65% of which were percutaneous procedures. One aneurysm ruptured at 5 months, but the patient was successfully treated by open repair. Primary and secondary graft patency rates at 1 year were 83% (95% CI, 74%-93%) and 94% (95% CI, 87 %-99%), respectively. The freedom from reintervention rate at 1 year was 71% (95% CI, 59%-84%), with an overall success rate from EVAR of 92% (95% CI, 84%-100%). There were no differences in early patency, reinterventions, and success rates between unibody and modular devices.
EVAR can be performed with high technical success and low mortality rates; however, nonfatal complications and catheter-based reinterventions are frequent, and EVAR may not prevent aneurysm rupture. Although stent graft repair for high-risk patients is appealing, current data are insufficient to support EVAR as the preferred treatment of AAAs.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 11/2003; 78(10):1234-42. · 5.70 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of endovascular and open surgical reconstructions in patients with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome caused by nonmalignant disease.
Clinical data from 32 consecutive patients who underwent endovascular or open surgical reconstruction of central veins because of symptomatic benign SVC syndrome between November 1983 and June 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.
The study included 17 male and 15 female patients (mean age, 38 years; range, 5-69 years). Presenting symptoms were head fullness (n = 26), dyspnea or orthopnea (n = 23), headache (n = 17), or dizziness (n = 11); physical signs were head swelling (n = 31), chest wall collateral vessels (n = 29), facial cyanosis (n = 18), or arm swelling (n = 17). Etiologic factors included mediastinal fibrosis (n = 19), indwelling catheter (n = 8), idiopathic thrombosis (n = 4), or post-surgery (n = 1). Two patients were heterozygous for factor V Leiden; 1 patient had antithrombin III deficiency. Twenty-nine patients underwent surgical reconstruction with 31 bypass grafts: spiral saphenous vein (n = 20), superficial femoral vein (n = 4), human allograft (n = 1), or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE, n = 6). Eleven patients underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting; 3 primary and 8 secondary endovascular procedures were performed to treat graft stenosis (n = 7) or occlusion (n = 1). There were no early deaths. Five early graft failures in 3 ePTFE grafts and 2 bifurcated vein grafts (thrombosis, n = 4; stenosis, n = 1) were successfully treated with open surgical revision. Over a mean follow-up of 5.6 years (range, 0.4-16.6 years) in surgical patients, 17 additional secondary interventions were performed in 8 patients, 14 endovascular and 3 surgical. Primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency rates of surgical bypass grafts were 63%, 79%, and 85%, respectively, at 1 year, and 53%, 68%, and 80%, respectively, at 5 years. Graft patency was significantly higher in vein grafts compared with ePTFE grafts (P =.02). Mean follow-up after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting was 3.1 years (range, 1 day-11.7 years). Twelve secondary endovascular interventions were performed in 6 patients (primary group, 3 of 3; secondary group, 3 of 9 grafts in 8 patients) to maintain patency in 11 of 12 reconstructions. Mean follow-up in the entire patient cohort was 5.3 years (range, 0.4-16.6 years). In 79% of patients symptoms had resolved or were significantly improved at last follow-up.
Surgical treatment of benign SVC syndrome is effective over the long term, with secondary endovascular interventions to maintain graft patency. Straight spiral saphenous vein graft remains the conduit of choice for surgical reconstruction, with results superior to those with bifurcated vein and ePTFE. Endovascular treatment is effective over the short term, with frequent need for repeat interventions. It does not adversely affect future open surgical reconstruction and may prove to be a reasonable primary intervention in selected patients. Patients who are not suitable for or who fail endovascular intervention merit open surgical reconstruction.
Journal of Vascular Surgery 09/2003; 38(2):215-23. · 3.21 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Previous results following subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery were reported to be worse in post-thrombotic syndrome than in limbs with primary valvular incompetence. This report comprises a larger patient cohort with longer follow-up. The goal of this study was to determine if subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery is justified in patients with post-thrombotic venous insufficiency. The clinical data of 91 consecutive patients who underwent subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery with or without superficial reflux ablation over a 7-year period from May 1993 to June 2000 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifty-four females and 37 males (median age, 53 years; range, 20-77) underwent 103 subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery procedures. Forty-two limbs were classified as C6 (active ulcer), 34 as C5 (healed ulcer), and 24 as C4 (lipodermatosclerosis). Thirty procedures were performed in post-thrombotic limbs. Concomitant superficial reflux ablation was performed in 74 limbs (72%); saphenous vein stripping had been previously performed in 29 (28%). Deep venous incompetence was present in 89% of limbs; 13% had venous outflow obstruction on plethysmography. Cumulative ulcer healing in post-thrombotic limbs was not significantly different from limbs with primary valvular incompetence; 30-, 60-, and 90-day healing rates were 44%, 72%, and 72% vs 39%, 70%, and 87%, respectively (p = 0.35). On univariate analysis, the presence of ulcer greater than 2 cm in diameter was associated with delayed ulcer healing (p = 0.02). Cumulative ulcer recurrence in all limbs was 4%, 20%, and 27% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Ulcer recurrence in post-thrombotic limbs was higher than in limbs with primary valvular incompetence at 1, 3, and 5 years; 16%, 47%, and 56% vs 0%, 8%, and 15%, respectively (p = 0.001). Recurrent ulcers were small, superficial, and easier to heal. Clinical improvement was significant even in post-thrombotic limbs; median clinical score decreased from 9.5 to 3 (p = 0.001), and median outcome score was +2 (mean 1.9; range, -1 to 3). Median clinical score in patients with primary valvular incompetence improved from 6 to 1.5 (p = 0.0001). Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery with superficial reflux ablation promoted ulcer healing, improved clinical outcome, and resulted in a low long-term ulcer recurrence rate in limbs with primary valvular incompetence. Despite good clinical outcome in post-thrombotic limbs, ulcer recurrence was high. These results imply that the role of subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery with superficial reflux ablation in patients with post-thrombotic limbs continues to be controversial.
Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 36(1):41-50. · 0.99 Impact Factor