Mark L Van Natta

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Manhattan, NY, United States

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Publications (57)485.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods:A case-control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group.357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of the macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence and incidence odds ratios. Results:The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis vs. 1.8 % (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis vs. 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] for prevalence was 9.8, [5.5 - 17.5] (p<0.01). The crude OR [95% CI] for incidence was 9.4, [3.2 - 27.9] (p<0.01). Conclusions: A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3) is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28- and CD57+CD28-), and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Changes in the peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio are also reflective of changes in gut mucosa, but not in lymph nodes. In a longitudinal study, individuals who initiated ART within six months of infection had greater CD4/CD8 ratio increase compared to later initiators (>2 years). After controlling for age, gender, ART duration, nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ratio during otherwise effective ART is associated with increased innate and adaptive immune activation, an immunosenescent phenotype, and higher risk of morbidity/mortality. This ratio may prove useful in monitoring response to ART and could identify a unique subset of individuals needed of novel therapeutic interventions.
    PLoS Pathogens 05/2014; 10(5):e1004078. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. While inflammation predicts mortality in treated HIV infection, the prognostic significance of gut barrier dysfunction and phenotypic T cell markers remains unclear.Methods. We assessed immunologic predictors of mortality in a case-control study within the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) using conditional logistic regression. Cases (n=64) dying within 12 months of treatment-mediated viral suppression were matched to two controls (n=128) by duration of ART-mediated viral suppression, nadir CD4+ T cell count, age, gender, and prior cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. A similar secondary analysis was conducted in the less advanced SCOPE cohort.Results. Plasma gut epithelial barrier integrity markers (intestinal fatty acid binding protein and zonulin-1), sCD14, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, sTNF-R1, hsCRP, and D-dimer levels all strongly predicted mortality, even after adjustment for proximal CD4 count (all P≤0.001). Higher %CD38+HLA-DR+ CD8+ T cells predicted mortality (P=0.031), but not after adjustment for proximal CD4 count (P=0.10). Frequencies of senescent (%CD28-CD57+), exhausted (PD1+), naïve, and CMV-specific T cells did not predict mortality.Conclusions. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction, innate immune activation, inflammation, and coagulation - but not T cell activation, senescence, and exhaustion - independently predict mortality in treated HIV-infected individuals with a history of AIDS and are viable targets for interventions.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Unlike cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and aging, HIV decreases the proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57. Whether this abnormality predicts mortality in treated HIV infection and can be reversed by early antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains unknown.Methods. We sampled recently HIV-infected individuals (<6 months) and HIV-uninfected controls and compared longitudinal changes in the proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 between those who initiated ART early (<6 months) vs. later (>2 years). We also assessed the relationship between this phenotype and mortality in a nested case-control study of ART-suppressed chronically-infected individuals.Results. Compared to HIV-uninfected controls (n=15), recently HIV-infected individuals had lower proportions of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 (P<0.001), and these proportions increased during ART. The early ART group (n=33) achieved normal levels, while the later ART group (n=30) continued to have lower levels than HIV-uninfected controls (P=0.02). Among 141 ART-suppressed participants in the SOCA study, those in the lowest quartile of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 had five-fold higher odds of mortality than those in the highest quartile (95% CI: 1.6-15.9, P=0.007).Conclusions. Abnormally low proportions of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 predict increased mortality during treated HIV infection, and may be reversed with early ART initiation.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As genome-wide sequence analyses for complex human disease determinants are expanding, it is increasingly necessary to develop strategies to promote discovery and validation of potential disease-gene associations.
    GigaScience. 01/2014; 3:18.
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Gastroparesis remains a challenging syndrome to manage, with few effective treatments and a lack of rigorously controlled trials. Tricyclic antidepressants are often used to treat refractory symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Evidence from well-designed studies for this use is lacking. OBJECTIVE To determine whether treatment with nortriptyline results in symptomatic improvement in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The NORIG (Nortriptyline for Idiopathic Gastroparesis) trial, a 15-week multicenter, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-masked, randomized clinical trial from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (GpCRC), comparing nortriptyline with placebo for symptomatic relief in idiopathic gastroparesis. One hundred thirty patients with idiopathic gastroparesis were enrolled between March 2009 and June 2012 at 7 US academic medical centers. Patient follow-up was completed in October 2012. Inclusion criteria included delayed gastric emptying and moderate to severe symptom scores using the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI). INTERVENTIONS Nortriptyline vs placebo. Study drug dose was increased at 3-week intervals (10, 25, 50, 75 mg) up to 75 mg at 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure of symptomatic improvement was a decrease from the patient's baseline GCSI score of at least 50% on 2 consecutive 3-week GCSI assessments during 15 weeks of treatment. RESULTS The primary symptomatic improvement outcome did not differ between 65 patients randomized to nortriptyline vs 65 patients randomized to placebo: 15 (23% [95% CI, 14%-35%]) in the nortriptyline group vs 14 (21% [95% CI, 12%-34%]) in the placebo group (P = .86). Treatment was stopped more often in the nortriptyline group (19 [29% {95% CI, 19%-42%}]) than in the placebo group (6 [9%] {95% CI, 3%-19%}]) (P = .007), but numbers of adverse events were not different (27 [95% CI, 18-39] vs 28 [95% CI, 19-40]) (P = .89). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, the use of nortriptyline compared with placebo for 15 weeks did not result in improvement in overall symptoms. These findings do not support the use of nortriptyline for idiopathic gastroparesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00765895.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 12/2013; 310(24):2640-9. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) penetrate the central nervous system. HIV-associated neuroretinal disorder (HIV-NRD), a visual impairment of reduced contrast sensitivity and reading ability, is associated with cytokine dysregulation and genetic polymorphisms in the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) signaling pathway. We investigated associations between HCV and HIV-NRD and between HCV and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-10 receptor 1 (IL10R1) gene. Methods. Logistic and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze risk factors for HIV-NRD in 1576 HIV-positive patients who did not have an ocular opportunistic infection at enrollment. Median follow-up was 4.9 years (interquartile range, 2.4-8.8 years). Four IL10R1 SNPs were examined in a subset of 902 patients. Results. The group included 290 patients with chronic HCV infection, 74 with prior infection, and 1212 with no HCV markers. There were 244 prevalent cases of HIV-NRD and 263 incident cases (rate = 3.9/100 person-years). In models adjusted for demographics, HIV treatment and status, liver function, and immune status, both the prevalence and incidence of HIV-NRD were significantly higher in patients with chronic HCV infection (odds ratio = 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.31 and hazard ratio = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.13-2.34, respectively), compared to patients with no HCV markers. Chronic HCV was associated with rs2228055 and 2 additional IL-10R1 SNPs expected to reduce IL-10 signaling. HIV-NRD was not significantly associated with these SNPs. Conclusions. HCV is a possible risk factor for HIV-NRD. Genetic analysis suggests that alterations in the IL-10 signaling pathway may increase susceptibility to HIV-NRD and HCV infection. Inflammation may link HCV and HIV-NRD.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2013; · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common cause of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations and chronic liver disease, but it is unclear how well ALT elevations reflect the liver injury. AimTo assess how well changes in ALT elevations reflect improvements in liver histology in response to vitamin E therapy. Methods The vitamin E and placebo arms of the Pioglitazone vs. Vitamin E vs. Placebo in Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (PIVENS) trial were reassessed for associations among changes in ALT levels, body weight and liver histology. An ALT response was defined as a decrease to ≤40 U/L and by ≥30% of baseline. Liver biopsies taken before and after treatment were scored for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity (NAS) and fibrosis. ResultsALT responses were more frequent among vitamin E (48%) than placebo (16%) recipients (P < 0.001). Among vitamin E recipients, ALT responses were associated with decreases in NAS (P < 0.001), but not fibrosis scores (P = 0.34), whereas among placebo recipients, ALT responses were associated with significant decreases in both (P < 0.05). Weight loss (≥2 kg) was also associated with ALT response (P < 0.001), improvements in NAS (P < 0.001) and fibrosis (P < 0.02), but vitamin E had an added effect both with and without weight loss. Weight gain (≥2 kg) was associated with lack of ALT response and worsening NAS and fibrosis scores in patients not on vitamin E. Conclusions Decrease of ALT levels to normal in patients with NASH is usually associated with improved histological activity. Management should stress the value of weight loss and strongly discourage weight gain. Vitamin E can improve both ALT levels and histology with and without weight loss. Clinical Trial Number: NCT00063622.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 07/2013; 38(2). · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is unclear whether HIV-related factors modify risk of hypertension (HTN). In a cohort of patients with AIDS, the authors determined HTN incidence and prevalence and assessed associated traditional, HIV-specific, and retinal vasculature factors.
    Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (JIAPAC). 06/2013; 12(5):325-333.
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To describe the outcomes of different treatment approaches for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 250 patients with CMV retinitis and a CD4+ T-cell count <100 cells/μl (n = 221) at enrollment or incident retinitis (n = 29) during cohort follow-up. METHODS: The effects of systemic therapy (vs. intraocular therapy only) on systemic outcomes and the effect of intraocular therapies (ganciclovir implants, intravitreal injections) on ocular outcomes were evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality, CMV dissemination, retinitis progression, and treatment side effects. RESULTS: Regimens containing systemic anti-CMV therapy were associated with a 50% reduction in mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.7; P = 0.006), a 90% reduction in new visceral CMV disease (adjusted HR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.04-0.4; P = 0.004), and among those with unilateral CMV retinitis at presentation, an 80% reduction in second eye disease (adjusted HR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.5; P = 0.0005) when compared with those using only intraocular therapy (implants or injections). Compared with systemic treatment only, regimens containing intravitreal injections had greater rates of retinitis progression (adjusted HR, 3.4; P = 0.004) and greater visual field loss (for loss of one half of the normal field, adjusted HR, 5.5; P < 0.01). Intravitreal implants were not significantly better than systemic therapy (adjusted HR for progression, 0.5; P = 0.26; adjusted HR for loss of one half of the visual field, 0.5; P = 0.45), but the sample size was small. Hematologic and renal side effect rates were similar between those groups with and without systemic anti-CMV therapy. The rate of endophthalmitis was 0.017 per eye-year (EY) (95% CI, 0.006-0.05) among those treated with intravitreal injections and 0.01 per EY (95% CI, 0.002-0.04) among those treated with an implant. CONCLUSIONS: In the HAART era, systemic anti-CMV therapy, while there is immune compromise, seems to provide benefits in terms of longer survival and decreased CMV dissemination. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
    Ophthalmology 02/2013; · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of inhaled glucocorticoids for persistent asthma causes a temporary reduction in growth velocity in prepubertal children. The resulting decrease in attained height 1 to 4 years after the initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids is thought not to decrease attained adult height. We measured adult height in 943 of 1041 participants (90.6%) in the Childhood Asthma Management Program; adult height was determined at a mean (±SD) age of 24.9±2.7 years. Starting at the age of 5 to 13 years, the participants had been randomly assigned to receive 400 μg of budesonide, 16 mg of nedocromil, or placebo daily for 4 to 6 years. We calculated differences in adult height for each active treatment group, as compared with placebo, using multiple linear regression with adjustment for demographic characteristics, asthma features, and height at trial entry. Mean adult height was 1.2 cm lower (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.9 to -0.5) in the budesonide group than in the placebo group (P=0.001) and was 0.2 cm lower (95% CI, -0.9 to 0.5) in the nedocromil group than in the placebo group (P=0.61). A larger daily dose of inhaled glucocorticoid in the first 2 years was associated with a lower adult height (-0.1 cm for each microgram per kilogram of body weight) (P=0.007). The reduction in adult height in the budesonide group as compared with the placebo group was similar to that seen after 2 years of treatment (-1.3 cm; 95% CI, -1.7 to -0.9). During the first 2 years, decreased growth velocity in the budesonide group occurred primarily in prepubertal participants. The initial decrease in attained height associated with the use of inhaled glucocorticoids in prepubertal children persisted as a reduction in adult height, although the decrease was not progressive or cumulative. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Center for Research Resources; CAMP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000575.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 09/2012; 367(10):904-12. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate morphology of the optic nerve head and visual field in AIDS patients without retinitis. Methods: One randomly selected eye from 246 patients with AIDS without retinitis was evaluated from prospective multicenter Longitudinal Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS. Stereo fundus photographs of OHN and serial VF data over 5-years were analyzed. Main outcomes included vertical cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation scores on VF testing. Results: The median CDR was 0.39 at enrollment and 0.40 at 5-year follow-up. An unadjusted linear regression model revealed a mean change in CDR of 0.004 after 5-years (P = 0.04). After adjustment for practice effect, there were no statistically significant changes in VF performance observed during the 5 years of follow-up. Conclusions: We detected clinically minimal, but statistically significant changes in ONH morphology and no change in VF performance among eyes of patients with AIDS and without retinitis.
    Ocular immunology and inflammation 06/2012; 20(5):342-8. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adverse effects of corticosteroids on bone mineral accretion (BMA) have been well documented. Vitamin D insufficiency, a prevalent condition in the pediatric population, has also been associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). We sought to determine whether children with asthma who have lower vitamin D levels are more susceptible to the negative effects of corticosteroids on BMD over time. Children aged 5 to 12 years with mild-to-moderate asthma who participated in the Childhood Asthma Management Program were followed for a mean of 4.3 years. Total doses of inhaled corticosteroids and oral corticosteroids (OCSs) were recorded, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured at the beginning of the trial, and serial dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine were performed. Annual BMA rates were defined as follows: [(BMD at 4 years' follow-up - BMD at baseline)/4 years]. BMA was calculated for 780 subjects. In boys baseline vitamin D levels significantly modified the relationship between OCSs and BMA (vitamin D × OCS interaction, P= .023). Stratification by vitamin D levels showed a decrease in BMA with increased use of OCSs in vitamin D-insufficient boys only (P< .001). Compared with vitamin D-sufficient boys, vitamin D-insufficient boys exposed to more than 2 courses of OCSs per year had twice the decrease in BMA rate (relative to boys who were OCS unexposed). Vitamin D levels significantly modified the effect of OCSs on BMA in boys. Further research is needed to examine whether vitamin D supplementation in children with poorly controlled asthma might confer benefits to bone health.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 05/2012; 130(1):53-60.e4. · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Before the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rarely died of liver disease. In resource-rich countries, cART dramatically increased longevity. As patients survived longer, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection became a leading cause of death; however, because patients with AIDS continue to have 5-fold greater mortality than non-AIDS patients, it is unclear whether HCV infection increases mortality in them. In this investigation, which is part of the Longitudinal Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS, plasma banked at enrollment from 2025 patients with AIDS as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were tested for HCV RNA and antibodies. Three hundred thirty-seven patients had HCV RNA (chronic infection), 91 had HCV antibodies and no HCV RNA (cleared infection), and 1597 had no HCV markers. Median CD4(+) T-cell counts/µL were 200 (chronic), 193 (cleared), and 175 (no markers). There were 558 deaths. At a median follow-up of 6.1 years, patients with chronic HCV had a 50% increased risk of mortality compared with patients with no HCV markers (relative risk [RR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.9; P = .001) in an adjusted model that included known risk factors. Mortality was not increased in patients with cleared infection (RR, 0.9; 95% CI, .6-1.5; P = .82). In patients with chronic HCV, 20.4% of deaths were liver related compared with 3.8% in patients without HCV. Chronic HCV infection is independently associated with a 50% increase in mortality among patients with a diagnosis of AIDS, despite competing risks. Effective HCV treatment may benefit HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with AIDS.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 04/2012; 55(1):137-44. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, only mutations in CCR5 have been shown to confer resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and these explain only a small fraction of the observed variability in HIV susceptibility. We performed a meta-analysis between 2 independent European genomewide association studies, each comparing HIV-1 seropositive cases with normal population controls known to be HIV uninfected, to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the HIV-1 acquisition phenotype. SNPs exhibiting P < 10(-5) in this first stage underwent second-stage analysis in 2 independent US cohorts of European descent. After the first stage, a single highly significant association was revealed for the chromosome 8 rs6996198 with HIV-1 acquisition and was replicated in both second-stage cohorts. Across the 4 groups, the rs6996198-T allele was consistently associated with a significant reduced risk of HIV-1 infection, and the global meta-analysis reached genomewide significance: P(combined) = 7.76 × 10(-8). We provide strong evidence of association for a common variant with HIV-1 acquisition in populations of European ancestry. This protective signal against HIV-1 infection is the first identified outside the CCR5 nexus. First clues point to a potential functional role for a nearby candidate gene, CYP7B1, but this locus warrants further investigation.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2012; 205(7):1155-62. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate relationships between retinal vessel caliber and tests of visual function among people with AIDS. Longitudinal, observational cohort study. We evaluated data for participants without ocular opportunistic infections at initial examination (baseline) in the Longitudinal Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (1998-2008). Visual function was evaluated with best-corrected visual acuity, Goldmann perimetry, automated perimetry (Humphrey Field Analyzer), and contrast sensitivity (CS) testing. Semi-automated grading of fundus photographs (1 eye/participant) determined central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE), and arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR) at baseline. Multiple linear regression models, using forward selection, sought independent relationships between indices and visual function variables. Included were 1250 participants. Smaller AVR was associated with reduced visual field by Goldmann perimetry (P = .003) and worse mean deviation (P = .02) on automated perimetry and possibly with worse pattern standard deviation (PSD) on automated perimetry (P = .06). There was a weak association between smaller AVR and worse CS (P = .07). Relationships were independent of antiretroviral therapy and level of immunodeficiency (CD4+ T lymphocyte count, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] RNA blood level). On longitudinal analysis, retinal vascular indices at baseline did not predict changes in visual function. Variation in retinal vascular indices is associated with abnormal visual function in people with AIDS, manifested by visual field loss and possibly by reduced CS. Relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that HIV-related retinal vasculopathy is a contributing factor to vision dysfunction among HIV-infected individuals. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether changes in indices predict change in visual function.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2012; 153(3):428-433.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate relationships between retinal vessel caliber, AIDS-related factors, and mortality. Longitudinal, observational cohort study. We evaluated data for participants without ocular opportunistic infections at initial examination (baseline) in the Longitudinal Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (1998-2008). Semi-automated evaluation of fundus photographs (1 eye/participant) determined central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE), and arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR) at baseline. Multiple linear regression models, using forward selection, identified independent relationships between indices and various host- and disease-related variables. Included were 1250 participants. Mean follow-up for determination of mortality was 6.1 years. Smaller CRAE was related to increased age (P < .001) and hypertension (P < .001); larger CRAE was related to lower hematocrit (P = .002). Larger CRAE and CRVE were associated with black race (P < .001). Larger CRVE was related to smoking (P = .004); smaller CRVE was related to age (P < .001) and higher mean corpuscular volume (P = .001). We observed the following relationships with AIDS-associated factors: smaller CRAE and larger CRVE with history of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; P < .001); and larger CRAE with lower CD4+ T lymphocyte count (P = .04). We did not identify independent relationships with human immunodeficiency virus RNA blood levels. There was a 12% (95% CI, 2%-21%) increase in mortality risk per quartile of decreasing AVR (P = .02). Variations in retinal vascular caliber are associated with AIDS-specific factors and are markers for increased mortality risk. Relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that the vasculature is altered by known atherogenic effects of chronic HAART or the prolonged inflammatory state associated with AIDS.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2012; 153(3):434-444.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate United States Public Health Service (USPHS) guidelines for discontinuing anticytomegalovirus (CMV) therapy in patients with AIDS who have immune recovery and quiescent retinitis after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy. Cohort study of patients with CMV retinitis (Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS). Participants had CMV retinitis and CD4+ T-cell counts of 50 cells/μL or fewer enrolled from 1998 through 2009 who demonstrated sustained immune recovery (2 consecutive CD4+ T-cell counts of 100 cells/μL or more at least 6 months apart) and inactive retinitis. Participants were classified into 2 groups according to anti-CMV treatment after immune recover: (1) continued anti-CMV therapy and (2) discontinued therapy. We evaluated survival, visual acuity, and CMV retinitis activity; we used propensity scores to adjust for confounding factors for these analyses. Of 152 participants reviewed, 71 demonstrated immune recovery, 37 of whom discontinued therapy and 34 of whom continued therapy. At immune recovery, participants continuing therapy tended to be older (44 vs 40 years; P = .09), have bilateral retinitis (53% vs 32%; P = .10), and have lower CD4+ T-cell counts (148 vs 207 cells/μL; P < .001). There were no statistical differences in any of the clinical outcomes (death, retinitis progress, visual acuity, or incidence of bilateral retinitis). Both groups lost visual acuity during follow-up, on average 1.2 letters per year (P < .01). Discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery did not increase the risk of poor outcomes. These results support the current guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after achievement of sustained immune recovery.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2011; 152(4):628-637.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in US children and adolescents and can present with advanced fibrosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). No treatment has been established. To determine whether children with NAFLD would improve from therapeutic intervention with vitamin E or metformin. Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at 10 university clinical research centers in 173 patients (aged 8-17 years) with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD conducted between September 2005 and March 2010. Interventions Daily dosing of 800 IU of vitamin E (58 patients), 1000 mg of metformin (57 patients), or placebo (58 patients) for 96 weeks. The primary outcome was sustained reduction in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) defined as 50% or less of the baseline level or 40 U/L or less at visits every 12 weeks from 48 to 96 weeks of treatment. Improvements in histological features of NAFLD and resolution of NASH were secondary outcome measures. Sustained reduction in ALT level was similar to placebo (10/58; 17%; 95% CI, 9% to 29%) in both the vitamin E (15/58; 26%; 95% CI, 15% to 39%; P = .26) and metformin treatment groups (9/57; 16%; 95% CI, 7% to 28%; P = .83). The mean change in ALT level from baseline to 96 weeks was -35.2 U/L (95% CI, -56.9 to -13.5) with placebo vs -48.3 U/L (95% CI, -66.8 to -29.8) with vitamin E (P = .07) and -41.7 U/L (95% CI, -62.9 to -20.5) with metformin (P = .40). The mean change at 96 weeks in hepatocellular ballooning scores was 0.1 with placebo (95% CI, -0.2 to 0.3) vs -0.5 with vitamin E (95% CI, -0.8 to -0.3; P = .006) and -0.3 with metformin (95% CI, -0.6 to -0.0; P = .04); and in NAFLD activity score, -0.7 with placebo (95% CI, -1.3 to -0.2) vs -1.8 with vitamin E (95% CI, -2.4 to -1.2; P = .02) and -1.1 with metformin (95% CI, -1.7 to -0.5; P = .25). Among children with NASH, the proportion who resolved at 96 weeks was 28% with placebo (95% CI, 15% to 45%; 11/39) vs 58% with vitamin E (95% CI, 42% to 73%; 25/43; P = .006) and 41% with metformin (95% CI, 26% to 58%; 16/39; P = .23). Compared with placebo, neither therapy demonstrated significant improvements in other histological features. Neither vitamin E nor metformin was superior to placebo in attaining the primary outcome of sustained reduction in ALT level in patients with pediatric NAFLD. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00063635.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/2011; 305(16):1659-68. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of previously reported host genetics factors that influence cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis incidence, progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for mortality, retinitis progression, and retinal detachment in patients with CMV retinitis and AIDS in the era of HAART. Prospective, multicenter, observational study. Cox proportional hazards model based genetic association tests examined the influence of IL-10R1_S420L, CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-V64I, CCR5 promoter, and SDF-3'A polymorphisms among patients with mortality, retinitis progression, and retinal detachment. Participants were 203 European-American and 117 African-American patients with AIDS and CMV retinitis. European-American patients with the CCR5 +.P1.+ promoter haplotype showed increased risk for mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-3.40; P = .05). Although the same haplotype also trended for increased risk for mortality in African-American patients, the result was not significant (HR = 2.28; 95% CI: 0.93-5.60; P = .07). However, this haplotype was associated with faster retinitis progression in African Americans (HR = 5.22; 95% CI: 1.54-17.71; P = .007). Increased risk of retinitis progression was also evident for African-American patients with the SDF1-3'A variant (HR = 3.89; 95% CI: 1.42-10.60; P = .008). In addition, the SDF1-3'A variant increased the retinal detachment risk in this patient group (HR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.01-9.16; P = .05). Besides overall immune health, host genetic factors influence mortality, retinitis progression, and retinal detachment in patients with AIDS and CMV retinitis that are receiving HAART.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2011; 151(6):999-1006.e4. · 4.02 Impact Factor

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3k Citations
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Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Division of Liver Diseases
      Manhattan, NY, United States
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Jules Stein Eye Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • University of New Mexico
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1990–2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States