Mark L Van Natta

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (68)727.36 Total impact

  • The Lancet 07/2015; 386(9988). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61200-4 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the long-term outcomes of patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and AIDS in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Prospective, observational cohort study. Patients with AIDS and CMV retinitis. Immune recovery, defined as a CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/μl for ≥3 months. Mortality, visual impairment (visual acuity <20/40), and blindness (visual acuity ≤20/200) on logarithmic visual acuity charts and loss of visual field on quantitative Goldmann perimetry. Patients without immune recovery had a mortality of 44.4/100 person-years (PYs) and a median survival of 13.5 months after the diagnosis of CMV retinitis, whereas those with immune recovery had a mortality of 2.7/100 PYs (P < 0.001) and an estimated median survival of 27.0 years after the diagnosis of CMV retinitis. The rates of bilateral visual impairment and blindness were 0.9 and 0.4/100 PYs, respectively, and were similar between those with and without immune recovery. Among those with immune recovery, the rate of visual field loss was approximately 1% of the normal field per year, whereas among those without immune recovery it was approximately 7% of the normal field per year. Among persons with CMV retinitis and AIDS, if there is immune recovery, long-term survival is likely, whereas if there is no immune recovery, the mortality rate is substantial. Although higher than the rates in the population not infected by human immunodeficiency virus, the rates of bilateral visual impairment and blindness are low, especially when compared with rates in the era before modern antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ophthalmology 04/2015; 122(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.02.033 · 6.17 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-507-S-508. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)31699-1 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology 04/2015; 62:S271. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(15)30169-0 · 10.40 Impact Factor
  • K.V. Kowdley · L.A. Wilson · M.L. Van Natta · R.K. Pai · A.J. Sanyal
    Journal of Hepatology 04/2015; 62:S268. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(15)30164-1 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    Douglas A Jabs · Mark L Van Natta · Efe Sezgin · Jeong Won Pak · Ronald Danis
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence of intermediate-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cross sectional study of patients with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS METHODS: Intermediate-stage AMD was determined from enrollment retinal photographs by graders at a centralized Reading Center, using the Age-Related Eye Disease Study grading system. Graders were masked as to clinical data. Of 1825 participants with AIDS and no ocular opportunistic infections, 9.9% had intermediate-stage AMD. Risk factors included age, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6, 2.3, P<0.001) for every decade of age; the prevalence of AMD ranged from 4.0% for participants 30-39 years old to 24.3% for participants >60 years old. Other risk factors included the HIV risk groups of injection drug use (OR= 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9, P<0.001) or heterosexual contact (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.8, P=0.001). Compared with the HIV-uninfected population in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study, there was an approximate 4-fold increased age-adjusted prevalence of intermediate-stage AMD. Patients with AIDS have an increased age-adjusted prevalence of intermediate-stage AMD compared with that found in a non-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected cohort evaluated with similar methods. This increased prevalence is consistent with the increased prevalence of other age-related diseases in antiretroviral-treated, immune-restored, HIV-infected persons when compared to non-HIV-infected persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2015; 159(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2015.01.037 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bile acid derivative 6-ethylchenodeoxycholic acid (obeticholic acid) is a potent activator of the farnesoid X nuclear receptor that reduces liver fat and fibrosis in animal models of fatty liver disease. We assessed the efficacy of obeticholic acid in adult patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. We did a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, randomised clinical trial at medical centres in the USA in patients with non-cirrhotic, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis to assess treatment with obeticholic acid given orally (25 mg daily) or placebo for 72 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 using a computer-generated, centrally administered procedure, stratified by clinical centre and diabetes status. The primary outcome measure was improvement in centrally scored liver histology defined as a decrease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score by at least 2 points without worsening of fibrosis from baseline to the end of treatment. A planned interim analysis of change in alanine aminotransferase at 24 weeks undertaken before end-of-treatment (72 weeks) biopsies supported the decision to continue the trial (relative change in alanine aminotransferase -24%, 95% CI -45 to -3). A planned interim analysis of the primary outcome showed improved efficacy of obeticholic acid (p=0·0024) and supported a decision not to do end-of-treatment biopsies and end treatment early in 64 patients, but to continue the trial to obtain the 24-week post-treatment measures. Analyses were done by intention-to-treat. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01265498. Between March 16, 2011, and Dec 3, 2012, 141 patients were randomly assigned to receive obeticholic acid and 142 to placebo. 50 (45%) of 110 patients in the obeticholic acid group who were meant to have biopsies at baseline and 72 weeks had improved liver histology compared with 23 (21%) of 109 such patients in the placebo group (relative risk 1·9, 95% CI 1·3 to 2·8; p=0·0002). 33 (23%) of 141 patients in the obeticholic acid developed pruritus compared with nine (6%) of 142 in the placebo group. Obeticholic acid improved the histological features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, but its long-term benefits and safety need further clarification. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Intercept Pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 11/2014; 385(9972). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61933-4 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background As genome-wide sequence analyses for complex human disease determinants are expanding, it is increasingly necessary to develop strategies to promote discovery and validation of potential disease-gene associations. Findings Here we present a dynamic web-based platform – GWATCH – that automates and facilitates four steps in genetic epidemiological discovery: 1) Rapid gene association search and discovery analysis of large genome-wide datasets; 2) Expanded visual display of gene associations for genome-wide variants (SNPs, indels, CNVs), including Manhattan plots, 2D and 3D snapshots of any gene region, and a dynamic genome browser illustrating gene association chromosomal regions; 3) Real-time validation/replication of candidate or putative genes suggested from other sources, limiting Bonferroni genome-wide association study (GWAS) penalties; 4) Open data release and sharing by eliminating privacy constraints (The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) Institutional Review Board (IRB), informed consent, The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 etc.) on unabridged results, which allows for open access comparative and meta-analysis. Conclusions GWATCH is suitable for both GWAS and whole genome sequence association datasets. We illustrate the utility of GWATCH with three large genome-wide association studies for HIV-AIDS resistance genes screened in large multicenter cohorts; however, association datasets from any study can be uploaded and analyzed by GWATCH.
    11/2014; 3(1):18. DOI:10.1186/2047-217X-3-18
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods:A case-control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group.357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of the macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence and incidence odds ratios. Results:The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis vs. 1.8 % (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis vs. 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] for prevalence was 9.8, [5.5 - 17.5] (p<0.01). The crude OR [95% CI] for incidence was 9.4, [3.2 - 27.9] (p<0.01). Conclusions: A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-616. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)62227-7 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3) is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28- and CD57+CD28-), and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Changes in the peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio are also reflective of changes in gut mucosa, but not in lymph nodes. In a longitudinal study, individuals who initiated ART within six months of infection had greater CD4/CD8 ratio increase compared to later initiators (>2 years). After controlling for age, gender, ART duration, nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ratio during otherwise effective ART is associated with increased innate and adaptive immune activation, an immunosenescent phenotype, and higher risk of morbidity/mortality. This ratio may prove useful in monitoring response to ART and could identify a unique subset of individuals needed of novel therapeutic interventions.
    PLoS Pathogens 05/2014; 10(5):e1004078. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004078 · 8.06 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-608. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)62200-9 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While inflammation predicts mortality in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the prognostic significance of gut barrier dysfunction and phenotypic T-cell markers remains unclear. We assessed immunologic predictors of mortality in a case-control study within the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA), using conditional logistic regression. Sixty-four case patients who died within 12 months of treatment-mediated viral suppression were each matched to 2 control individuals (total number of controls, 128) by duration of antiretroviral therapy-mediated viral suppression, nadir CD4(+) T-cell count, age, sex, and prior cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. A similar secondary analysis was conducted in the SCOPE cohort, which had participants with less advanced immunodeficiency. Plasma gut epithelial barrier integrity markers (intestinal fatty acid binding protein and zonulin-1 levels), soluble CD14 level, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, and D-dimer level all strongly predicted mortality, even after adjustment for proximal CD4(+) T-cell count (all P ≤ .001). A higher percentage of CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) cells in the CD8(+) T-cell population was a predictor of mortality before (P = .031) but not after (P = .10) adjustment for proximal CD4(+) T-cell count. Frequencies of senescent (defined as CD28(-)CD57(+) cells), exhausted (defined as PD1(+) cells), naive, and CMV-specific T cells did not predict mortality. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction, innate immune activation, inflammation, and coagulation-but not T-cell activation, senescence, and exhaustion-independently predict mortality in individuals with treated HIV infection with a history of AIDS and are viable targets for interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: [email protected] /* */
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2014; 210(8). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu238 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Unlike cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and aging, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreases the proportion of CD28−CD8+ T cells expressing CD57. Whether this abnormality predicts mortality in treated HIV infection and can be reversed by early antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains unknown. Methods. We sampled recently HIV-infected individuals (<6 months) and HIV-uninfected controls and compared longitudinal changes in the proportion of CD28−CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 between those who initiated ART early (<6 months) vs later (≥2 years). We also assessed the relationship between this phenotype and mortality in a nested case-control study of ART-suppressed chronically infected individuals. Results. Compared to HIV-uninfected controls (n = 15), individuals who were recently infected with HIV had lower proportions of CD28−CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 (P < .001), and these proportions increased during ART. The early ART group (n = 33) achieved normal levels, whereas the later ART group (n = 30) continued to have lower levels than HIV-uninfected controls (P = .02). Among 141 ART-suppressed participants in the SOCA study, those in the lowest quartile of CD28−CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 had 5-fold higher odds of mortality than those in the highest quartile (95% CI, 1.6–15.9, P = .007). Conclusions. Abnormally low proportions of CD28−CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 predict increased mortality during treated HIV infection and may be reversed with early ART initiation.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 210(3). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu109 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Gastroparesis remains a challenging syndrome to manage, with few effective treatments and a lack of rigorously controlled trials. Tricyclic antidepressants are often used to treat refractory symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Evidence from well-designed studies for this use is lacking. OBJECTIVE To determine whether treatment with nortriptyline results in symptomatic improvement in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The NORIG (Nortriptyline for Idiopathic Gastroparesis) trial, a 15-week multicenter, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-masked, randomized clinical trial from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (GpCRC), comparing nortriptyline with placebo for symptomatic relief in idiopathic gastroparesis. One hundred thirty patients with idiopathic gastroparesis were enrolled between March 2009 and June 2012 at 7 US academic medical centers. Patient follow-up was completed in October 2012. Inclusion criteria included delayed gastric emptying and moderate to severe symptom scores using the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI). INTERVENTIONS Nortriptyline vs placebo. Study drug dose was increased at 3-week intervals (10, 25, 50, 75 mg) up to 75 mg at 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure of symptomatic improvement was a decrease from the patient's baseline GCSI score of at least 50% on 2 consecutive 3-week GCSI assessments during 15 weeks of treatment. RESULTS The primary symptomatic improvement outcome did not differ between 65 patients randomized to nortriptyline vs 65 patients randomized to placebo: 15 (23% [95% CI, 14%-35%]) in the nortriptyline group vs 14 (21% [95% CI, 12%-34%]) in the placebo group (P = .86). Treatment was stopped more often in the nortriptyline group (19 [29% {95% CI, 19%-42%}]) than in the placebo group (6 [9%] {95% CI, 3%-19%}]) (P = .007), but numbers of adverse events were not different (27 [95% CI, 18-39] vs 28 [95% CI, 19-40]) (P = .89). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, the use of nortriptyline compared with placebo for 15 weeks did not result in improvement in overall symptoms. These findings do not support the use of nortriptyline for idiopathic gastroparesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00765895.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 12/2013; 310(24):2640-9. DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.282833 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) penetrate the central nervous system. HIV-associated neuroretinal disorder (HIV-NRD), a visual impairment of reduced contrast sensitivity and reading ability, is associated with cytokine dysregulation and genetic polymorphisms in the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) signaling pathway. We investigated associations between HCV and HIV-NRD and between HCV and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-10 receptor 1 (IL10R1) gene. Methods. Logistic and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze risk factors for HIV-NRD in 1576 HIV-positive patients who did not have an ocular opportunistic infection at enrollment. Median follow-up was 4.9 years (interquartile range, 2.4-8.8 years). Four IL10R1 SNPs were examined in a subset of 902 patients. Results. The group included 290 patients with chronic HCV infection, 74 with prior infection, and 1212 with no HCV markers. There were 244 prevalent cases of HIV-NRD and 263 incident cases (rate = 3.9/100 person-years). In models adjusted for demographics, HIV treatment and status, liver function, and immune status, both the prevalence and incidence of HIV-NRD were significantly higher in patients with chronic HCV infection (odds ratio = 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.31 and hazard ratio = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.13-2.34, respectively), compared to patients with no HCV markers. Chronic HCV was associated with rs2228055 and 2 additional IL-10R1 SNPs expected to reduce IL-10 signaling. HIV-NRD was not significantly associated with these SNPs. Conclusions. HCV is a possible risk factor for HIV-NRD. Genetic analysis suggests that alterations in the IL-10 signaling pathway may increase susceptibility to HIV-NRD and HCV infection. Inflammation may link HCV and HIV-NRD.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2013; 57(11). DOI:10.1093/cid/cit550 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common cause of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations and chronic liver disease, but it is unclear how well ALT elevations reflect the liver injury. AimTo assess how well changes in ALT elevations reflect improvements in liver histology in response to vitamin E therapy. Methods The vitamin E and placebo arms of the Pioglitazone vs. Vitamin E vs. Placebo in Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (PIVENS) trial were reassessed for associations among changes in ALT levels, body weight and liver histology. An ALT response was defined as a decrease to ≤40 U/L and by ≥30% of baseline. Liver biopsies taken before and after treatment were scored for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity (NAS) and fibrosis. ResultsALT responses were more frequent among vitamin E (48%) than placebo (16%) recipients (P < 0.001). Among vitamin E recipients, ALT responses were associated with decreases in NAS (P < 0.001), but not fibrosis scores (P = 0.34), whereas among placebo recipients, ALT responses were associated with significant decreases in both (P < 0.05). Weight loss (≥2 kg) was also associated with ALT response (P < 0.001), improvements in NAS (P < 0.001) and fibrosis (P < 0.02), but vitamin E had an added effect both with and without weight loss. Weight gain (≥2 kg) was associated with lack of ALT response and worsening NAS and fibrosis scores in patients not on vitamin E. Conclusions Decrease of ALT levels to normal in patients with NASH is usually associated with improved histological activity. Management should stress the value of weight loss and strongly discourage weight gain. Vitamin E can improve both ALT levels and histology with and without weight loss. Clinical Trial Number: NCT00063622.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 07/2013; 38(2). DOI:10.1111/apt.12352 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is unclear whether HIV-related factors modify risk of hypertension (HTN). In a cohort of patients with AIDS, the authors determined HTN incidence and prevalence and assessed associated traditional, HIV-specific, and retinal vasculature factors.
    Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care 06/2013; 12(5):325-333. DOI:10.1177/2325957413491432
  • Gastroenterology 05/2013; 144(5):S-1. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(13)60003-7 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Douglas A Jabs · Alka Ahuja · Mark Van Natta · J P Dunn · Steven Yeh
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To describe the outcomes of different treatment approaches for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 250 patients with CMV retinitis and a CD4+ T-cell count <100 cells/μl (n = 221) at enrollment or incident retinitis (n = 29) during cohort follow-up. METHODS: The effects of systemic therapy (vs. intraocular therapy only) on systemic outcomes and the effect of intraocular therapies (ganciclovir implants, intravitreal injections) on ocular outcomes were evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality, CMV dissemination, retinitis progression, and treatment side effects. RESULTS: Regimens containing systemic anti-CMV therapy were associated with a 50% reduction in mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.7; P = 0.006), a 90% reduction in new visceral CMV disease (adjusted HR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.04-0.4; P = 0.004), and among those with unilateral CMV retinitis at presentation, an 80% reduction in second eye disease (adjusted HR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.5; P = 0.0005) when compared with those using only intraocular therapy (implants or injections). Compared with systemic treatment only, regimens containing intravitreal injections had greater rates of retinitis progression (adjusted HR, 3.4; P = 0.004) and greater visual field loss (for loss of one half of the normal field, adjusted HR, 5.5; P < 0.01). Intravitreal implants were not significantly better than systemic therapy (adjusted HR for progression, 0.5; P = 0.26; adjusted HR for loss of one half of the visual field, 0.5; P = 0.45), but the sample size was small. Hematologic and renal side effect rates were similar between those groups with and without systemic anti-CMV therapy. The rate of endophthalmitis was 0.017 per eye-year (EY) (95% CI, 0.006-0.05) among those treated with intravitreal injections and 0.01 per EY (95% CI, 0.002-0.04) among those treated with an implant. CONCLUSIONS: In the HAART era, systemic anti-CMV therapy, while there is immune compromise, seems to provide benefits in terms of longer survival and decreased CMV dissemination. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
    Ophthalmology 02/2013; 120(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.11.023 · 6.17 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
727.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002–2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Division of Liver Diseases
      Manhattan, NY, United States
  • 2010
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States