[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to add to prospective data on the possible inverse association between coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk, already supported by several case-control studies. Coffee and tea consumption and possible confounding factors were assessed among 42,270 women aged 30-49 years at enrollment in 1991-1992 in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study, with complete follow-up through 2009. We calculated caffeine intake per day; Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate multivariable relative risks (mRR) for endometrial cancer with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). One hundred forty-four endometrial cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. Women with and without endometrial cancer had a similar mean daily coffee consumption (549 vs. 547 g), tea consumption (104 vs. 115 g), and caffeine intake (405 vs. 406 mg). Compared to those consuming <2 cups of coffee per day, women consuming >3 cups had a mRR of 1.56 (95% CI: 0.94-2.59; P for trend = 0.17). Compared with the lowest tertile of caffeine intake, the highest tertile had a mRR of 1.32 (95% CI: 0.87-1.99; P for trend = 0.27). Our study provides no convincing evidence of an association between coffee consumption, tea consumption, or caffeine intake and endometrial cancer risk among middle-aged women.
Nutrition and Cancer 09/2014; · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential associations of diabetes mellitus with malignant neoplasms including liver cancer have become a great concern from both clinical and preventive perspectives. Although sufficient evidence for a positive association between diabetes and liver cancer already exists, it would be informative to summarize up-to-date epidemiologic data in Japan.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2014; · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose—Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of inconsistencies in socioeconomic status on cardiovascular health. In particular, no studies have been reported in Asian countries, including Japan, which is thought to have high socioeconomic status inconsistency among women.
Methods—We examined the effect of status inconsistency between education level and occupation on stroke risk in a prospective 20-year study of 14 742 middle-aged Japanese women included in the prospective Japan Public Health Centerbased (JPHC) Study Cohort I in 1990. Status inconsistency between education level and occupation was determined
(qualified, overqualified, and underqualified), and the association with risk of stroke was examined. Cox proportional regression analysis was used to determine hazard ratios, which were adjusted for age, marital status, and geographical area.
Results—Adjusted hazard ratio for stroke in overqualified compared with qualified women was 2.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.13–3.78). Adjusted hazard ratios for stroke among highly educated manual workers and workers in service industry were 3.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.54–7.84) and 3.21 (95% confidence interval, 1.49–6.90), respectively,
when compared with highly educated professionals/managers.
Conclusions—High academic qualifications without an appropriate job could be a risk factor for stroke among Japanese women. Our result suggests that status inconsistency could be a potential explanation for the increased stroke risk among highly educated women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The present study examined the prevalence of diabetes in Japan during the late 1990s and early 2000s using the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Diabetes cohort. We also investigated the distributions of HbA1c values in noncompliant diabetic participants in the cohort.Methods: A total of 28 183 registered inhabitants aged 46-75 years from 10 public health center areas were included in the initial survey. The 5-year follow-up survey included 20 129 participants. The prevalence of diabetes was estimated using both a self-reported questionnaire and laboratory measurements. Among the participants who reported the presence of diabetes on the questionnaire (self-reported diabetes), the distributions of HbA1c values were described according to their treatment status.Results: The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes in 55- to 74-year-old adults was 8.2% at the initial survey and 10.6% at the 5-year follow-up. At the initial survey, among participants with self-reported diabetes, the mean HbA1c values in the participants who had never and who had previously received diabetes treatment were 7.01% (standard deviation [SD] 1.56%) and 6.56% (SD 1.46%), respectively. Approximately 15% of the participants who had self-reported diabetes but had never received diabetes treatment had an HbA1c ≥ 8.4%.Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes increased in the JPHC cohort between the late 1990s and early 2000s. A certain proportion of participants who were aware of their diabetes but were not currently receiving treatment had poor diabetic control. Efforts to promote continuous medical attendance for diabetes care may be necessary.
Journal of Epidemiology 07/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No large population-based prospective study has investigated the risks of suicide and death by other externally caused injuries (ECIs) among stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to examine whether stroke increases the risks of suicide and ECI deaths.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Despite evidence that neighbourhood conditions affect residents’ health, no prospective studies of the association between neighbourhood socio-demographic factors and all-cause mortality have been conducted in non-Western societies. Thus, we examined the effects of areal deprivation and population density on all-cause mortality in Japan.
Methods: We employed census and survival data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, Cohort I (n = 37,455), consisting of middle-aged residents (40 to 59 years at the baseline in 1990) living in four public health centre districts. Data spanned between 1990 and 2010. A multilevel parametric proportional-hazard regression model was applied to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality by two census-based areal variables —areal deprivation index and population density—as well as individualistic variables such as socioeconomic status and various risk factors.
Results: We found that areal deprivation and population density had moderate associations with all-cause mortality at the neighbourhood level based on the survival data with 21 years of follow-ups. Even when controlling for individualistic socioeconomic status and behavioural factors, the HRs of the two areal factors (using quartile categorical variables) significantly predicted mortality. Further, this analysis indicated an interaction effect of the two factors: areal deprivation prominently affects the health of residents in neighbourhoods with high population density.
Conclusions: We confirmed that neighbourhood socio-demographic factors are significant predictors of all-cause death in Japanese non-metropolitan settings. Although further study is needed to clarify the cause-effect relationship of this association, the present findings suggest that health promotion policies should consider health disparities between neighbourhoods and possibly direct interventions towards reducing mortality in densely populated and highly deprived neighbourhoods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice consumption has been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but its relation with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is limited.
We examined the association between rice consumption and risk of CVD incidence and mortality in a Japanese population.
This was a prospective study in 91,223 Japanese men and women aged 40-69 y in whom rice consumption was determined and updated from 3 self-administered food-frequency questionnaires, each 5 y apart. Follow-up for incidence was from 1990 to 2009 in cohort I and 1993 to 2007 in cohort II and for mortality was from 1990 to 2009 in cohort I and 1993-2009 in cohort II. HRs and 95% CIs of CVD incidence and mortality were calculated according to quintiles of cumulative average rice consumption.
In 15-18 y of follow-up, we ascertained 4395 incident cases of stroke, 1088 incident cases of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and 2705 deaths from CVD. Rice consumption was not associated with risk of incident stroke or IHD; the multivariable HR (95% CI) in the highest compared with lowest rice consumption quintiles was 1.01 (0.90, 1.14) for total stroke and 1.08 (0.84, 1.38) for IHD. Similarly, there was no association between rice consumption and risk of mortality from CVD; the HR (95% CI) for mortality from total CVD was 0.97 (0.84, 1.13). There were no interactions with sex or effect modifications by body mass index for any endpoint.
Rice consumption is not associated with risk of CVD morbidity or mortality.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/2014; · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest.
We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged ≥45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan-accounting for ∼71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI = 1.37-1.51) and 1.48-fold (1.38-1.58) elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI = 14.3%-17.2%) and 3.3% (2.6%-4.0%) of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged ≥45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of ∼1,575,500 (95% CI = 1,398,000-1,744,700). Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged ≥45 y.
Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged ≥45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are implemented. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
PLoS Medicine 04/2014; 11(4):e1001631. · 15.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between different coping styles and suicidal behavior. It is unknown whether there is any prospective association between coping behaviors and suicide in the general population.
The study population consisted of participants of the Japanese Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC Study). In the 10-year follow-up questionnaire, subjects aged 50-79 were asked how they handle daily problems. Coping behaviors were used to determine two coping strategies (approach coping and avoidance coping). Out of 99 439 subjects that returned the 10-year follow-up questionnaire, 70 213 subjects provided complete answers on coping and were included in our analyses. Cox regression models, adjusted for confounders, were used to determine the risk of committing suicide according to coping style. Mean follow-up time was 8.8 years.
Two coping behaviors were significantly associated with suicide over time: planning (HR=0.64, 95% CI, 0.42, 0.98), and self-blame (HR=2.15, 95% CI, 1.26, 3.68). Of the coping strategies, only the avoidance coping strategy was significantly associated with suicide (HR=2.51, 95% CI, 1.27, 4.95).
For the first time two coping behaviors and one coping strategy have been shown to have a significant prospective association with suicide in a general population.
Annals of epidemiology 03/2014; · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed epidemiological studies of soy intake and breast cancer among Japanese women. This report is one among a series of articles by our research group, which is evaluating the existing evidence concerning the association between health-related lifestyles and cancer.
Original data were obtained from MEDLINE searches using PubMed or from searches of the Ichushi database, complemented with manual searches. Evaluation of associations was based on the strength of evidence and the magnitude of association, together with biological plausibility.
Five cohort studies and six case-control studies were identified. Among the cohort studies, two studies observed that total soy intake (in terms of total amounts of soy foods or soy isoflavones) was associated with a moderate (0.5 ≤ relative risk ≤ 0.67 with statistical significance) or strong (relative risk ≤ 0.5 with statistical significance) risk reduction of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Among the case-control studies, two studies reported a weak (0.67 ≤ odds ratio ≤ 1.5 with statistical significance or 0.5 ≤ odds ratio ≤ 0.67 without statistical significance) inverse association between total soy intake and the risk of breast cancer. In the former, this association was observed in all women combined-premenopausal and postmenopausal women-but in the latter, the association was confined to postmenopausal women. The associations of intakes of individual soy foods with the risk of breast cancer were generally null. There is some evidence that supports the biological plausibility of a protective effect of isoflavones on breast cancer risk.
We conclude that soy intake possibly decreases the risk of breast cancer among Japanese women.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2014; · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection is considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in western countries. However, evidence of it being a risk for Japanese is very limited because of a lower risk of coronary heart disease than for western people. The aim of this study was to examine further the association between C. pneumoniae infection and risk of coronary heart disease in Japanese.
We conducted a nested case–control study of 49,011 Japanese men and women who participated in The Japan Public Health Center (JPHC) study. By the end of 2004, 196 cases of coronary heart disease and 155 cases of myocardial infarction had been documented among the participants. Two controls were selected for each case. For these subjects, we examined the association between serum anti C. pneumoniae IgA and IgG on the one hand and risk of coronary heart disease on the other.
Concentration of C. pneumoniae IgA antibody was positively associated with risk of coronary heart disease and more specifically myocardial infarction. Subjects with the highest quartile of IgA antibody showed 2.29 (95%CI, 1.21–4.33) times higher risk of coronary heart disease and 2.58 (95%CI, 1.29–5.19) times higher risk of myocardial infarction than those with lowest quartile. However, no such association was detected for IgG antibody.
C. pneumoniae infection was found to be positively associated with risk of coronary heart disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many developed countries, socioeconomic status is associated with cancer incidence and survival. However, research in Japan is sparse. We examined the association between neighborhood deprivation based on the Japanese Deprivation Index and the risk of incidence, mortality and survival from total and major cancers in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106729. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese diets contain a relatively high amount of carbohydrates, and its high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load may raise the risk of diabetes in the Japanese population. The current study evaluated the associations between the dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population based cohort in Japan.
We observed 27,769 men and 36,864 women (45-75 y) who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. The dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire. The development of diabetes was reported in a questionnaire administered five years later, and the associations were analyzed using logistic regression after controlling for age, area, total energy intake, smoking status, family history of diabetes, physical activity, hypertension, BMI, alcohol intake, magnesium, calcium, dietary fiber and coffee intake, and occupation.
The dietary glycemic load was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among women: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.13-2.04; P-trend = 0.01). The association was implied to be stronger among women with BMI < 25 than the women with BMI >= 25. The dietary glycemic index was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among men with a high intake of total fat: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.46 (95% CI, 0.94-2.28; P-trend = 0.04). Among women with a high total fat intake, those in the first and second quartiles of the dietary glycemic index had a significant reduced risk of diabetes, compared with those in the first quartile who had a lower total fat level (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.59 with 95% CI, 0.37-0.94, and odds ratio = 0.63 with 95% CI, 0.40-0.998 respectively).
The population-based cohort study in Japan indicated that diets with a high dietary glycemic load increase the risk of type 2 diabetes among women. Total fat intake may modify the association between the dietary glycemic index and the risk of type 2 diabetes among men and women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that parity is associated with oral health problems such as tooth loss and dental caries. In Japan, however, no studies have examined the association. The purpose of this study was to determine whether parity is related to dentition status, including the number of teeth present, dental caries and filled teeth, and the posterior occlusion, in a Japanese population by comparing women with men.
A total of 1,211 subjects, who participated both in the Japan Public Health Center-Based (JPHC) Study Cohort I in 1990 and the dental survey in 2005, were used for the study. Information on parity or number of children was collected from a self-completed questionnaire administered in 1990 for the JPHC Study Cohort I, and health behaviors and clinical dentition status were obtained from the dental survey in 2005. The association between parity or number of children and dentition status was analyzed, by both unadjusted-for and adjusted-for socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, using a generalized linear regression model.
Parity is significantly related to the number of teeth present and n-FTUs (Functional Tooth Units of natural teeth), regardless of socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, in female subjects. The values of these variables had a significantly decreasing trend with the rise of parity: numbers of teeth present (p for trend = 0.046) and n-FTUs (p for trend = 0.026). No relationships between the number of children and dentition status were found in male subjects.
Higher-parity women are more likely to lose teeth, especially posterior occluding relations. These results suggest that measures to narrow the discrepancy by parity should be taken for promoting women's oral health. Delivery of appropriate information and messages to pregnant women as well as enlightenment of oral health professionals about dental management of pregnant women may be an effective strategy.
BMC Public Health 10/2013; 13(1):993. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although dietary patterns have been linked to depression, a frequently observed precondition for suicide, no study has yet examined the association between dietary patterns and suicide risk.
To prospectively investigate the association between dietary patterns and death from suicide.
Participants were 40 752 men and 48 285 women who took part in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (1995-1998). Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of suicide from the fourth year of follow-up to December 2005 were calculated.
Among both men and women, a 'prudent' dietary pattern characterised by a high intake of vegetables, fruits, potatoes, soy products, mushrooms, seaweed and fish was associated with a decreased risk of suicide. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of suicide for the highest v. lowest quartiles of the dietary pattern score was 0.46 (95% CI 0.28-0.75) (P for trend, 0.005). Other dietary patterns (Westernised and traditional Japanese) were not associated with suicide risk.
Our findings suggest that a prudent dietary pattern may be associated with a decreased risk of death from suicide.
The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 10/2013; · 6.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence for the impact of fruit and vegetable intake on breast cancer risk among the Japanese populations is scarce.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk among 47,289 Japanese women.
The study was conducted under a population-based prospective cohort design. Dietary assessment was performed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs).
During an average of 10.2 years of follow-up, 452 cases of breast cancer were newly diagnosed. No association with breast cancer risk was seen for intake of total fruits and vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, green-leaf vegetables, yellow vegetables, or tomato products in overall or postmenopausal women. Cruciferous vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant decrease in risk of premenopausal breast cancer [multivariable-RRQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.64 (95 % CI = 0.38-1.10; p trend = .046)] and showed a marginally inverse association with ER+ PR+ tumors [RRper 100 g increment = 0.64 (95 % CI = 0.41-1.00)]. In contrast, positive associations were seen between intake of total fruits and citrus fruits and breast cancer risk in overall and premenopausal women. However, these associations for fruit were all attenuated with additional adjustment for vitamin C intake.
Our results suggest an overall null association between total fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk. Intake of cruciferous vegetable showed a statistically significant association with a decreased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.
Cancer Causes and Control 10/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between body mass index and mortality from overall cardiovascular disease and specific subtypes of cardiovascular disease in east and south Asians.
Pooled analyses of 20 prospective cohorts in Asia, including data from 835 082 east Asians and 289 815 south Asians. Cohorts were identified through a systematic search of the literature in early 2008, followed by a survey that was sent to each cohort to assess data availability.
General populations in east Asia (China, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and Korea) and south Asia (India and Bangladesh).
1 124 897 men and women (mean age 53.4 years at baseline).
Risk of death from overall cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and (in east Asians only) stroke subtypes.
49 184 cardiovascular deaths (40 791 in east Asians and 8393 in south Asians) were identified during a mean follow-up of 9.7 years. East Asians with a body mass index of 25 or above had a raised risk of death from overall cardiovascular disease, compared with the reference range of body mass index (values 22.5-24.9; hazard ratio 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.15), 1.27 (1.20 to 1.35), 1.59 (1.43 to 1.76), 1.74 (1.47 to 2.06), and 1.97 (1.44 to 2.71) for body mass index ranges 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, 30.0-32.4, 32.5-34.9, and 35.0-50.0, respectively). This association was similar for risk of death from coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke; for haemorrhagic stroke, the risk of death was higher at body mass index values of 27.5 and above. Elevated risk of death from cardiovascular disease was also observed at lower categories of body mass index (hazard ratio 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.39) and 2.16 (1.37 to 3.40) for body mass index ranges 15.0-17.4 and <15.0, respectively), compared with the reference range. In south Asians, the association between body mass index and mortality from cardiovascular disease was less pronounced than that in east Asians. South Asians had an increased risk of death observed for coronary heart disease only in individuals with a body mass index greater than 35 (hazard ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.12).
Body mass index shows a U shaped association with death from overall cardiovascular disease among east Asians: increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease is observed at lower and higher ranges of body mass index. A high body mass index is a risk factor for mortality from overall cardiovascular disease and for specific diseases, including coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and haemorrhagic stroke in east Asians. Higher body mass index is a weak risk factor for mortality from cardiovascular disease in south Asians.