[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that a mutation in the 5' untranslated region of Diaphanous homolog 3 (DIAPH3) results in 2 to 3-fold overexpression of the gene, leading to a form of delayed onset, progressive human deafness known as AUNA1 (auditory neuropathy, nonsyndromic, autosomal dominant, 1). To investigate the mechanism of deafness, we generated two lines of transgenic mice overexpressing Diap3, the murine ortholog of DIAPH3, on an FVB/NJ background. Line 771 exhibits a relatively mild 20 dB hearing loss at 12 kHz at 4 and 8 weeks of age, progressing to 40 dB and 60 dB losses at 16 and 24 weeks, respectively, at 12 and 24 kHz. Line 924 shows no hearing loss at 4 or 8 weeks, but manifests 35 and 50 dB threshold shifts at 16 and 24 weeks, respectively, at both 12 and 24 kHz. Notably, mice from the two transgenic lines retain distortion product otoacoustic emissions, indicative of normal cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) function despite elevation of auditory thresholds. Scanning electron microscopy of the organ of Corti demonstrates striking anomalies of the inner hair cell (IHC) stereocilia, while OHCs are essentially intact. Over time, IHCs of both lines develop elongated stereocilia that appear fused with neighboring stereocilia, in parallel to the time course of hearing loss in each line. Furthermore, we observe significant reduction in the number of IHC ribbon synapses over 24 weeks in both lines, although this reduction does not correlate temporally with onset and progression of hearing loss or stereociliary anomalies. In summary, overexpression of wild-type Diap3 in two lines of transgenic mice results in hearing loss that recapitulates human AUNA1 deafness. These findings suggest an essential role of Diap3 in regulating assembly and/or maintenance of actin filaments in IHC stereocilia, as well as a potential role at the IHC ribbon synapse.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56520. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Activating mutations of the TSH receptor (TSHR) are rare, with few reported cases of long-term follow-up.Case:We present a follow-up report on a patient with neonatal thyrotoxicosis known to have a rare activating mutation of the TSHR, a heterozygous substitution in exon 10 (p.Ile568Thr). Initial treatment included total thyroidectomy at age 2 years, resulting in iatrogenic hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism. The patient was treated with levothyroxine replacement to maintain TSH levels within normal range, as well as calcitriol and calcium carbonate to treat postsurgical hypoparathyroidism. However, 4 years later, while euthyroid, he developed a palpable 1-cm midline neck mass.Methods and Results:Functional imaging with 123-I thyroid scan demonstrated active thyroid tissue within the thyroglossal duct remnant and in the tracheoesophageal groove. Surgical removal of the neck mass revealed cytologically bland thyroid follicular cells.Conclusion:These findings suggest that even after total thyroidectomy, patients with TSHR-activating mutations are at risk to develop significant quantities of functional thyroid tissue related to the hypertrophy of residual foci in the thyroid bed and in the thyroglossal duct remnant. These residual foci may enlarge and secrete thyroid hormones autonomously, decreasing the patient's levothyroxine requirement. Surveillance with serial physical examination and biochemical monitoring is recommended; suspicious findings can be further evaluated with functional thyroid imaging (99-m technetium or radioiodine 123-I thyroid scans) to adequately identify residual foci of thyroid tissue, which may require further treatment with surgical excision or radioablation.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 12/2012; · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optic atrophy (OA) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are key abnormalities in several syndromes, including the recessively inherited Wolfram syndrome, caused by mutations in WFS1. In contrast, the association of autosomal dominant OA and SNHL without other phenotypic abnormalities is rare, and almost exclusively attributed to mutations in the Optic Atrophy-1 gene (OPA1), most commonly the p.R445H mutation. We present eight probands and their families from the US, Sweden, and UK with OA and SNHL, whom we analyzed for mutations in OPA1 and WFS1. Among these families, we found three heterozygous missense mutations in WFS1 segregating with OA and SNHL: p.A684V (six families), and two novel mutations, p.G780S and p.D797Y, all involving evolutionarily conserved amino acids and absent from 298 control chromosomes. Importantly, none of these families harbored the OPA1 p.R445H mutation. No mitochondrial DNA deletions were detected in muscle from one p.A684V patient analyzed. Finally, wolframin p.A684V mutant ectopically expressed in HEK cells showed reduced protein levels compared to wild-type wolframin, strongly indicating that the mutation is disease-causing. Our data support OA and SNHL as a phenotype caused by dominant mutations in WFS1 in these additional eight families. Importantly, our data provide the first evidence that a single, recurrent mutation in WFS1, p.A684V, may be a common cause of ADOA and SNHL, similar to the role played by the p.R445H mutation in OPA1. Our findings suggest that patients who are heterozygous for WFS1 missense mutations should be carefully clinically examined for OA and other manifestations of Wolfram syndrome.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2011; 155A(6):1298-313. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NOG gene encodes noggin, a secreted polypeptide that is important for regulating multiple signaling pathways during human development, particularly in cartilage and bone. The hallmark of NOG-related syndromes is proximal symphalangism, defined by abnormal fusion of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. Many additional features secondary to NOG mutations are commonly but inconsistently observed, including a characteristic facies with a hemicylindrical nose, congenital conductive hearing loss due to stapes fixation, and hyperopia. The variable clinical presentations led to the designation of five different autosomal dominant syndromes, all subsequently found to have resulted from NOG mutations. These include (1) proximal symphalangism; (2) multiple synostoses syndrome 1; (3) stapes ankylosis with broad thumbs and toes; (4) tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome; and (5) brachydactyly type B2. Herein, we review the phenotypic features associated with mutations in the NOG gene, demonstrating the overlapping characteristics of these syndromes. Due to the variable phenotypic spectrum within families and among families with the same mutation, we propose a unifying term, NOG-related symphalangism spectrum disorder (NOG-SSD), to aid in the clinical recognition and evaluation of all affected individuals with these phenotypes. These NOG gene variants are available in a new locus-specific database (https://NOG.lovd.nl).
Human Mutation 04/2011; 32(8):877-86. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the genetic etiology in a family with autosomal dominant progressive sensorineural hearing loss.
Prospective molecular genetic research study.
Academic genetic research laboratory.
Seventeen members of a family with dominant progressive nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss: 9 affected, 6 unaffected, and 2 spouses.
Clinical data from questionnaires, interviews, serial audiograms, and medical records; genetic data from genome-wide linkage analysis and candidate gene mutation analysis.
Symptoms, age at onset, serial audiometric data, and the presence or absence of a deafness-associated mutation.
Affected individuals in this family presented with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic high-frequency progressive sensorineural hearing loss, with age at onset ranging from 1 to 21 years. Genome-wide linkage analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms yielded evidence of linkage to an 18.9-Mb region on chromosome 1p34-p36, with a multipoint logarithm of odds score of 3.6. This interval contains a known deafness gene, KCNQ4, which underlies DNFA2 deafness. Sequencing of the 14 coding exons and intron-exon junctions of KCNQ4 revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation, c.859G>C, p.Gly287Arg. The mutation disrupts the highly conserved GYG motif (glycine-tyrosine-glycine) of the phosphate-binding loop, hypothesized to be critical in maintaining pore structure and function. All 274 controls were negative for the mutation.
Autosomal dominant high-frequency hearing loss is genetically heterogeneous, and linkage analysis is an efficient means of identifying the etiology in larger families. Deafness in this family is caused by a novel mutation in KCNQ4.
Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery 01/2011; 137(1):54-9. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ossifying lipomas, characterized by their independence of bony connection to the skeleton, are extremely rare benign neoplasms. They have primarily been described in adults older than 50 years of age and occur in the head and neck region. The etiology is unknown. Excision is the preferred treatment. The objective of this study is to report the case of a rare ossifying lipoma immediately anterior to C1 to C2, requiring a transoral approach for excision.
The case of an adolescent with a retropharyngeal mass is described.
A 15-year-old female patient presented with an asymptomatic parapharyngeal mass detected on routine physical examination. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging noted a calcified, left-sided, parapharyngeal mass, approximately 3×2×2 cm, anterior to C1 and C2, most consistent with a benign osseous lesion. A transoral approach was used to excise the mass. Histologic examination demonstrated an ossifying lipoma. Postoperative imaging confirmed complete excision. The postoperative course was unremarkable, and the patient has had no recurrence at 6-month follow-up.
This case demonstrates that a transoral approach to a lesion anterior to C1 to C2 in an adolescent can be safe, complete, and effective.
Case Report, level 5.
Journal of pediatric orthopedics 01/2011; 31(5):e53-6. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomic rearrangements are increasingly recognized as important contributors to human disease. Here we report on an 11½-year-old child with myopia, Duane retraction syndrome, bilateral mixed hearing loss, skeletal anomalies including multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, and global developmental delay, and a complex 6p25 genomic rearrangement. We have employed oligonucleotide-based comparative genomic hybridization arrays (aCGH) of different resolutions (44 and 244K) as well as a 1 M single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to analyze this complex rearrangement. Our analyses reveal a complex rearrangement involving a ∼2.21 Mb interstitial deletion, a ∼240 kb terminal deletion, and a 70-80 kb region in between these two deletions that shows maintenance of genomic copy number. The interstitial deletion contains eight known genes, including three Forkhead box containing (FOX) transcription factors (FOXQ1, FOXF2, and FOXC1). The region maintaining genomic copy number partly overlaps the dual specificity protein phosphatase 22 (DUSP22) gene. Array analyses suggest a homozygous loss of genomic material at the 5' end of DUSP22, which was corroborated using TaqMan® copy number analysis. It is possible that this homozygous genomic loss may render both copies of DUSP22 or its products non-functional. Our analysis suggests a rearrangement mechanism distinct from a previously reported replication-based error-prone mechanism without template switching for a specific 6p25 rearrangement with a 1.22 Mb interstitial deletion. Our study demonstrates the utility and limitations of using oligonucleotide-based aCGH and SNP array technologies of increasing resolutions in order to identify complex DNA rearrangements and gene disruptions.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 01/2011; 155A(1):154-63. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wolfram syndrome is characterized by optic atrophy, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus and deafness. There are several other associated conditions reported in the literature, but congenital or early childhood cataracts are not among them.
Observational case series with confirmatory genetic analysis.
A pair of siblings, followed over 17 years, who manifest congenital or early childhood cataracts, diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. They are both compound heterozygotes for mutations (V415 deletion and A684V substitution) in the WFS1 gene. Their father has congenital sensorineural hearing loss and developed optic atrophy. He is heterozygous for A684V in WFS1.
Wolfram syndrome should be in the differential diagnosis of genetic syndromes associated with congenital and early childhood cataracts. Here, we report on a mother who is a phenotypically normal carrier of an autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome gene, and a father who has some of the findings of the syndrome and carries a single mutation that appears to be responsible for his hearing loss and optic atrophy. Their 2 children are compound heterozygotes and manifest the full Wolfram syndrome, in addition to cataracts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical and radiologic findings in a case of isotretinoin embryopathy-like syndrome and discuss management of hearing loss, congenital external auditory canal (EAC) stenosis, and EAC cholesteatoma.
Review of medical, audiological, and radiological records.
An 8 year old female presented with bilateral moderate conductive hearing loss, bilateral microtia, left EAC stenosis, and right EAC atresia, secondary to prenatal isotretinoin exposure. Comorbidities included developmental delay, ventricular septal defect, hypotonia, and retinal maldevelopment. The left EAC was sharply upsloping with a 2mm-diameter meatus. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bone demonstrated normal middle and inner ears bilaterally; serial CT scans over 6 years demonstrated progressive development of left canal cholesteatoma. Implantation of a right BAHA system was performed, followed by left canalplasty and excision of cholesteatoma with facial nerve monitoring. An endaural incision was utilized to avoid compromising future microtia repair. Postoperative left-sided hearing improved to mild low-frequency conductive hearing loss rising to normal at 2000 Hz and above.
Despite extensive precautions for its use, isotretinoin remains a cause of major birth defects, including sensorineural, conductive or mixed hearing loss. Congenital EAC stenosis is much less common than congenital atresia or acquired stenosis; optimal surgical approaches vary depending on hearing status and facial nerve anatomy. Close monitoring for development of canal cholesteatoma is necessary.
International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 09/2010; 74(9):1082-4. · 0.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Auditory neuropathy is a rare form of deafness characterized by an absent or abnormal auditory brainstem response with preservation of outer hair cell function. We have identified Diaphanous homolog 3 (DIAPH3) as the gene responsible for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic auditory neuropathy (AUNA1), which we previously mapped to chromosome 13q21-q24. Genotyping of additional family members narrowed the interval to an 11-Mb, 3.28-cM gene-poor region containing only four genes, including DIAPH3. DNA sequencing of DIAPH3 revealed a c.-172G>A, g. 48G>A mutation in a highly conserved region of the 5' UTR. The c.-172G>A mutation occurs within a GC box sequence element and was not found in 379 controls. Using genome-wide expression arrays and quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrate a 2- to 3-fold overexpression of DIAPH3 mRNA in lymphoblastoid cell lines from affected individuals. Likewise, a significant increase (approximately 1.5-fold) in DIAPH3 protein was found by quantitative immunoblotting of lysates from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from affected individuals in comparison with controls. In addition, the c.-172G>A mutation is sufficient to drive overexpression of a luciferase reporter. Finally, the expression of a constitutively active form of diaphanous protein in the auditory organ of Drosophila melanogaster recapitulates the phenotype of impaired response to sound. To date, only two genes, the otoferlin gene OTOF and the pejvakin gene PJVK, are known to underlie nonsyndromic auditory neuropathy. Genetic testing for DIAPH3 may be useful for individuals with recessive as well as dominant inheritance of nonsyndromic auditory neuropathy.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2010; 107(30):13396-401. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular genetic testing is useful to differentiate otosclerosis from syndromic stapes ankylosis.
Congenital stapes ankylosis is genetically heterogeneous. Mutations in the NOG gene are known to be associated with a variety of rare stapes ankylosis syndromes including stapes ankylosis with broad thumbs and toes, multiple synostoses syndrome, and proximal symphalangism. These syndromes have overlapping clinical features that may be unrecognized.
The proband was a 54-year-old woman diagnosed in childhood with bilateral maximal conductive hearing loss. Audiologic, medical, and surgical records were reviewed. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was obtained from peripheral lymphocytes. DNA sequencing was used to assay for mutations in the NOG gene.
Clinical genetics evaluation was most consistent with proximal symphalangism, but features of multiple synostoses syndrome were identified as well. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous p.W205C mutation in the NOG gene, not found in 100 controls.
Evaluation of the patient with stapes ankylosis should include a family history and specific inquiry into features associated with stapes ankylosis syndromes, such as bony anomalies of the spine, hands, and feet. However, a negative family history does not exclude the possibility of a syndrome. Many patients who are thought to have nonsyndromic otosclerosis actually have syndromes caused by mutations in the NOG gene. Identifying a syndrome has implications for surgical management and prognosis.
Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 06/2009; 30(8):1204-8. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insertional translocations (IT) are rare structural rearrangements. Offspring of IT balanced carriers are at high risk to have either pure partial trisomy or monosomy for the inserted segment as manifested by "pure" phenotypes. We describe an IT between chromosomes 3 and 13 segregating in a three-generation pedigree. Short tandem repeat (STR) segregation analysis and array-comparative genomic hybridization were used to define the IT as a 25.1 Mb segment spanning 13q21.2-q31.1. The phenotype of pure monosomy included deafness, duodenal stenosis, developmental and growth delay, vertebral anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms; the trisomy was manifested by only minor dysmorphisms. As the AUNA1 deafness locus on 13q14-21 overlaps the IT in the PCDH9 (protocadherin-9) gene region, PCDH9 was investigated as a candidate gene for deafness in both families. Genotyping of STRs and single nucleotide polymorphisms defined the AUNA1 breakpoint as 35 kb 5' to PCDH9, with a 2.4 Mb area of overlap with the IT. DNA sequencing of coding regions in the AUNA1 family and in the retained homologue chromosome in the monosomic patient revealed no mutations. We conclude that AUNA1 deafness does not share a common etiology with deafness associated with monosomy 13q21.2-q31.3; deafness may result from monosomy of PCHD9 or another gene in the IT, as has been demonstrated in contiguous gene deletion syndromes. Precise characterization of the breakpoints of the translocated region is useful to identify which genes may be contributing to the phenotype, either through haploinsufficiency or extra dosage effects, in order to define genotype-phenotype correlations.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2009; 149A(5):906-13. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a patient with multiple congenital anomalies including deafness, lacrimal duct stenosis, strabismus, bilateral cervical sinuses, congenital cardiac defects, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. Mutation analysis of EYA1, SIX1, and SIX5, genes that underlie otofaciocervical and/or branchio-oto-renal syndrome, was negative. Pathologic diagnosis of the excised cervical sinus tracts was revised on re-examination to heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Using high resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, we identified a novel 2.52 Mb deletion at 19p13.12, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and demonstrated to be a de novo mutation by testing of the parents. Overall, deletions of chromosome 19p13 are rare.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2009; 149A(3):396-402. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant sensorineural hearing loss is genetically heterogeneous, with a phenotype closely resembling presbycusis, the most common sensory defect associated with aging in humans. We have identified SLC17A8, which encodes the vesicular glutamate transporter-3 (VGLUT3), as the gene responsible for DFNA25, an autosomal-dominant form of progressive, high-frequency nonsyndromic deafness. In two unrelated families, a heterozygous missense mutation, c.632C-->T (p.A211V), was found to segregate with DFNA25 deafness and was not present in 267 controls. Linkage-disequilibrium analysis suggested that the families have a distant common ancestor. The A211 residue is conserved in VGLUT3 across species and in all human VGLUT subtypes (VGLUT1-3), suggesting an important functional role. In the cochlea, VGLUT3 accumulates glutamate in the synaptic vesicles of the sensory inner hair cells (IHCs) before releasing it onto receptors of auditory-nerve terminals. Null mice with a targeted deletion of Slc17a8 exon 2 lacked auditory-nerve responses to acoustic stimuli, although auditory brainstem responses could be elicited by electrical stimuli, and robust otoacoustic emissions were recorded. Ca(2+)-triggered synaptic-vesicle turnover was normal in IHCs of Slc17a8 null mice when probed by membrane capacitance measurements at 2 weeks of age. Later, the number of afferent synapses, spiral ganglion neurons, and lateral efferent endings below sensory IHCs declined. Ribbon synapses remaining by 3 months of age had a normal ultrastructural appearance. We conclude that deafness in Slc17a8-deficient mice is due to a specific defect of vesicular glutamate uptake and release and that VGLUT3 is essential for auditory coding at the IHC synapse.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2008; 83(2):278-92. · 11.20 Impact Factor