[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of mastoidal emissary veins is of importance in the neurosurgical practice to diagnose abnormal and normal structures. In the present study, the objectives were to estimate the prevalence rate of mastoidal emissary foramina in the temporal bones of the adult skull and to study their number and morphology. The present study included 48 adult human skulls which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The mastoid parts of 96 temporal bones were macroscopically observed for the prevalence, number and morphology of the emissary foramina. It is observed that, the mastoidal emissary foramen was present in 88 temporal bones (91.7%) of our specimens. The foramen was observed single in 60 temporal bones (62.5%), double in 22 bones (22.9%), and triple in 6 temporal bones (6.2%). The mastoidal emissary foramen was absent in 8 (8.3%) temporal bones. The foramen was bilaterally absent in 3 (3.1%) skulls. It was unilaterally absent in 2 (2.1%) skulls and both were on the left side. The mastoidal emissary vein is prevalent in a large number (91.7%) of cases. It was observed that the accessory mastoidal emissary foramina were present in 29.1% of cases. Recognition of the mastoid emissary veins and accessory mastoid emissary veins during the otologic surgery is critical to avoid the significant bleeding. In the neurosurgical practice, the knowledge is important due to variability in the number of mastoidal emissary veins and their connection to the venous sinuses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although sildenafil citrate, one of the selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, is considered the best treatment for erectile dysfunction, studies have shown that it has also a beneficial effect on a variety of cardiovascular conditions. In spite of reports of a significant protective effect of sildenafil against necrosis in intact hearts, there are also contradictory reports regarding its beneficial effect on the heart. Since there are not enough reports regarding the histomorphological changes in the cardiomyocytes after exposure to sildenafil citrate, the present study was conducted to observe the same along with other biochemical parameters.
Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were used in the present study. The animals were divided into a control group and two experimental groups containing six rats each. The animals were treated with a solution of sildenafil citrate dissolved in distilled water. Histomorphological changes were observed by light microscopy and the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and PDE in the heart were measured by spectrophotometry.
It was observed that animals treated with sildenafil citrate showed a highly significant increase in NO and a decrease in PDE level, but the histological architecture of the cardiomyocytes did not show much change other than a slightly elongated and swollen nucleus.
This study shows that sildenafil citrate at low dosage is well tolerated by cardiac muscle cells, but as dosage increases, it may become detrimental through its NO and PDE activity.
International journal of applied & basic medical research. 01/2013; 3(2):84-87.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. The objectives were to study the anatomical features of fused vertebra in the cervical region. Materials and Methods. The study included 363 cervical vertebras which were macroscopically observed for the fusion and their morphology was studied. Results. Among our specimens, one fusion was observed between the C1 and C2 and the other was between C2 and C3. The mean anteroposterior diameter of normal atlas and axis were 42.1 +/- 0.9 mm and 46 +/- 0.5 mm respectively. The fused C1-C2 had 39 +/- 0.6 mm anteroposterior diameter. The mean lengths of anterior arch of normal atlas and body of axis were 16 +/- 0.9 mm and 23 +/- 0.7 mm respectively and the fused C1-C2 body length was 30 +/- 0.3 mm. The mean anteroposterior diameter of normal C2 and C3 vertebra were 46 +/- 0.5 mm and 47 +/- 0.8 mm respectively and of fused C2-C3 was 44 +/- 0.2 mm. The body length of C2 was 23 +/- 0.7 mm and C3 was 33 +/- 0.1 mm. The body length of fused C2-C3 was 36 +/- 0.8 mm. Conclusion. The present study has provided additional information on the anatomy, morphology of cervical spine synostosis with their embryological basis and clinical implications. Clin Ter 2012; 163(6):463-466.
La Clinica terapeutica 11/2012; 163(6):463-6. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Facial artery has been considered to be the most important vascular pedicle in facial rejuvenation procedures and submandibular gland (SMG) resection. It usually arises from the external carotid artery and passes from the carotid to digastric triangle, deep to the posterior belly of digastric muscle, and lodges in a groove at the posterior end of the SMG. It then passes between SMG and the mandible to reach the face after winding around the base of the mandible. During a routine dissection, in a 62-year-old female cadaver, in Kasturba Medical College Mangalore, an unusual pattern in the cervical course of facial artery was revealed. The right facial artery was found to pierce the whole substance of the SMG before winding around the lower border of the mandible to enter the facial region. Awareness of existence of such a variant and its comparison to the normal anatomy will be useful to oral and maxillofacial surgeons.
The Journal of craniofacial surgery 07/2012; 23(4):e355-7. · 0.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peroneus quartus is an accessory peroneal muscle seen in man. The term 'peroneus quartus' is often used to refer one or several of the accessory peroneal muscles. In this case, we report an unusual type of peroneus quartus which was originating from the muscular portion of the peroneus brevis and inserting onto the peroneus longus tendon. The clinical implications are emphasized with the morphological significance and literature review. The orthopedic surgeons and radiologists should be aware of the possible presence of this muscle not only because of its associated pathology, but also for its potential use in plastic surgeries. Clin Ter 2012; 163(4):307-309.
La Clinica terapeutica 07/2012; 163(4):307-9. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The left superior laryngeal artery was observed arising from the external carotid artery instead of the superior thyroid artery in the cadaver of an approximately 70 year-old Asian man. In addition, on the same side, the superior thyroid artery arose from the common carotid artery 2 cm before the bifurcation instead of its usual origin from the external carotid artery. From the external carotid artery, the lingual and facial arteries arose from the common linguofacial trunk. The nerves in the carotid triangle were normal in course. No variations were observed on the right side carotid system. The multiple variations in this case have not been previously described. The embryogenesis of this combination of variations is not clear, but the anatomic consequences may have important clinical implications. As angiography has gained popularity in diagnostic approaches in recent years, it is essential to be aware of these variations so that they are not overlooked in differential diagnoses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: It was suggested that the accessory neurovascular foramina of the mandible might be of significance in relation to the effectiveness of local anesthesia following the routine inferior alveolar nerve block. Aims: To investigate the incidence of neurovascular foramina over the lingual surface of the mandible in South Indian population. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the department of anatomy. Materials and Methods: The study included 67 human adult dry mandibles, the exact ages and sexes of which were not known. The location and number of neurovascular foramina were topographically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The foramina were observed in 64 mandibles (95.5%) and were often multiple in most of the cases. They were located between the two medial incisors in 8 mandibles (1.9%), between the medial and lateral incisor in 34 mandibles (50.7%; 25-bilateral; 7-right; 2-left), between the lateral incisor and canine in 7 mandibles (10.4%; 2-bilateral; 3-right; 2-left), between the canine and first premolar in 6 cases (8.9%; 3 on each side). Foramina were also present around the genial tubercle in 56 mandibles (83.6%). Among them, 52 mandibles showed a single foramen just above the genial tubercle, 34 mandibles had foramina below the tubercles, 13 mandibles had foramina on the right side of genial tubercle and 17 were having on the left side. Conclusion: Since the anatomical details of these foramina are important to various fields of dentistry and oncology, the present investigation was undertaken. The clinical significance and implications are emphasized.
Indian journal of dental research: official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research 05/2012; 23(3):433.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives were to study the morphology of the lingulae in adult human dried mandibles of South Indian population.
The study was carried out on 67 (37 males and 30 females) dry mandibles and the morphological variants of the shapes of the lingulae were macroscopically noted and classified. Totally, 134 lingula were studied from both sides of mandibles.
From our observations, 29.9% (40) of the lingula had triangular shape, 27.6% (37) were truncated, 29.9% (40) were found nodular and 12.6% (17) were assimilated. In 61.2% (41) of the mandibles, the shape of the lingula was symmetrical on both the sides. The triangular lingulae were found bilaterally in 14, truncated in 11, nodular in 10 and assimilated in six mandibles.
In our specimens, the majority of the mandibles were having triangular shaped lingula and the shape of the lingula was symmetrical on both sides. There was sexual dimorphism observed, as in males the triangular shape was more common and in females it was nodular. The incidence of different forms of lingulæ can be used as an anthropological marker to assess the different group of population and races, with other non-metric variants of the skull. The morphology of this subject is important to the maxillofacial and orodental surgeons as the inferior alveolar nerve is close to the lingula and may assist in the inferior alveolar block.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since morphometric data on the upper end of the humerus from Indian anatomical samples are scarce, this study was undertaken with reference to orthopedic surgery. The aim was to determine the length, width and depth of the bicipital groove and to find the incidence of a supratubercular ridge of Meyer in an Indian population.
The study included 104 unpaired dry humeri (48 right side and 56 left) which belonged to the anatomy laboratory of our institution. The length, width and depth of the bicipital groove were measured with a digital vernier caliper. The data were tabulated as mean ± SD and statistically compared between the right and left sides.
The mean length, width and depth of the bicipital groove were 84.6 ± 10.9 mm, 8.5 ± 2.3 mm and 4.4 ± 1.8 mm, respectively, which corresponded to 27.8% of the total length, 32.2% of the transverse width and 17% of the anteroposterior widh of the humerus, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in these parameters between the left and right sides (p > 0.05). A supratubercular ridge of Meyer was seen in 24 (23.1%) of the humeri.
The study determined the morphometric parameters of the bicipital groove in an Indian population. We believe that this study will be an important reference for scientific research, and the details are also important for anthropologists and clinical anatomists.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a case of unreported morphological variant of the triceps brachii muscle which was observed while dissecting a cadaveric upper limb at the department of human anatomy. It was noted that an anomalous fascicle present between the lateral and long heads of the triceps. The fascicle was passing just superficial to the spiral groove and was crossing the radial nerve and profunda brachii artery. After the literature search, it was found that the present variation has not been previously reported. The clinical implication of this anomalous fascicle in relation to radial nerve entrapment and non-traumatic radial nerve palsy are discussed.
La Clinica terapeutica 03/2012; 163(2):123-4. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to study the morphology of fissures and lobes of the lung in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study included 60 adult cadaveric lungs which were obtained from the human anatomy laboratory. The specimens were macroscopically observed for gross morphology of fissures and lobes.
Only 32 (53.3%) lungs showed the fissures and lobes as described in the standard anatomy texts. Among the right lungs, 15 (46.9%) had incomplete horizontal fissure, 6 lungs (18.7%) had absence of the horizontal fissure and one lung (3.1%) had the azygous lobe. The remaining 10 right lungs (31.3%) showed the usual morphology. In the left lungs, normal morphology was observed in 22 cases (78.6%), 2 lungs had incomplete oblique fissure (7.1%), one lung had (3.6%) absence of the oblique fissure, one lung showed an accessory fissure and lobe (3.6%). The anomalous multiple fissures and lobar pattern was observed in 2 cases (7.1%).
Morphological knowledge of fissures and lobes of the lung is of importance to the thoracic surgeons in performing lobectomies and segmental resection. The radiologists should have an idea about these variations in interpreting the MRI and CT scans. We believe that the data from the present study certainly adds an important reference in the medical literature.
La Clinica terapeutica 02/2012; 163(1):9-13. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of variations in the formation of superficial palmar arch is beneficial for successful vascular surgery in the hand as well as for plastic surgeons. The authors describe an unusual completion of superficial palmar arch by first dorsal metacarpal branch of radial artery at the first interdigital cleft which was encountered during routine upper limb dissection for undergraduates. The arteria princeps pollicis and arteria radialis indicis also were the branches of first dorsal metacarpal artery at the first interdigital cleft.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives were to study the morphology of the foramen magnum in dry skulls and to evaluate its antero-posterior diameter, transverse diameter and the foramen magnum index. MATERIAL and
The foramen magna of 53 dry human cadaver skulls that were obtained from the neuroanatomy laboratory were examined. Different shapes of the foramen magnum were macroscopically noted and classified. The antero-posterior and transverse diameters were measured and the average foraminal index was calculated.
The foramen magnum shapes were determined as a round shape in 22.6% of cases, egg shape in 18.9%, tetragonal in 18.9%, oval in 15.1%, irregular in 15.1%, hexagonal in 5.6% and pentagonal in 3.8% of the cases. In 20.7% of skulls, the occipital condyle was observed to protrude into the foramen. The mean antero-posterior and transverse diameter of the foramen magnum was determined as 31 ± 2.4 mm and 25.2 ± 2.4 mm respectively. The average foramen magnum index was 1.2 ± 0.1.
The present study has determined the various shapes of foramen magnum and its morphometry. The data obtained may be of useful to the neurosurgeon in analyzing the morphological anatomy of craniovertebral junction. The findings are also enlightening for the anthropologists, morphologists and clinical anatomists.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To compare anatomical measurements with that of radiological measurements.Background: The radiological measurements are commonly used in clinical practice. It is well known that the anatomical measurements are more accurate than radiological. The comparison of anatomicoradiological measurements is not reported hitherto.Methods: One human adult cadaveric femur bone was used for the present study. It was measured both anatomically and radiologically. Results: In digital X- ray measurements, the length from the upper lip of fovea capitis to the most prominent part of greater trochanter was 87.2 mms, from the upper most part of greater trochanter to the isthmus it was 147.9 mms, mediolateral width of medullary cavity at the isthmus was 8.9 mms, the mediolateral width at the distal root of lesser trochanter was 18.5 mms, anteroposterior width of medullary cavity at the isthmus was 11.5 mms, the anteroposterior width at the distal root of lesser trochanter was 16.8 mms. The same measurements were 91.2 mms, 154.6 mms, 11.8 mms, 19.7 mms, 11.9 mms and 18.5 mms when taken anatomically using the digital vernier caliper.Conclusion: The present study showed that in all the parameters measured the radiological values were slightly lesser than the anatomical values. Considering the variations in the values, the implants can be designed for a particular case in orthopedic surgery. We believe that this study adds an important reference in the scientific literature (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 5). Keywords: anatomical, femur, measurements, morphometry, radiological.
Bratislavske lekarske listy 01/2012; 113(11):673-5. · 0.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The objective was to determine the morphometric parameters of the head and neck of femur in Indians and to discuss its clinical
Materials and methods The study comprised 50 dry femora which were obtained from the osteology section of the anatomy laboratory. The femoral head
diameter, superior and inferior head lengths, anteroposterior and superoinferior diameters of the neck, superior and inferior
neck lengths were measured with the digital vernier caliper. The data were morphometrically analyzed and sidewise comparison
Results The mean femoral head diameter was 41.5 ± 2.8 mm, superior and inferior head lengths were 30.8 ± 3.6 and 21.2 ± 3 mm, respectively.
The mean superior length, inferior length, anteroposterior diameter and superoinferior diameter of the femoral neck were 22.5 ± 3.1,
31.2 ± 4.1, 23.9 ± 2.9, and 30.2 ± 2.5 mm, respectively. The statistically significant difference was not observed between
the right and left sides comparison (P > 0.05).
Conclusions The study has determined the morphometry of the head and neck of femur from Indian population. Since the implantation surgery
relies on anatomical measurements, the present study was undertaken with reference to clinical application. We believe that
the data obtained are enlightening not only for the orthopedicians, also important to the anthropologists.
European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology 01/2012; · 0.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Awareness of the anatomy and variations of the extensor tendons on the dorsum of the hand is necessary when assessing the traumatized or diseased hand and when considering tendons for repair or transfer. A complete quantitative documentation of the extensor tendons is lacking.
The arrangements of extensor tendons to the medical four fingers namely, the extensor digitorum communis (EDC), extensor indicis proprius (EIP) and extensor digiti minimi (EDM) on the dorsum of the hand and the intertendinous connections between them were studied in 100 upper limb specimens. The findings were photographed, tabulated and analyzed statistically.
In 98% of the specimens, the EIP was a single tendon with a single insertion, whereas in two right upper limbs there were two EIP tendons with two insertions. In 77% of the specimens the EDC distally had tendons to the middle three fingers (EDC index, EDC longus and EDC ring). The EDC small was present in only 34% of samples and the EDM showed normal anatomy in only 20%. The most common types of juncturae tendinum in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th intermetacarpal spaces were Type 1, 2 and 3r, respectively. Two accessory muscles were seen. One was the extenson medii proprius in 5% of samples and the other, the extensor digitorum brevis manus, was seen in 3%.
Variations of the extensor tendons were common in this study, especially for the middle and ring fingers which showed multiple tendons of the EDC.