Latha V Prabhu

Manipal University, Udupi, Karnataka, India

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Publications (140)100.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To study the various patterns in the extra muscular part of arterial supply to the soleus muscle. The study was carried out using 38 adult cadaveric lower limbs which were available from the Department of Anatomy of our institution. The vascular branches to the soleus were identified and traced till their point of entry into the soleus. These were considered as extramuscular branches (EMB) to the soleus. The distances of first and last branches from each artery were measured from the apex of head of fibula to their point of entry into the soleus and were expressed as proportion to the length of soleus. The present study observed that the soleus muscle is supplied by EMB of popliteal, posterior tibial and peroneal arteries. In 42.1 % cases, there was no direct EMB from the popliteal artery to the soleus. The EMB of popliteal artery were located between 3.2 and 24.6 % of the length of soleus. The EMB from the posterior tibial and peroneal arteries were located between 6.8-97.1 % and 5.7-94.9 % of the length of soleus, respectively. The proximal 25 % of length of soleus received EMB from all the three arteries. The present study has provided additional information on the various patterns in the extra muscular part of arterial supply to the soleus muscle. This knowledge is important to the plastic and orthopedic surgeons while performing the pedicle flap surgeries. Our opinion is that the proximally based soleal muscle flaps are more beneficial in the surgical practice.
    Anatomia Clinica 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00276-015-1485-9 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Ethmoidal foramina on the medial orbital wall show a higher incidence of variation. Surgeons performing endonasal, anterior cranial fossa and medial orbital wall surgeries must be aware of these variations as they are a source of hemorrhage and also serve as landmark in proximity to the orbital apex. Aim The present study aims to describe the morphometric distances of various ethmoidal foramina between anterior lacrimal crest to optic canal in south Indian dry human skulls. Materials and method The study was done on 44 adult dry human skulls. The occurrence of Ethmoidal foramina was noted by direct inspection. The distance of Ethmoidal foramina from anterior lacrimal crest to optic canal was measured with the help of ruler, probe and magnifying glass. Results The Posterior ethmoidal foramina were found in all 44 skulls bilaterally. Middle ethmoidal foramen was present in 12 and 13 skulls on right and left, respectively. Anterior ethmoidal foramen was found in 38 and 37 skulls on right and left, respectively. The distance between anterior lacrimal crest (ALC) and posterior lacrimal crest (PLC) was in the range of 3–8 mm and that of ALC to anterior ethmoidal foramen was in the range of 24–30 mm. The range of distance between anterior ethmoidal foramen to posterior ethmoidal foramen was 9–17 mm and that between posterior ethmoidal foramen to optic canal was 5–13 mm. Conclusion These observations would help to predict the anatomical variations in the position of ethmoidal foramina with respect to anterior and posterior lacrimal crest and ensure the safe and precise performance of medial orbital wall surgeries to avoid injuries to the important neurovascular bundles passing through various foramina and fissures.
    Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00276-014-1410-7 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sphenoid sinus is deeply situated in the skull and is the least accessible paranasal sinus. The sphenoid sinus is surrounded by vital structures such as the optic nerve and internal carotid artery, and therefore additional radiological assessment of the sphenoid sinus and the related neurovascular structures is inevitable before surgery. The aim of this study was to note the anatomic variations in the relationship of these structures with the sphenoid sinus by analyzing the coronal computed tomography (CT) scans. The consecutive coronal CT scans of 100 patients that included 43 males and 57 females were evaluated. Variations in the neurovascular boundaries of the sphenoid sinus were a common finding in the present study and were seen in as many as 66% of the cases. Variations involving the Vidian canal were the commonest in our study and were seen in around 42%, followed by those involving the bony canal for internal carotid artery, 33%; maxillary nerve, 21 % and optic nerve, 9%. These variations do not represent disease as such, but may increase the risk of endoscopic mishaps. CT of the paranasal sinus region is therefore an essential prerequisite prior to sinonasal and trans-sphenoidal surgeries.
    Turkish neurosurgery 01/2015; 25(2):289-93. DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.10638-14.0 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of mastoidal emissary veins is of importance in the neurosurgical practice to diagnose abnormal and normal structures. In the present study, the objectives were to estimate the prevalence rate of mastoidal emissary foramina in the temporal bones of the adult skull and to study their number and morphology. The present study included 48 adult human skulls which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The mastoid parts of 96 temporal bones were macroscopically observed for the prevalence, number and morphology of the emissary foramina. It is observed that, the mastoidal emissary foramen was present in 88 temporal bones (91.7%) of our specimens. The foramen was observed single in 60 temporal bones (62.5%), double in 22 bones (22.9%), and triple in 6 temporal bones (6.2%). The mastoidal emissary foramen was absent in 8 (8.3%) temporal bones. The foramen was bilaterally absent in 3 (3.1%) skulls. It was unilaterally absent in 2 (2.1%) skulls and both were on the left side. The mastoidal emissary vein is prevalent in a large number (91.7%) of cases. It was observed that the accessory mastoidal emissary foramina were present in 29.1% of cases. Recognition of the mastoid emissary veins and accessory mastoid emissary veins during the otologic surgery is critical to avoid the significant bleeding. In the neurosurgical practice, the knowledge is important due to variability in the number of mastoidal emissary veins and their connection to the venous sinuses.
    Anatomy & cell biology 09/2014; 47(3):202-206. DOI:10.5115/acb.2014.47.3.202
  • International Journal of Morphology 06/2014; 32(2):656-659. DOI:10.4067/S0717-95022014000200045 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Export Date: 18 October 2014
    International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2014; 6(1):768-772. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Since the in vivo morphometric data on the menisci of the knee joint of Indian subjects are scarce, we hereby studied the width and thickness of the menisci using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to establish standard dimensions of the normal medial and lateral meniscus as an aid to orthopaedic surgery. Methods: Eighty menisci from 40 knee joints were analysed in each of three regions, the anterior horn, the mid body and the posterior horn. The thickness and width of the menisci were measured in sagittal and coronal T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI images and analysed statistically. Results: The mean thickness of medial meniscus at the anterior horn, mid body, and posterior horn were 6.3 ± 1.1 mm, 5.2 ± 1.3 mm, and 6.9 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The respective values for the lateral meniscus were 4.8 ± 0.7 mm, 6.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 7.0 ± 0.9 mm. The mean width of medial meniscus at the anterior horn, mid body, and posterior horn were 10.5 ± 1.2 mm, 7.8 ± 1 mm and 13.9 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The widths of lateral meniscus at the same regions were 11.8 ± 1.4 mm, 8.6 ± 1.2 mm, and 12.0 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The lateral meniscus was significantly wider than medial at the anterior horn and mid body (p = 0.00). In contrast, the posterior horn of medial meniscus was significantly wider than lateral meniscus. Both menisci were significantly wider at their posterior horn, followed by the anterior horn and were significantly narrower at their mid body. Conclusion: The present study provides new information on the meniscal thickness and width in South Indians that can be used in planning of orthopaedic and arthroscopic surgeries of the knee joint. However, the study needs to be analyzed with a large sample size for the better interpretation.
    01/2014; 37(1):14-7. DOI:10.4103/2319-4170.117889
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    ABSTRACT: Although sildenafil citrate, one of the selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, is considered the best treatment for erectile dysfunction, studies have shown that it has also a beneficial effect on a variety of cardiovascular conditions. In spite of reports of a significant protective effect of sildenafil against necrosis in intact hearts, there are also contradictory reports regarding its beneficial effect on the heart. Since there are not enough reports regarding the histomorphological changes in the cardiomyocytes after exposure to sildenafil citrate, the present study was conducted to observe the same along with other biochemical parameters. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were used in the present study. The animals were divided into a control group and two experimental groups containing six rats each. The animals were treated with a solution of sildenafil citrate dissolved in distilled water. Histomorphological changes were observed by light microscopy and the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and PDE in the heart were measured by spectrophotometry. It was observed that animals treated with sildenafil citrate showed a highly significant increase in NO and a decrease in PDE level, but the histological architecture of the cardiomyocytes did not show much change other than a slightly elongated and swollen nucleus. This study shows that sildenafil citrate at low dosage is well tolerated by cardiac muscle cells, but as dosage increases, it may become detrimental through its NO and PDE activity.
    03/2013; 3(2):84-87. DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.117056
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to study the morphology of fused vertebrae in thoracolumbar region. The study included 729 thoracolumbar vertebrae which were macroscopically observed for the fusion and morphological details were observed. It was observed that, there was fusion in three of our specimens. One specimen was having fusion between the two typical thoracic vertebrae. The other one had fusion among the three typical thoracic vertebrae. The third specimen had fusion between the twelveth thoracic vertebrae and the first lumbar vertebra. The average length of body of thoracic vertebrae was 1.8 mms, vertebral foramen diameter was 1.4mms, length of lamina was 1.9 mms and the length of spinous process was 2.6 mms. The same parameters for the fused vertebrae of two typical thoracic was 3.2 mms, 1.1 mms, 4 mms and 4.7 mms respectively. The parameters of fused three typical thoracic vertebrae were 5.2 mms, 1.4 mms, 6.6 mms and 7.9 mms respectively. The average morphometric parameters of the fused thoracolumbar vertebrae were 3.7 mms, 1.4 mms, 4 mms and 3.5 mms respectively. The present study has provided additional information on the anatomy and morphology of dorsolumbar spine synostosis with their embryological basis and clinical implications. We believe that the details are clinically important as they might be associated with neurological signs and symptoms.
    La Clinica terapeutica 01/2013; 164(6):513-7. DOI:10.7417/CT.2013.1629 · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. To study the morphological and topographic anatomy of nutrient foramina and to determine the foraminal index of metacarpal bones. Materials and Methods. The study consisted of 438 unpaired, human metacarpal bones of unknown age and sex. Nutrient foramina in each of the bones were grossly identified in relation to their number and location. The foraminal index was calculated by applying the Hughes formula. A digital vernier caliper was used to perform the measurements. Results. Among our specimens, 93.1% of metacarpals had single foramen, 2% had double foramina, 0.3% of the bones had triple foramina and in 4.6% of cases the foramen was absent. The mean foraminal indexes of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpal were 60.1, 53, 43.1, 43.7 and 45.9 respectively. Conclusion. It was observed that the morphology and topography of nutrient foramina vary among different metacarpals. In 1st and 2nd metacarpals, foramina were more common at the medial surface and in other metacarpals, mostly seen on the lateral surface. The knowledge about these foramina is important in certain surgical procedures to preserve the circulation. This data is important to the plastic surgeon for microvascular bone transfer surgeries.
    La Clinica terapeutica 01/2013; 164(4):295-300. DOI:10.7417/CT.2013.1576 · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. The objectives were to study the anatomical features of fused vertebra in the cervical region. Materials and Methods. The study included 363 cervical vertebras which were macroscopically observed for the fusion and their morphology was studied. Results. Among our specimens, one fusion was observed between the C1 and C2 and the other was between C2 and C3. The mean anteroposterior diameter of normal atlas and axis were 42.1 +/- 0.9 mm and 46 +/- 0.5 mm respectively. The fused C1-C2 had 39 +/- 0.6 mm anteroposterior diameter. The mean lengths of anterior arch of normal atlas and body of axis were 16 +/- 0.9 mm and 23 +/- 0.7 mm respectively and the fused C1-C2 body length was 30 +/- 0.3 mm. The mean anteroposterior diameter of normal C2 and C3 vertebra were 46 +/- 0.5 mm and 47 +/- 0.8 mm respectively and of fused C2-C3 was 44 +/- 0.2 mm. The body length of C2 was 23 +/- 0.7 mm and C3 was 33 +/- 0.1 mm. The body length of fused C2-C3 was 36 +/- 0.8 mm. Conclusion. The present study has provided additional information on the anatomy, morphology of cervical spine synostosis with their embryological basis and clinical implications. Clin Ter 2012; 163(6):463-466.
    La Clinica terapeutica 11/2012; 163(6):463-6. · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to study the morphology of the foramen magnum in dry skulls and to evaluate its antero-posterior diameter, transverse diameter and the foramen magnum index. MATERIAL and The foramen magna of 53 dry human cadaver skulls that were obtained from the neuroanatomy laboratory were examined. Different shapes of the foramen magnum were macroscopically noted and classified. The antero-posterior and transverse diameters were measured and the average foraminal index was calculated. The foramen magnum shapes were determined as a round shape in 22.6% of cases, egg shape in 18.9%, tetragonal in 18.9%, oval in 15.1%, irregular in 15.1%, hexagonal in 5.6% and pentagonal in 3.8% of the cases. In 20.7% of skulls, the occipital condyle was observed to protrude into the foramen. The mean antero-posterior and transverse diameter of the foramen magnum was determined as 31 ± 2.4 mm and 25.2 ± 2.4 mm respectively. The average foramen magnum index was 1.2 ± 0.1. The present study has determined the various shapes of foramen magnum and its morphometry. The data obtained may be of useful to the neurosurgeon in analyzing the morphological anatomy of craniovertebral junction. The findings are also enlightening for the anthropologists, morphologists and clinical anatomists.
    Turkish neurosurgery 07/2012; 22(4):416-9. DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.4297-11.1 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The peroneus quartus is an accessory peroneal muscle seen in man. The term 'peroneus quartus' is often used to refer one or several of the accessory peroneal muscles. In this case, we report an unusual type of peroneus quartus which was originating from the muscular portion of the peroneus brevis and inserting onto the peroneus longus tendon. The clinical implications are emphasized with the morphological significance and literature review. The orthopedic surgeons and radiologists should be aware of the possible presence of this muscle not only because of its associated pathology, but also for its potential use in plastic surgeries. Clin Ter 2012; 163(4):307-309.
    La Clinica terapeutica 07/2012; 163(4):307-9. · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Facial artery has been considered to be the most important vascular pedicle in facial rejuvenation procedures and submandibular gland (SMG) resection. It usually arises from the external carotid artery and passes from the carotid to digastric triangle, deep to the posterior belly of digastric muscle, and lodges in a groove at the posterior end of the SMG. It then passes between SMG and the mandible to reach the face after winding around the base of the mandible. During a routine dissection, in a 62-year-old female cadaver, in Kasturba Medical College Mangalore, an unusual pattern in the cervical course of facial artery was revealed. The right facial artery was found to pierce the whole substance of the SMG before winding around the lower border of the mandible to enter the facial region. Awareness of existence of such a variant and its comparison to the normal anatomy will be useful to oral and maxillofacial surgeons.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 07/2012; 23(4):e355-7. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e318256578f · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The left superior laryngeal artery was observed arising from the external carotid artery instead of the superior thyroid artery in the cadaver of an approximately 70 year-old Asian man. In addition, on the same side, the superior thyroid artery arose from the common carotid artery 2 cm before the bifurcation instead of its usual origin from the external carotid artery. From the external carotid artery, the lingual and facial arteries arose from the common linguofacial trunk. The nerves in the carotid triangle were normal in course. No variations were observed on the right side carotid system. The multiple variations in this case have not been previously described. The embryogenesis of this combination of variations is not clear, but the anatomic consequences may have important clinical implications. As angiography has gained popularity in diagnostic approaches in recent years, it is essential to be aware of these variations so that they are not overlooked in differential diagnoses.
    Chang Gung medical journal 05/2012; 35(3):281-4. DOI:10.4103/2319-4170.106143
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    ABSTRACT: Context: It was suggested that the accessory neurovascular foramina of the mandible might be of significance in relation to the effectiveness of local anesthesia following the routine inferior alveolar nerve block. Aims: To investigate the incidence of neurovascular foramina over the lingual surface of the mandible in South Indian population. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the department of anatomy. Materials and Methods: The study included 67 human adult dry mandibles, the exact ages and sexes of which were not known. The location and number of neurovascular foramina were topographically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The foramina were observed in 64 mandibles (95.5%) and were often multiple in most of the cases. They were located between the two medial incisors in 8 mandibles (1.9%), between the medial and lateral incisor in 34 mandibles (50.7%; 25-bilateral; 7-right; 2-left), between the lateral incisor and canine in 7 mandibles (10.4%; 2-bilateral; 3-right; 2-left), between the canine and first premolar in 6 cases (8.9%; 3 on each side). Foramina were also present around the genial tubercle in 56 mandibles (83.6%). Among them, 52 mandibles showed a single foramen just above the genial tubercle, 34 mandibles had foramina below the tubercles, 13 mandibles had foramina on the right side of genial tubercle and 17 were having on the left side. Conclusion: Since the anatomical details of these foramina are important to various fields of dentistry and oncology, the present investigation was undertaken. The clinical significance and implications are emphasized.
    Indian journal of dental research: official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research 05/2012; 23(3):433. DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.102252
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to study the morphology of the lingulae in adult human dried mandibles of South Indian population. The study was carried out on 67 (37 males and 30 females) dry mandibles and the morphological variants of the shapes of the lingulae were macroscopically noted and classified. Totally, 134 lingula were studied from both sides of mandibles. From our observations, 29.9% (40) of the lingula had triangular shape, 27.6% (37) were truncated, 29.9% (40) were found nodular and 12.6% (17) were assimilated. In 61.2% (41) of the mandibles, the shape of the lingula was symmetrical on both the sides. The triangular lingulae were found bilaterally in 14, truncated in 11, nodular in 10 and assimilated in six mandibles. In our specimens, the majority of the mandibles were having triangular shaped lingula and the shape of the lingula was symmetrical on both sides. There was sexual dimorphism observed, as in males the triangular shape was more common and in females it was nodular. The incidence of different forms of lingulæ can be used as an anthropological marker to assess the different group of population and races, with other non-metric variants of the skull. The morphology of this subject is important to the maxillofacial and orodental surgeons as the inferior alveolar nerve is close to the lingula and may assist in the inferior alveolar block.
    Morphologie 03/2012; 96(312):16-20. DOI:10.1016/j.morpho.2012.01.001
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    ABSTRACT: Since morphometric data on the upper end of the humerus from Indian anatomical samples are scarce, this study was undertaken with reference to orthopedic surgery. The aim was to determine the length, width and depth of the bicipital groove and to find the incidence of a supratubercular ridge of Meyer in an Indian population. The study included 104 unpaired dry humeri (48 right side and 56 left) which belonged to the anatomy laboratory of our institution. The length, width and depth of the bicipital groove were measured with a digital vernier caliper. The data were tabulated as mean ± SD and statistically compared between the right and left sides. The mean length, width and depth of the bicipital groove were 84.6 ± 10.9 mm, 8.5 ± 2.3 mm and 4.4 ± 1.8 mm, respectively, which corresponded to 27.8% of the total length, 32.2% of the transverse width and 17% of the anteroposterior widh of the humerus, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in these parameters between the left and right sides (p > 0.05). A supratubercular ridge of Meyer was seen in 24 (23.1%) of the humeri. The study determined the morphometric parameters of the bicipital groove in an Indian population. We believe that this study will be an important reference for scientific research, and the details are also important for anthropologists and clinical anatomists.
    Chang Gung medical journal 03/2012; 35(2):155-9. DOI:10.4103/2319-4170.106156
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of unreported morphological variant of the triceps brachii muscle which was observed while dissecting a cadaveric upper limb at the department of human anatomy. It was noted that an anomalous fascicle present between the lateral and long heads of the triceps. The fascicle was passing just superficial to the spiral groove and was crossing the radial nerve and profunda brachii artery. After the literature search, it was found that the present variation has not been previously reported. The clinical implication of this anomalous fascicle in relation to radial nerve entrapment and non-traumatic radial nerve palsy are discussed.
    La Clinica terapeutica 03/2012; 163(2):123-4. · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to study the morphology of fissures and lobes of the lung in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study included 60 adult cadaveric lungs which were obtained from the human anatomy laboratory. The specimens were macroscopically observed for gross morphology of fissures and lobes. Only 32 (53.3%) lungs showed the fissures and lobes as described in the standard anatomy texts. Among the right lungs, 15 (46.9%) had incomplete horizontal fissure, 6 lungs (18.7%) had absence of the horizontal fissure and one lung (3.1%) had the azygous lobe. The remaining 10 right lungs (31.3%) showed the usual morphology. In the left lungs, normal morphology was observed in 22 cases (78.6%), 2 lungs had incomplete oblique fissure (7.1%), one lung had (3.6%) absence of the oblique fissure, one lung showed an accessory fissure and lobe (3.6%). The anomalous multiple fissures and lobar pattern was observed in 2 cases (7.1%). Morphological knowledge of fissures and lobes of the lung is of importance to the thoracic surgeons in performing lobectomies and segmental resection. The radiologists should have an idea about these variations in interpreting the MRI and CT scans. We believe that the data from the present study certainly adds an important reference in the medical literature.
    La Clinica terapeutica 02/2012; 163(1):9-13. · 0.33 Impact Factor