[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most frequent complication of total thyroidectomy. It may have a delayed onset, and therefore delays the discharge from the hospital, requiring calcium replacement therapy to alleviate clinical symptoms. During a 7-month period, 2,631 consecutive patients undergoing primary or completion thyroidectomy were prospectively followed up and underwent analysis regarding postoperative hypoparathyroidism. Data were prospectively collected by questionnaires from 39 Italian endocrine surgery units affiliated to the Italian Endocrine Surgery Units Association (Club delle Unità di EndocrinoChirurgia-UEC), where thyroid surgery is routinely performed. The incidence of hypoparathyroidism was 28.8 % (757 patients), including transient hypocalcemia (27.9 %-734 patients) and permanent hypocalcemia (0.9 %-23 patients). The rate of asymptomatic hypocalcemia was 70.80 %. The incidence of permanent hypocalcemia was higher in the symptomatic hypocalcemia group (7.5 %) than in asymptomatic one (1.5 %). Female patients experienced a transient postoperative hypocalcemia more frequently than male patients (29.7 and 21.2 %, respectively; p < 0.0001). The percentage developing hypocalcemia in patients in which parathyroid glands were intraoperatively identified and preserved was higher than in the patients in which the identification of parathyroid glands was not achieved (29.2 vs. 18.7 %, p < 0.01). This prospective study confirmed the main risk factors for postoperative hypocalcemia: thyroid cancer, nodal dissection, and female gender. It farther showed that identifying parathyroids has an important role to prevent permanent hypocalcemia though with a higher risk of transient hypocalcemia. A suitable informed consent should especially emphasize the importance of some primary factors in increasing the risk of hypocalcemia after thyroid surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To update the Diagnostic-Therapeutic-Healthcare Protocol (Protocollo Diagnostico-Terapeutico-Assistenziale, PDTA) created by the U.E.C. CLUB (Association of the Italian Endocrine Surgery Units) during the I Consensus Conference in 2008.
In the preliminary phase, the II Consensus involved a selected group of experts; the elaboration phase was conducted via e-mail among all members; the conclusion phase took place during the X National Congress of the U.E.C. CLUB. The following were examined: diagnostic pathway and clinical evaluation; mode of admission and waiting time; therapeutic pathway (patient preparation for surgery, surgical treatment, postoperative management, management of major complications); hospital discharge and patient information; outpatient care and follow-up.
The PDTA for parathyroid surgery approved by the II Consensus Conference (June 2013) is the official PDTA of the U.E.C. CLUB.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 02/2014; 37(2):149-65. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Objective of the present study was the evaluation of the efficacy of the low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery with lymphadenectomy at the root in rectosigmoid resection for advanced cancer by laparoscopic approach. Methods: Ninety-two elderly patients with stage III tumors were retrospectively divided into three groups: low ligation of inferior mesenteric artery with and without lymphadenectomy at its root and high ligation. Anastomotic fistula, lymph nodes harvested and oncologic outcome were examined. Results. Significant differences were registered in the number of lymph nodes comparing high and low ligation with lymphadenectomy to simple low ligation. Only 8.3% of patients treated by lymphadenectomy had metastasis at the root of mesenteric artery. Not significant shorter operative time was observed in the high compared to low ligation. Significantly longer time was observed in low ligation when it was associated to lymphadenectomy. Not significant difference was observed in term of anastomotic leakage. Significant increase in cancer related deaths was observed in the low ligation group without lymphadenectomy. Not significant difference in morbidity was observed in the different groups. Conclusion. Low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery with lymphadenectomy is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of advanced rectosigmoid cancer with similar results compared to high ligation. It might be especially indicated in elderly patients with advanced tumors to better define lymph nodes involvement and to improve vascular flow to the anastomosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid surgery is a clean procedure and therefore antibiotic prophylaxis is not routinely recommended by most international guidelines. However, antibiotics are often used in clinical practice. We enrolled 2926 patients who performed a thyroid surgical operation between the years 2009 and 2011 in the 38 centers of endocrine surgery that joined the UEC - Italian Endocrine Surgery Units Association. Antibiotic prophylaxis was used in 1132 interventions (38.7%). In case of antibiotic prophylaxis, cephalosporins or aminopenicillins ± beta lactamase inhibitors were employed. At logistic regression analysis the use of drainage or device and the presence of malignancy were independent predictors of antibiotic prophylaxis employment. In conclusion our study shows that antibiotic prophylaxis was not rarely used in clinical practice in the setting of thyroid surgery. Drainage apposition, use of device, and malignant disease were independent predictors for antibiotic prophylaxis employment. More data on everyday practice and infection rate in well-designed studies are warranted to provide definitive recommendations on the utility of antibiotic prophylaxis in this setting. According to our experience, we don't consider to be strictly necessary the antibiotic prophylaxis employment in order to reduce infection rate in thyroid surgery. KEY WORDS: Antibiotic prophylaxis, Drainage, Malignancy, Resistance, Thyroid surgery.
Annali italiani di chirurgia 10/2012; · 0.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroidectomy is one of the commonest surgical operations performed in endocrine surgery; results are generally excellent and morbidity and mortality usually are negligible. Total thyroidectomy's complication rates are low, with an overall incidence of 4.3% among experienced surgeons: the most frequent complications are vocal cord paresis or paralysis, hypoparathyroidism, hypocalcemia, haematoma and wound infection. Tracheal injury following thyroidectomy is even more rare. As reported from some authors, inadvertent tracheal injury has an incidence of 0-0.6% during thyroidectomy. Tracheal laceration (generally located in the posterolateral surface) is often recognized and repaired immediately, during the same intervention. Rarely, following a total thyroidectomy, a delayed tracheal rupture may occur secondary to an ischemic damage of the trachea. This has been described in few cases reported in literature. In this paper we report of a case in which delayed tracheal lacerations appeared 10 days after the patient underwent total thyroidectomy: a prompt surgical operation was efficient using both direct sutures of tracheal breaches and a patch of fibrinogen-thrombin coated collagen fleece covering the entire surface.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the outcome in patients with cervical goiters and cervicomediastinal goiters (CMGs) undergoing total thyroidectomy using the cervical or extracervical approach.
This was a retrospective study conducted at six academic departments of general surgery and one endocrine-surgical unit in Italy. The study population consisted of 19,662 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy between 1999 and 2008, of whom 18,607 had cervical goiter (group A) and 1055 had CMG treated using a cervical approach (group B, n = 986) or manubriotomy (group C, n = 69). The main parameters of interest were symptoms, gender, age, operative time, duration of drain, length of hospital stay, malignancy and outcome.
A split-sternal approach was required in 6.5% of cases of CMG. Malignancy was significantly more frequent in group B (22.4%) and group C (36.2%) versus group A (10.4%; both P < .001), and in group C versus group B (P = .009). Overall morbidity was significantly higher in groups B + C (35%), B (34.4%) and C (53.5%) versus group A (23.7%; P < .001). Statistically significant increases for group B + C versus group A were observed for transient hypocalcemia, permanent hypocalcemia, transient recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsies, permanent RLN palsies, phrenic nerve palsy, seroma/hematoma, and complications classified as other. With the exception of transient bilateral RLN palsy, all of these significant differences between group B + C versus group A were also observed for group B versus group A.
Symptoms, malignancy, overall morbidity, hypoparathyroidism, RLN palsy and hematoma are increased in cases of substernal goiter.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 02/2011; 18(8):2251-9. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is caused by a single monoclonal adenoma in more than 80% of patients. Biomolecular mechanisms causing pHPT are still not completely known, even if a great amount of studies have been developed recently, mainly regarding angiogenesis and growth factors. Among the latter, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and their effects have been extensively evaluated in different kinds of endocrine disease.
Parathyroid cell cultures were prepared from six human adenomatous parathyroid glands that were surgically removed. After 7 days of culture, the cells were refed with DMEM supplemented with 2% FCS alone (control group), or containing hrTGFbeta1, or hrIGF-I, or hrbFGF, or hrVEGF. Then, after 48-hour incubation, cell count was performed by a particle count and size analyzer, and prevalence of cell cycle was analyzed by using a flow cytometer.
Cell count (x10000) in the control group was 3.73 +/- 0.32. Low-dose TGF-beta1 stimulation resulted in 5.25 +/- 0.38 cells, and high-dose TGF-beta1 stimulation resulted in 2.35 +/- 0.37 cells. IGF-1 stimulation resulted in 5.4 +/- 0.65 cells, bFGF stimulation in 5.68 +/- 0.86 cells, and VEGF stimulation resulted in 6.03 +/- 1.03 cells. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the control group compared with the growth factor-stimulated groups. Cytometry showed different results in the percentage of cells in S-phase, in particular 22.65 +/- 4.98% of IGF-1-stimulated cells were found in S-phase compared with 7.55 +/- 3.2% of control group cells (p < 0.0001).
Growth factors seem to play an important role in parathyroid adenoma cell proliferation; IGF-1, bFGF, VEGF, and low-dose TGF-beta1 promote cell proliferation, whereas high-dose TGF-beta1 inhibits these phenomena.
World Journal of Surgery 01/2010; 34(1):48-54. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-operatory wound infections are a very uncommon finding after thyroidectomy. For these reasons international guidelines do not routinely recommend systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. The benefits of this antibiotic prophylaxis is not supported by clinical evidence in the literature. We have conducted a multicentric randomized double-blind trial on 500 patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for goitre or thyroid carcinoma. The 500 patients enrolled in the study (mean age 47 years) were randomized in two subgroups of 250 patients. 250 patients were treated with standard antibiotic prophylaxis with sulbactam/ampicillin 1 fl (3 gr.) 30 min before surgery. No antibiotic prophylaxis was instituted in the remainder 250 patients. Our RCT showed that prophylactic antibiotic treatment is not beneficial in patients younger than eighty years old, with no concomitant metabolic, infective and hematologic disease, with no cardiac valvulopathies, not under steroidal or immunosuppressive treatment, and not severely obese. Our study should be regarded only as a preliminary RCT, and should be followed by a study in which a larger number of patients should be enrolled so that statistically significant data can be obtained.
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research 09/2009; 3:10.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review and to update the management protocols in thyroid surgery proposed two years ago by 1st Consensus Conference called on the topic by the Italian Association of Endocrine Surgery Units (UEC Club).
The 2nd Consensus Conference took place November 30, 2008 in Pisa within the framework of the 7th National Congress of the UEC Club. A selected board of endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons (chairmans: Paolo Miccoli and Aldo Pinchera; speaker: Lodovico Rosato) examined the individual chapters and submitted the consensus text for the approval of several experts. This plain and concise text provides the rationale of the thyroid patient management and wants to be the most complete possible tool for the physicians and other professionals in the field.
The diagnostic, therapeutic and healthcare management protocols in thyroid surgery approved by the 2nd Consensus Conference are officially those proposed by the Italian Association of Endocrine Surgery Units (UEC Club) and are subject to review by two years.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrathyroid metastases (ITM) are rare and usually have a dismal prognosis. The aim of this study was to detect which neoplasms metastasize most often to the thyroid gland, their clinical features and treatment options.
Retrospective analysis of clinical files of 17,122 patients submitted to surgery for thyroid disease between 1995 and 2005. Twenty-five patients (median age 61 years) were affected by ITM.
The site of the primary tumor was: kidney (15), lung (4), colon (3), breast (1), melanoma (1), and unknown in 1 patient. Ten patients (40%) complained of preoperative symptoms, in the others, thyroid involvement was incidentally discovered during the follow-up for the primary cancer. Twenty patients (80%) underwent total thyroidectomy, 3 received thyroid lobectomy and 2 palliative procedures. Morbidity was 16%, mortality was nil. The median follow-up was 24 months.
ITM should always be suspected in any patient with a previous history of malignancy. Fine-needle agobiopsy (FNAB) with immunohistochemical stains may help in preoperative workup. A long delay between the primary tumor and the recurrence warrants surgery and total thyroidectomy seems to be the treatment of choice because of the multifocality of metastasis to the thyroid gland.
Anticancer research 01/2008; 28(5B):2885-8. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unilateral phrenic nerve paralysis is a rare complication of cervico-mediastinal goitre. It occurs when adhesions grow between the intrathoracic part of the thyroid and the nerve, specially where the goitre enters the mediastinum behind the first rib. The damage may be caused by strain of the nerve due to the descent of the goitre into the chest or may be caused by the surgical manoeuvres during thyroidectomy performed by cervical approach. Two patients operated on for large cervico-mediastinal goitre are reported: a 70-year-old male with a large intrathoracic growth of the left thyroid lobe and a 54-year-old male with a large intrathoracic growth to the right lobe. A few days after total thyroidectomy they showed signs of exertional dyspnoea. The exams performed showed hemi-diaphragm relaxatio due to phrenic nerve paralysis, with resulting reduction of respiratory space. Phrenic nerve paralysis may follow total thyroidectomy for large cervico-mediastinal goitres; is not due to the operative technique, but rather to the particular anatomic conditions which may be found.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the surgical outcomes in patients undergoing bilateral thyroid surgery with or without parathyroid gland autotransplantation (PTAT).
One thousand three hundred nine patients underwent surgery for treatment of various thyroid diseases at three Academic Departments of General Surgery and one Endocrine-Surgical Unit throughout Italy. A nonviable gland or difficulties in dissection of the parathyroid glands were encountered in 160 (13.7%) patients. The subjects were divided into two groups: (1) patients undergoing PTAT during thyroidectomy (n = 79) versus (2) control group (n = 81), patients not undergoing PTAT.
Clinical manifestations occurred in 5.0% of PTAT patients and in 13.6% of control patients (P = NS). Total postoperative hypocalcemia was less among PTAT than control patients (17.7% and 48.1%, respectively; P = .0001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of definitive hypocalcemia (0% vs 2.5% in PTAT and control, respectively). Transient postoperative hypocalcemia was less among PTAT than controls (17.7% vs 45.7%; P = .0002). PTAT was associated with decreased occurrence of hypocalcemia in the two subgroups of patients operated for benign euthyroid disease (P < .0001), as compared with the control group.
PTAT is an effective procedure to reduce the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism. Transient hypoparathyroidism appears to not be influenced by PTAT. Moreover, we observed that damage to one parathyroid gland has more side effects (ie, transient hypocalcemia) among patients who were preoperatively at low rather than at high risk of postoperative hypocalcemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Desmoid tumors are rare benign neoplasms with high tendency to local recurrence, and they can be divided into extra- and intra-abdominal types (mesenteric fibromatosis). Eight cases have been treated in our Department from 1997 to 2006. Six patients (3 men and 3 women) affected by extra-abdominal desmoid tumors have been treated with radical excision. In two patients desmoid was intra-abdominal: 1) a 55 years old man admitted for acute abdomen and submitted, in emergency, to a laparotomy with excision of a mesenteric abscess including a jejunal loop at about one meter from Treitz; 2) 52 years old man, submitted to an elective excision of a capsulated neoplasm of the little omentum, which had caused an oppressive abdominal pain. In both cases the hystological diagnosis has been desmoid tumor. Surgical treatment of desmoid tumors must aim at radical excision to avoid frequent recurrences (25-65%); these have stimulated the research of other kinds of treatments, since a new surgical operation itself can lead to a further recurrence. Radiotherapy has been investigated with results in 79-96% of cases, antiestrogenic therapy has been used with success in 51% of patients, and high dose tamoxifen seemed to obtain a stable disease in non operable cases. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been experimented in association with tamoxifen and chemotherapy. Conclusive results on the efficacy of these treatments have not been obtained yet, because of the rarity of the desmoid tumors even in greater Centres.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms deriving from a system of diffuse neuroendocrine cells in organs and tissues, defined as the "diffuse neuroendocrine system". Over the period from 1996 to 2005 42 patients with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NET were observed (M.F ratio: 1.5:1; mean age 58 years; > 60 years for all localisations except the appendix [< 39 years]). Twenty-three were tumours of the appendix, colon and rectum, corresponding to 55% of all those affecting the digestive tract: 8 appendix (35%), 6 right colon (26%), 4 left colon (17%) and 5 rectum (22%). The NET diagnosis was formulated in all cases on the basis of histological and immunohistochemical examinations. The mean follow-up period was 5 years (range: 1-10). In the RO-RI cases no relapses occurred and those who were not disease-free were treated with somatostatin analogues and/or chemotherapy. NET of the appendix, colon and rectum are rare, despite being the most frequent among the GEP tumours, and are difficult to diagnose, and therefore sometimes pose problems of surgical therapy, which, when performed in time, may be curative. NET of the appendix measuring <2 cm, localised in the distal part without local infiltration, can be treated by simple appendicectomy and removal of the mesenteriole; otherwise, right hemicolectomy is indicated. The surgical treatment of tumours of the colon, except for well differentiated cases measuring <2 cm with a pedunculate structure such as to allow safe endoscopic removal, consists in radical hemicolectomy with lymphadenectomy. Carcinoids of the rectum measuring <1 cm and 1 cm to 2 cm, in the absence of other negative prognostic factors, can be treated locally by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) or minimally invasive transanal surgery (MITAS). Tumours measuring >2 cm or presenting muscular invasion and/or lymph-node metastases (malignant carcinoids), regardless of tumour diameter, are submitted to radical operations, as in the case of carcinoma of the rectum. Extensive disease which is no longer curable with surgery alone is treated with chemotherapy and bio-chemotherapy, but it is above all treatment with somatostatin analogues that plays a major role in symptom control.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the incidence of anastomotic leakage in colorectal surgery with the alternative use of stapled anastomosis, hand sewn anastomosis and stapled/hand sewn anastomosis. 477 consecutive patients admitted for elective or emergency colon surgery were divided in: Group I? 337 elective patients submitted to mechanical bowel preparation; Group II - 140 emergency patients operated without mechanical bowel preparation. We analyzed surgical complications in the two group considering the different anastomosis made (stapled, hand sewn and stapled/hand sewn). Anastomotic leakages were 11 (3.3%) in Group I: 7 in stapled (3,4%), 2 in hand sewn (2,1%) and 2 in stapled/hand sewn anastomosis (5,3%); 10 patients (91%) with peritonitis or intra-abdominal abscess required re-intervention and there was a correlated death. In Group II there were 6 anastomotic leakages (4,2%): 1 in stapled (1,4%), 3 in hand sewn (8,3%) and 2 in stapled/hand sewn anastomosis (5,7%); four patients required re-intervention and there were no correlated deaths. Mean postoperative stays were similar among the different techniques of suture in the two groups. No statistically significant differences in surgical complications were noted among stapled, hand sewn and stapled/hand sewn anastomosis. The choice should be based on personal preference and surgeon experience, considering costs, using hand sewn suture whenever is possible.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to draw up a management protocol in thyroid surgery promoted by the Italian Association of Endocrine Surgery Units (Club delle UEC), shared by the experts and applied by the operators in the sector. The management protocols already presented in February 2002 and drawn up by the first Author of the present publication on the occasion of the current review were examined by the I Consensus Conference called on the topic by the Italian Endocrine Surgery Units. The conference comprised two distinct sessions, the first on 18 June 2005 within the framework of the 4th National Congress of the Club delle UEC in Naples, and the second on 17 September 2005 within the framework of the 8th Multidisciplinary Scanno Prize Meeting. A selected board of endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons, chaired by Aldo Pinchera and comprising the first nine Authors of this paper, examined the individual chapters in close collaboration with the other Authors, comparing their findings with the opinions of the experts cited in the text and submitting the consensus text for the approval of all those present. The diagnostic, therapeutic and healtcare management protocols in thyroid surgery approved by the I Consensus Conference are officially those proposed by the Italian Association of Endocrine Surgery Units (Club delle UEC) and are subject to review by October 1, 2007.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modifications of phonation occurring after total thyroidectomy (TT) are usually attributed to surgical malpractice, but other causes of voice impairment even in nonoperated subjects should also be taken into account. This study analyzes 208 patients who underwent TT from January 1, 1999 through December 31, 2001. Follow-up ended on December 31, 2003. Only cases in which the surgeon ruled out the possibility of operative damage to the laryngeal nerves were included. All patients underwent pre- and postoperative clinical and instrumental nose and throat examination (NTE). Preoperatively, 86 patients (41%) showed hoarseness or dysphagia: 4 (2%) monoplegia and 12 (6%) hypomobility of the vocal cords due to impaired function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN); 6 (3%) cord hypotonia due to impairment of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN); 34 (16%) dysphagia: and 30 (14%) hoarseness due to other causes. At follow-up 1 month after surgery, 71 patients (34%) had an onset of previously absent signs and symptoms: 8 (4%) had palsy of one vocal cord (2% permanent); 6 (3%) had cord hypomobility (all temporary); 12 (6%) had cord hypotonia due to disease of the SLN, 4 of which (2%) were permanent; 44 patients (21%) had symptoms due to scarring and adhesions between the laryngotracheal axis and the prethyroid muscles and between these and the skin. One patient (0.5%) had a nodular cord lesion that occurred after 3 months. Overall, more than one-third of the patients had preoperative voice modifications or swallowing impairment, around one-third had these problems after TT, and less than one-third were free of pre- and postoperative complications. The surgeon's care to avoid damage to the anatomica integrity of the of laryngeal nerves does not exclude functional problems of the nerves and of laryngeal dynamics. In fact, such problems could be referred to outcomes linked to the operation itself (hematoma, edema, scarring adhesion) or to events that only temporarily follow surgery but must be considered as an unavoidable sequel (e.g., neuritis, viral neuritis, myopathy). The patient should undergo a careful clinical and instrumental NTE to detect conditions prior to surgery, and the information provided by the surgeons should be thorough to allow the patient to be aware of all possible sequels and consequences.
World Journal of Surgery 07/2005; 29(6):780-4. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complication rates associated with thyroid surgery can be evaluated only through analysis of case studies and follow-up data. This study covers postoperative data from 14,934 patients subjected to a follow-up of 5 years. Among them, 3130 (20.9%) underwent total lobectomy (TL), 9599 (64.3%) total thyroidectomy (TT), 1448 (9.7%) subtotal thyroidectomy with a monolateral remnant (MRST), and 757 (5.1%) subtotal thyroidectomy with bilateral remnants (BRST). A total of 6% of the patients had already been operated on. Persistent hypoparathyroidism occurred after 1.7% of all the operations, and temporary hypoparathyroidism was noted in 8.3%. Permanent palsy of the laryngeal recurrent nerve (LRN) occurred in 1.0% of patients, transient palsy in 2.0%, and diplegia in 0.4%. The superior laryngeal nerve was damaged in 3.7%; dysphagia occurred in 1.4% of cases, hemorrhage in 1.2%, and wound infection in 0.3%. No deaths were reported. A significant rate of LRN damage was noted, which has an important impact on the patient's social life. Hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy is an important complication that can be successfully treated by therapy, although it is not always easily managed in special circumstances such as in young persons or pregnant women. The complications associated with thyroid surgery must be kept in mind so the surgeon can carefully evaluate the surgical and medical therapeutic options, have more precise surgical indications, and be able to give the patient adequate information.
World Journal of Surgery 04/2004; 28(3):271-6. · 2.23 Impact Factor