[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used whole-genome exon-targeted oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in a cohort of 256 patients with developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID) with or without dysmorphic features, additional neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and/or congenital malformations. In 69 patients, we identified 84 non-polymorphic copy-number variants, among which 41 are known to be clinically relevant, including two recently described deletions, 4q21.21q21.22 and 17q24.2. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed also 15 potentially pathogenic changes, including three rare deletions, 5q35.3, 10q21.3, and 13q12.11. Additionally, we found 28 copy-number variants of unknown clinical significance. Our results further support the notion that copy-number variants significantly contribute to the genetic etiology of DD/ID and emphasize the efficacy of the detection of novel candidate genes for neurodevelopmental disorders by whole-genome array CGH.
Journal of applied genetics 12/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NBS) is characterized by sparse hair, distinctive facial morphology, distal-limb anomalies and intellectual disability. We sequenced the exomes of ten individuals with NBS and identified heterozygous variants in SMARCA2 in eight of them. Extended molecular screening identified nonsynonymous SMARCA2 mutations in 36 of 44 individuals with NBS; these mutations were confirmed to be de novo when parental samples were available. SMARCA2 encodes the core catalytic unit of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that is involved in the regulation of gene transcription. The mutations cluster within sequences that encode ultra-conserved motifs in the catalytic ATPase region of the protein. These alterations likely do not impair SWI/SNF complex assembly but may be associated with disrupted ATPase activity. The identification of SMARCA2 mutations in humans provides insight into the function of the Snf2 helicase family.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterozygous copy-number and missense variants in CNTNAP2 and NRXN1 have repeatedly been associated with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders such as developmental language and autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy and schizophrenia. Recently, homozygous or compound heterozygous defects in either gene were reported as causative for severe intellectual disability.
99 patients with severe intellectual disability and resemblance to Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and/or suspected recessive inheritance were screened for mutations in CNTNAP2 and NRXN1. Molecular karyotyping was performed in 45 patients. In 8 further patients with variable intellectual disability and heterozygous deletions in either CNTNAP2 or NRXN1, the remaining allele was sequenced.
By molecular karyotyping and mutational screening of CNTNAP2 and NRXN1 in a group of severely intellectually disabled patients we identified a heterozygous deletion in NRXN1 in one patient and heterozygous splice-site, frameshift and stop mutations in CNTNAP2 in four patients, respectively. Neither in these patients nor in eight further patients with heterozygous deletions within NRXN1 or CNTNAP2 we could identify a defect on the second allele. One deletion in NRXN1 and one deletion in CNTNAP2 occurred de novo, in another family the deletion was also identified in the mother who had learning difficulties, and in all other tested families one parent was shown to be healthy carrier of the respective deletion or mutation.
We report on patients with heterozygous defects in CNTNAP2 or NRXN1 associated with severe intellectual disability, which has only been reported for recessive defects before. These results expand the spectrum of phenotypic severity in patients with heterozygous defects in either gene. The large variability between severely affected patients and mildly affected or asymptomatic carrier parents might suggest the presence of a second hit, not necessarily located in the same gene.
BMC Medical Genetics 08/2011; 12:106. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mental retardation (MR) affects approximately 2% of the population. About 10% of all MR cases result from defects of X-linked genes. Mutations in most of more than 20 known genes causing nonspecific form of X-linked MR (MRX) are very rare and may account for less than 0.5-1% of MR. Linkage studies in extended pedigrees followed by mutational analysis of known MRX genes in the linked interval are often the only way to identify a genetic cause of the disorder. We performed linkage analysis in several MRX families, and in one family with four males with MR we mapped the disease to an interval encompassing Xp21.2-22.11 (with a maximum LOD score of 2.71). Subsequent mutation analysis of genes located in this interval allowed us to identify a partial deletion of the IL1RAPL1 gene. Different nonoverlapping deletions involving IL1RAPL1 have been reported previously, suggesting that this region could be deletion-prone. In this report, we present the results of the molecular analyses and clinical examinations of four affected family members with the deletion in IL1RAPL1. Our data further confirm the importance and usefulness of linkage studies for gene mapping in MRX families and demonstrate that IL1RAPL1 plays an important role in the etiology of MRX. With the development of new methods (aCGH, MLPA), further rearrangements in this gene (including deletions and duplications) might be discovered in the nearest future.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 12/2008; 146A(24):3167-72. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome (NS) belongs to one of the most frequent genetic disorders with autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The main symptoms of NS are short stature, congenital heart defects, thorax deformities and specific dysmorphic features: hypertelorism, low set ears. short and wide neck, wide spaced nipples. The clinical picture ofNS changes with the age, which impedes the proper diagnosis in adults. We present two familial cases of Noonan syndrome with mutated PTPN11 gene in probands and one of their parents and siblings. We analyzed clinical features with regards to NS diagnostic criteria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lissencephaly is a neuronal migration disorder leading to absent or reduced gyration and a broadened but poorly organized cortex. The most common form of lissencephaly is isolated, referred as classic or type 1 lissencephaly. Type 1 lissencephaly is mostly associated with a heterozygous deletion of the entire LIS1 gene, whereas intragenic heterozygous LIS1 mutations or hemizygous DCX mutations in males are less common.
Eighteen unrelated patients with type 1 lissencephaly were clinically and genetically assessed. In addition, patients with subcortical band heterotopia (n = 1) or lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia (n = 2) were included.
Fourteen new and seven previously described LIS1 mutations were identified. We observed nine truncating mutations (nonsense, n = 2; frameshift, n = 7), six splice site mutations, five missense mutations, and one in-frame deletion. Somatic mosaicism was assumed in three patients with partial subcortical band heterotopia in the occipital-parietal lobes or mild pachygyria. We report three mutations in exon 11, including a frameshift which extends the LIS1 protein, leading to type 1 lissencephaly and illustrating the functional importance of the WD domains at the C terminus. Furthermore, we present two patients with novel LIS1 mutations in exon 10 associated with lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia type a.
In contrast to previous reports, our data suggest that neither type nor position of intragenic mutations in the LIS1 gene allows an unambiguous prediction of the phenotypic severity. Furthermore, patients presenting with mild cerebral malformations such as subcortical band heterotopia or cerebellar hypoplasia should be considered for genetic analysis of the LIS1 gene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome (NS; MIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant disorder. With incidence of 1/1000 to 1/2500 live births, NS belongs to the most common genetic disorders. Typical features of NS are: short stature, chest deformities, congenital heart defects, cryptorchidism and dysmorphic features. Mutations of PTPN11 gene (located on chromosome 12q24.1) are responsible for NS and are identified in 33-60% cases. Less than half of the cases are familial. This paper presents current opinion on clinical symptoms, molecular pathogenesis and possibilities of growth hormone therapy. The genotype--phenotype correlation is also discussed.
Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2006; 10(1 Pt 2):289-308.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 3-year-old girl with developmental delay, dysmorphic features, hypotonia and microcephaly is presented. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with subtelomeric probes (Multiprobe Chromoprobe T System) revealed monosomy and trisomy of subtelomeric regions 4p and 21q respectively. Clinical and pedigree data were analyzed and the phenotype -genotype correlation for partial monosomy 4p and trisomy 21q identified in the proband is also presented.