ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among patients attending three STD clinics in Pune, India, and to identify associated risk factors.
Of the 2098 patients screened at STD clinics in Pune during 1996, 497, who returned for at least one follow up visit, were screened for various markers of HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc), HIV antibody, and VDRL.
Of the 497 participants 3.6%, 26.5%, and 43.2% were positive for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc respectively. Tattooing (AOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.64) was found to be independently associated with presence of core antibody. Additionally, history of being in commercial sex work and history of a genital ulcer were independently associated with a positive anti-HBc antibody test (AOR 12.45, 95% CI 5.58 to 27.82 and AOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.66, respectively). 72 out of 497 (14.5%) participants were HIV positive at baseline. HIV-1 antibody positive patients were more likely to have a positive anti-HBc test (69.4% v 39.0%, p<0.001). 30 out of 282 participants, negative for anti-HBc antibody at enrolment, seroconverted subsequently, resulting in an incidence of 10.86 per 100 person years (95% CI 7.2%, 14.5%) (mean and accumulated follow up of 11.7 months and 276.17 person years, respectively).
A high prevalence and incidence of HBV infection, seen in STD clinic attendees underscore the need to provide HBV vaccine to commercial sex workers and their clients in India.
Sexually Transmitted Infections 07/2002; 78(3):169-73. · 2.85 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The development of an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine is likely to depend on knowledge of circulating variants of genes other than the commonly sequenced gag and env genes. In addition, full-genome data are particularly limited for HIV-1 subtype C, currently the most commonly transmitted subtype in India and worldwide. Likewise, little is known about sequence variation of HIV-1 in India, the country facing the largest burden of HIV worldwide. Therefore, the objective of this study was to clone and characterize the complete genome of HIV-1 from seroconverters infected with subtype C variants in India. Cocultured HIV-1 isolates were obtained from six seroincident individuals from Pune, India, and virtually full-length HIV-1 genomes were amplified, cloned, and sequenced from each. Sequence analysis revealed that five of the six genomes were of subtype C, while one was a mosaic of subtypes A and C, with multiple breakpoints in env, nef, and the 3' long terminal repeat as determined by both maximal chi2 analysis and phylogenetic bootstrapping. Sequences were compared for preservation of known cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Compared with those of the HIV-1LAI sequence, 38% of well-defined CTL epitopes were identical. The proportion of nonconservative substitutions for Env, at 61%, was higher (P < 0.001) than those for Gag (24%), Pol (18%), and Nef (32%). Therefore, characterized CTL epitopes demonstrated substantial differences from subtype B laboratory strains, which were most pronounced in Env. Because these clones were obtained from Indian seroconverters, they are likely to facilitate vaccine-related efforts in India by providing potential antigens for vaccine candidates as well as for assays of vaccine responsiveness.
Journal of Virology 02/1999; 73(1):152-60. · 5.40 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: A high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in female sex workers (FSWs) and men who attend sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics poses a risk for spread of infection to other populations.
To examine spread of HIV to a low-risk population by comparing prevalence of, and risk factors for, HIV and STDs in FSWs and non-FSWs.
Women attending STD clinics in Pune, India, were assessed for STDs and HIV from May 13, 1993, to July 11, 1996. Demographic and behavioral information was collected, and clinical and laboratory assessment was performed.
Prevalence and risk determinants of HIV infection.
Of 916 women enrolled, 525 were FSWs and 391 were non-FSWs. Prevalence of HIV in FSWs and non-FSWs was 49.9% and 13.6%, respectively (P<.001). In multivariate analysis, inconsistent condom use and genital ulcer disease or genital warts were associated with prevalent HIV in FSWs. History of sexual contact with a partner with an STD was associated with HIV in non-FSWs.
Infection with HIV is increasing in non-FSWs, previously thought to be at low risk in India. Since history of sexual contact with their only sex partner was the only risk factor significantly associated with HIV infection, it is likely that these women are being infected by their spouses. This underscores the need for strengthening partner-notification strategies and counseling facilities in India.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 12/1997; 278(23):2090-2. · 30.03 Impact Factor
The Indian journal of medical research 12/1983; 78:607-10. · 1.84 Impact Factor