Peter Valent

Ludwig Boltzmann-Cluster Oncology (LB-CO) | Medical University Vienna, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (690)3299.99 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concept of leukaemic stem cells (LSCs) has been developed to explain the complex cellular hierarchy and biology of leukaemias and to screen for pivotal targets that can be employed to improve drug therapies through LSC eradication in these patients. Some of the newly discovered LSC markers seem to be expressed in a disease‐specific manner and may thus serve as major research tools and diagnostic parameters. A useful LSC marker in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) appears to be CD26, also known as dipeptidylpeptidase IV. Expression of CD26 is largely restricted to CD34+/CD38− LSCs in BCR/ABL1+ CML, but is not found on LSCs in other myeloid or lymphoid neoplasms, with the exception of lymphoid blast crisis of CML, BCR/ABL1p210+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and a very few cases of acute myeloid leukaemia. Moreover, CD26 usually is not expressed on normal bone marrow (BM) stem cells. Functionally, CD26 is a cytokine‐targeting surface enzyme that may facilitate the mobilization of LSCs from the BM niche. In this article, we review our current knowledge about the biology and function of CD26 on CML LSCs and discuss the diagnostic potential of this new LSC marker in clinical haematology.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 12/2014; 44(12). · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Austrian myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) Platform was founded as a national working group in 2003 to initiate and coordinate common projects in the field. The incidence of MDS in Austria is approximately 400-500 new MDS cases per year. The overall low number of MDS patients underlines the importance of a national initiative to concentrate knowledge at certain specialized centres, where treatment of these patients mainly takes place. Clinical trials as well as basic research are facilitated by the cooperation of university and non-university hospitals. Other objectives are the generation of therapeutic standards, organization of meetings to spread this information to physicians and patients as well as promoting patient-support groups. Cooperation with international working groups is another important aim of the Platform. The 10th anniversary of the Austrian MDS Platform was organized as a meeting for all interested physicians throughout Austria providing an update on the disease and ongoing projects.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Grass pollen is one of the most important sources of respiratory allergies worldwide. This study describes the development of a grass pollen allergy vaccine based on recombinant hypoallergenic derivatives of the major timothy grass pollen allergens Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 by using a peptide-carrier approach. Fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic peptides from the 4 major timothy grass pollen allergens and the PreS protein from hepatitis B virus as a carrier were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by means of chromatography. Recombinant PreS fusion proteins were tested for allergenic activity and T-cell activation by means of IgE serology, basophil activation testing, T-cell proliferation assays, and xMAP Luminex technology in patients with grass pollen allergy. Rabbits were immunized with PreS fusion proteins to characterize their immunogenicity. Ten hypoallergenic PreS fusion proteins were constructed, expressed, and purified. According to immunogenicity and induction of allergen-specific blocking IgG antibodies, 4 hypoallergenic fusion proteins (BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326) representing Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 were included as components in the vaccine termed BM32. BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326 showed almost completely abolished allergenic activity and induced significantly reduced T-cell proliferation and release of proinflammatory cytokines in patients' PBMCs compared with grass pollen allergens. On immunization, they induced allergen-specific IgG antibodies, which inhibited patients' IgE binding to all 4 major allergens of grass pollen, as well as allergen-induced basophil activation. A recombinant hypoallergenic grass pollen allergy vaccine (BM32) consisting of 4 recombinant PreS-fused grass pollen allergen peptides was developed for safe immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5-20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on Fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: For cytogenetic risk classification by Fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of Fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel. This trial was registered at as #NCT01355913.
    Haematologica 10/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eosinophil-associated diseases often present with life-threatening manifestations and/or chronic organ damage. Currently available therapeutic options are limited to a few drugs that often have to be prescribed on a lifelong basis to keep eosinophil counts under control. In the past 10 years, treatment options and outcomes in patients with clonal eosinophilic and other eosinophilic disorders have improved substantially. Several new targeted therapies have emerged, addressing different aspects of eosinophil expansion and inflammation. In this review, we discuss available and currently tested agents as well as new strategies and drug targets relevant to both primary and secondary eosinophilic diseases, including allergic disorders. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 55 is January 06, 2015. Please see for revised estimates.
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer (OC) is caused by genetic aberrations in networks that control growth and survival. Importantly, aberrant cancer metabolism interacts with oncogenic signaling providing additional drug targets. Tumors overexpress the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) and are inhibited by FASN-blockers, whereas normal cells are FASN-negative and FASN-inhibitor-resistant. Here we demonstrate that this holds true when ovarian/oviductal cells reside in their autochthonous tissues, whereas in culture they express FASN and are FASN-inhibitor-sensitive. Upon subculture, non-malignant cells cease growth, express senescence-associated-β-galactosidase, lose FASN and become FASN-inhibitor-resistant. Immortalized ovarian/oviductal epithelial cell lines - although resisting senescence - reveal distinct growth activities, which correlate with FASN-levels and FASN-drug-sensitivities. Accordingly, ectopic FASN stimulates growth in these cells. Moreover, FASN-levels and lipogenic activities affect cellular lipid composition as demonstrated by thin-layer chromatography. Correlation between proliferation and FASN-levels was finally evaluated in cancer cells such as HOC-7, which contain subclones with variable differentiation/senescence and corresponding FASN-expression/FASN-drug-sensitivity. Interestingly, senescent phenotypes can be induced in parental HOC-7 by differentiating agents. In OC cells, FASN-drugs induce cell cycle-blockade in S and/or G2/M and stimulate apoptosis, whereas in normal cells they only cause cell cycle-deceleration without apoptosis. Thus normal cells, although growth-inhibited, may survive and recover from FASN-blockade, whereas malignant cells get extinguished. FASN-expression and FASN-drug-sensitivity are directly linked to cell growth and correlate with transformation/differentiation/senescence only indirectly. FASN is therefore a metabolic marker of cell proliferation rather than a marker of malignancy and is a useful target for future drug development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The two transcription factors STAT5A and STAT5B are central signaling molecules in leukemias driven by Abelson fusion tyrosine kinases and they fulfill all criteria of drug targets. STAT5A and STAT5B display unique nuclear shuttling mechanisms and they have a key role in resistance of leukemic cells against treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Moreover, STAT5A and STAT5B promote survival of leukemic stem cells. We here discuss the possibility of targeting up-stream kinases with TKI, direct STAT5 inhibition via SH2 domain obstruction and blocking nuclear translocation of STAT5. All discussed options will result in a stop of STAT5 transport to the nucleus to block STAT5-mediated transcriptional activity. In summary, recently described shuttling functions of STAT5 are discussed as potentially druggable pathways in leukemias.
    Oncotarget 10/2014; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a rare form of systemic mastocytosis characterized by leukemic expansion of mostly immature mast cells, organ damage, drug-resistance, and a poor prognosis. Even when treated with chemotherapy, most patients have a life-expectancy of less than one year. However, there are rare patients with MCL in whom the condition is less aggressive and does not cause organ damage within a short time. In these patients, mast cells exhibit a more mature morphology when compared to acute MCL. A recently proposed classification suggests that these cases are referred to as chronic MCL. In the present article, we discuss clinical, histopathological and morphological aspects of acute and chronic MCL.
    Leukemia Research. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a rare, life-threatening malignancy defined by a substantial increase in neoplastic mast cells (MCs) in bone marrow (BM) smears, drug-resistance, and a poor prognosis. In most patients, the survival time is less than 1 year. However, exceptional cases may present with a less malignant course. We report on a 49-year-old female patient with MCL diagnosed in 2013. In February 2013, first symptoms, including flushing, headache, and diarrhea, were recorded. In addition, mild anemia was detected. The disease was characterized by a massive increase in well-granulated, mature, and often spindle-shaped MCs (80 %) in BM smears. The serum tryptase level amounted to 332 ng/mL. Like in most other MCL patients, no skin lesions were detected. However, unlike in other patients, tryptase levels remained stable, and no other signs or symptoms of MCL-induced organ damage were found. Sequencing studies revealed an isolated S476I point mutation in KIT but no mutation in codon 816. The patient received histamine receptor blockers but refused cytoreductive therapy. After 9 months, still no progression or organ damage was detected. However, progression with transformation to acute MCL occurred after 12 months. We propose that the chronic type of MCL with stable conditions, absence of organ damage, and a mature MC morphology is recognized as a distinct entity that should be distinguished from the acute variant of MCL.
    Annals of Hematology 09/2014; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    Peter Valent, Cem Akin, Michel Arock
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) have an increased risk for the development of severe, life-threatening anaphylactic episodes. Despite prophylactic therapy with anti-mediator-type drugs, a mast cell (MC) activation syndrome (MCAS) may be diagnosed in these patients. In a subset of them, an immunoglobulin (Ig)E-dependent allergy is detected as underlying disease. The severity and frequency of anaphylactic reactions neither correlate with the burden of neoplastic MCs nor with specific IgE levels or the serum tryptase level. However, the ‘event-related’ increase in serum tryptase is usually indicative of a severe reaction. In addition, there is a positive correlation between severe anaphylaxis and the type of allergen in SM. In fact, many of these MCAS patients suffer from bee or wasp venom allergy. Currently recommended standard treatments for anaphylaxis in mastocytosis include the prophylactic use of histamine receptor (HR) antagonists, MC stabilizers, life-long immunotherapy in hymenoptera venom allergic patients, and epinephrine injections for emergency situations. In those who have an excessive burden of MCs (smouldering or aggressive SM) cladribine (2CdA) may be effective and may reduce the frequency of severe life-threatening events, and the same can sometimes be achieved with interferon-alpha (IFNα). In the future, additional treatment options, such as IgE-depletion or administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting IgE-dependent mediator secretion as well as KIT activation and thus MC expansion, may become standard therapy. Key points 1. Patients with mastocytosis have a high risk of developing severe anaphylaxis, especially when suffering from hymenoptera venom allergy, but sometimes also even in the absence of any known trigger or allergy. 2. Management of anaphylaxis in mastocytosis requires special considerations and special knowledge about potential triggers, disease pathogenesis, and treatment options and should be performed in, or in collaboration with, a specialized center.
    Current Treatment Options in Allergy. 09/2014; 1(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM) is a rare but well-defined subtype of systemic mastocytosis (SM). The diagnosis of ASM is based on distinct morphological findings and the presence of clinical characteristics as consequence of SM-induced organ damage. Clinical findings of organ damage caused by massive mast cell infiltration are termed C-findings and include blood cytopenia, malabsorption with weight loss or signs of liver damage causing portal hypertension and ascites. Clinical features usually include hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, the latter often presenting as retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and thus initially mimicking malignant lymphoma. In most patients with C-findings, a bone marrow trephine biopsy is sufficient for a diagnosis of ASM to be established. Molecular testing in ASM almost always reveals the activating point mutation KIT D816V but also a variety of other point mutations, in particular in ASM cases associated with a non-mast cell hematological myeloid neoplasm. This disease combination is termed ASM with an associated hematological non-mast cell neoplasm (AHNMD) which is also the most frequent subtype of ASM, whereas ASM without an AHNMD (= “pure” ASM) only accounts for one-third of all ASM cases. The differential diagnoses of ASM and ASM-AHNMD include other subtypes of SM like mast cell leukemia and smoldering SM but also various myeloid neoplasms like myelomastocytic leukemia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, malignant histiocytosis, hairy cell leukemia, and even non-neoplastic inflammatory fibrotic conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to apply a panel of mast cell-related antibodies on tissue sections including tryptase and CD117 expressed by mast cells at all stages of differentiation and maturation while aberrant expression of CD25 is exclusively seen in mastocytosis, especially in SM.
    The Journal of OncoPathology. 09/2014; 2(3).
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    ABSTRACT: During the past few years, a number of molecular markers have been developed in clinical hematology, most of them related to specific gene defects. However, there is also an unmet need to develop novel serologic parameters to improve diagnostics and prognostication in daily practice. Among these, the serum tryptase appears to be a most reliable biomarker of myeloid neoplasms. Elevated tryptase levels are found in subgroups of patients with mastocytosis, myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative neoplasm, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic eosinophilic leukemia. In these patients, the tryptase level is of diagnostic and/or prognostic significance. In mastocytosis, an elevated tryptase level is a minor criterion of systemic disease and in BCR-ABL1+ chronic myeloid leukemia, elevated tryptase at diagnosis correlates with treatment responses and overall survival. In patients with elevated tryptase, the enzyme also serves as follow-up parameter and can be employed to measure treatment-responses. In the current article, we review and update the perspectives of tryptase and provide recommendations for use of this conventional biomarker in daily practice.
    Expert Review of Hematology 08/2014; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM), a fatal hematopoietic malignancy characterized by drug resistance, has no standard therapy. The effectiveness of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHCT) in SM remains unknown.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myelomastocytic leukemia (MML) is an extremely rare myeloid overlap-neoplasm that belongs to the group of tryptase-positive (T+) myeloid neoplasms. Main differential diagnoses include aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM), in particular ASM in transformation; mast cell leukemia; T+ acute myeloid leukemia (T+ AML); acute basophilic leukemia and chronic basophilic leukemia. MML exhibits both proliferative and dysplastic features and is characterized by prominent differentiation into the mast cell lineage in an advanced myeloid neoplasm, usually primary or secondary AML. While the histological key feature of MML is a diffuse increase in neoplastic cells expressing mast cell-related antigens like tryptase and CD117 (KIT), the most important cytomorphological finding in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) is the metachromatically granulated blast cell (= metachromatic blast). In contrast to systemic mastocytosis (SM), MML neither shows activating point mutations at codon 816 of KIT nor the aberrant expression of CD25 by mast cells is seen. MML can only be diagnosed when tryptase-staining is performed on BM biopsy specimens, PB and BM smears are investigated for presence of metachromatic blasts and other T+ leukemias have been excluded.
    Expert Review of Hematology 08/2014; 7(4):431-437. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: House dust mites belong to the most potent indoor allergen sources worldwide and are associated with allergic manifestations in the respiratory tract and the skin. Here we studied the importance of the high molecular weight allergen, Der p 11, in HDM allergy. Sequence analysis showed that Der p 11 has high homology to paramyosins from mites, ticks and other invertebrates. A synthetic gene coding for Der p 11 was expressed in Escherichia coli and rDer p 11 purified to homogeneity as folded, alpha helical protein as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using antibodies raised against rDer p 11 and immunogold electron microscopy, the allergen was localized in the muscle beneath the skin of mite bodies but not in faeces. IgE reactivity of rDer p 11 was tested with sera from HDM allergic patients from Europe and Africa in RAST-based dot-blot assays. Interestingly, we found that Der p 11 is a major allergen for patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas it is only a minor allergen for patients suffering from respiratory forms of HDM allergy. Thus, rDer p 11 might be a useful serological marker allergen for the identification of a subgroup of HDM allergic patients suffering from HDM-associated AD.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 07 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.271.
    The Journal of investigative dermatology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are typical diseases of the elderly. The clinical outcome of a well-characterized cohort of patients with MDS was analyzed for prevalence and impact of comorbidities to establish the basis for tailored treatment algorithms. Focus was on age- and sex-related differences. Material and Methods The hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was assessed in 616 well-defined patients from the Austrian MDS platform (median age: 71 years). Results Most patients displayed one (24.5%) or more (23.7%) comorbidities. The highest frequencies were observed for cardiovascular disease (28.4%), diabetes (12.2%), and prior tumors (9.9%). Comorbidities were more frequent (mean number: 0.92 vs. 0.74 [male vs. female]; p = 0.030) and more severe in men than in women (mean HCT-CI score: 1.41 vs. 1.09 [male vs. female]; p = 0.016). Elderly patients (65 + years) showed a higher prevalence of comorbidities than younger patients (HCT-CI score: 1.52, mean in 65 +, vs. 0.24 and 0.76 in < 45 years and 46–65 years, respectively) (p < 0.001). These differences were most pronounced for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and prior tumors (p < 0.001). Presence of cardiac arrhythmia or prior solid tumor was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (p = 0.023, 0.024, respectively). Moreover, HCT-CI risk grouping remained an independent prognostic parameter for survival in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Comorbidities impact clinical outcome in elderly patients with MDS. Distinct diseases cluster in an age- and sex-related manner, which may have clinical implications when designing individualized therapies. Comorbidities should be evaluated with established scores and integrated in decision making.
    Journal of Geriatric Oncology 07/2014; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative rescue-therapy for patients (pts) with chemotherapy-refractory acute leukaemia. Disease-control prior to HSCT is essential for long-term disease-free survival after HSCT.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Definite progress has been made in the exploration of myelodysplastic syndromes by flow cytometry since the publication of the World Health Organization 2008 classification of myeloid neoplasms. An international working party initiated within the European LeukemiaNet and extended to include members from Australia, Canada, Japan, Taiwan and the United States has, through several workshops, developed and subsequently published consensus recommendations. The latter deal with preanalytical precautions, propose small and large panels, which allow evaluating immunophenotypic anomalies and calculating myelodysplasia scores. The current paper provides guidelines, which strongly recommend the integration of flow cytometry data with other diagnostic tools in diagnostic work-up of myelodysplastic syndromes.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 12 June 2014; doi:10.1038/leu.2014.191.
    Leukemia. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 patients with cold antibody hemolytic anemia were evaluated in a retrospective study of them, 15 had a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS): 14 with MGUS of immunoglobulin M (IgM) subtype and 1 with immunoglobulin G subtype. One patient had smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, but four patients had no monoclonal protein and no evidence of lymphoma. However, in three of these patients, we were able to demonstrate a (mono-)clonal rearrangement of their immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains. Of the 20 patients, 5 had IgHV34 nucleotide sequence indicating that the antibody was directed against the "I" antigen. Two patients exhibited a progressive increase of IgM over time, however without increasing hemolytic activity. Moreover, in two patients with long-term follow-up, we were able to correlate recurrent hemolytic activity with low environmental temperatures. Among four patients treated with rituximab, all four responded to treatment. However, treatment effect was only transient in all of them.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 05/2014;

Publication Stats

17k Citations
3,299.99 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2014
    • Ludwig Boltzmann-Cluster Oncology (LB-CO) | Medical University Vienna
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
    • Medizinische Universität Innsbruck
      • Univ.-Klinik für Innere Medizin V (Hämatologie und Onkologie)
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 2007–2014
    • Hanusch Krankenhaus
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
    • Kumamoto University
      • Graduate School of Medical Sciences
      Kumamoto-shi, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
  • 1989–2014
    • Medical University of Vienna
      • • Institute for Social Medicine
      • • Klinische Abteilung für Onkologie
      • • Zentrum für Pathophysiologie, Infektiologie und Immunologie
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2013
    • CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
    • Stanford Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1999–2013
    • Vienna General Hospital
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
    • European Molecular Biology Laboratory
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • ORTON Foundation, Helsinki, Finland
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1995–2013
    • IST Austria
      Klosterneuberg, Lower Austria, Austria
    • Institute of Molecular Biology
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2012
    • University of Cologne
      • Department of Dermatology and Venerology
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2010–2012
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Institute of Pathology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Ecole normale supérieure de Cachan
      • Laboratoire de biologie et de pharmacologie appliquee
      Cachon, Île-de-France, France
    • University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 2007–2012
    • Austrian Academy of Sciences
      • Forschungszentrum für Molekulare Medizin (CeMM)
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    • University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna
      • Department for Companion Animals and Horses
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 2011
    • Evangelische Hochschule Freiburg, Germany
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2009
    • Medical University of Gdansk
      Danzig, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1988–2009
    • University of Vienna
      • • Universitätsklinik für Innere Medizin I
      • • Institute of Histology and Embryology
      • • Institute of Social Medicine
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 1997–2008
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology
      Tübingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2006
    • Universitätsklinikum Schleswig - Holstein
      • Institut für Pathologie (Kiel)
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Division of Hematology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2001–2005
    • Universität zu Lübeck
      • Institut für Pathologie
      Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 2000
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1996
    • University of Salzburg
      Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria