T S Jou

National Taiwan University, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (10)81.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cellular polarization involves the generation of asymmetry along an intracellular axis. In a multicellular tissue, the asymmetry of individual cells must conform to the overlying architecture of the tissue. However, the mechanisms that couple cellular polarization to tissue morphogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we report that orientation of apical polarity in developing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cysts requires the small GTPase Rac1 and the basement membrane component laminin. Dominant-negative Rac1 alters the supramolecular assembly of endogenous MDCK laminin and causes a striking inversion of apical polarity. Exogenous laminin is recruited to the surface of these cysts and rescues apical polarity. These findings implicate Rac1-mediated laminin assembly in apical pole orientation. By linking apical orientation to generation of the basement membrane, epithelial cells ensure the coordination of polarity with tissue architecture.
    Nature Cell Biology 10/2001; 3(9):831-8. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polarized epithelial cells maintain the asymmetric composition of their apical and basolateral membrane domains by at least two different processes. These include the regulated trafficking of macromolecules from the biosynthetic and endocytic pathway to the appropriate membrane domain and the ability of the tight junction to prevent free mixing of membrane domain-specific proteins and lipids. Cdc42, a Rho family GTPase, is known to govern cellular polarity and membrane traffic in several cell types. We examined whether this protein regulated tight junction function in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and pathways that direct proteins to the apical and basolateral surface of these cells. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells that expressed dominant-active or dominant-negative mutants of Cdc42 under the control of a tetracycline-repressible system. Here we report that expression of dominant-active Cdc42V12 or dominant-negative Cdc42N17 altered tight junction function. Expression of Cdc42V12 slowed endocytic and biosynthetic traffic, and expression of Cdc42N17 slowed apical endocytosis and basolateral to apical transcytosis but stimulated biosynthetic traffic. These results indicate that Cdc42 may modulate multiple cellular pathways required for the maintenance of epithelial cell polarity.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 09/2001; 12(8):2257-74. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Group A streptococcus (GAS) induces its own entry into eukaryotic cells in vitro and in vivo. Fibronectin (Fn) bound to protein F1, a GAS surface protein, acts as a bridge connecting the bacterium to host cell integrins. This triggers clustering of integrins, which acquire a polar pattern of distribution similar to that of protein F1 on the GAS surface. A unique and transient adhesion complex is formed at the site of GAS entry, which does not contain alpha-actinin. Vinculin is recruited to the site of GAS entry but is not required for uptake. The invading GAS recruits focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is required for uptake and is tyrosine phosphorylated. The Src kinases, Src, Yes and Fyn, enhance the efficiency of GAS uptake but are not absolutely required for GAS entry. In addition, Rac and Cdc42, but not Rho, are required for the entry process. We suggest a model in which integrin engagement by Fn-occupied protein F1 triggers two independent signalling pathways. One is initiated by FAK recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas the other is initiated by the recruitment and activation of Rac. The two pathways subsequently converge to trigger actin rearrangement leading to bacterial uptake.
    Molecular Microbiology 09/2001; 41(3):561-73. · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium colonizes its animal hosts by inducing its internalization into intestinal epithelial cells. This process requires reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton of the apical plasma membrane into elaborate membrane ruffles that engulf the bacteria. Members of the Rho family of small GTPases are critical regulators of actin structure, and in nonpolarized cells, the GTPase Cdc42 has been shown to modulate Salmonella entry. Because the actin architecture of epithelial cells is organized differently from that of nonpolarized cells, we examined the role of two Rho family GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac1, in invasion of polarized monolayers of MDCK cells by S. typhimurium. Surprisingly, we found that endogenous Rac1, but not Cdc42, was activated during bacterial entry at the apical pole, and that this activation required the bacterial effector protein SopE. Furthermore, expression of dominant inhibitory Rac1 but not Cdc42 significantly inhibited apical internalization of Salmonella, indicating that Rac1 activation is integral to the bacterial entry process. In contrast, during basolateral internalization, both Cdc42 and Rac1 were activated; however, neither GTPase was required for entry. These findings, which differ significantly from previous observations in nonpolarized cells, indicate that the host cell signaling pathways activated by bacterial pathogens may vary with cell type, and in epithelial tissues may further differ between plasma membrane domains.
    Journal of Cell Science 05/2001; 114(Pt 7):1331-41. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa invades epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We have examined the pathway(s) by which epithelial cells internalize P. aeruginosa strain PA103 using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We have recently demonstrated that P. aeruginosa internalization occurs by an actin-dependent Toxin B-inhibited pathway which becomes downregulated as epithelial cells become polarized, suggesting that one or more of the Rho family GTPases is involved in bacterial internalization. Here, we demonstrate that activation of the Rho family GTPases by cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF-1) stimulates P. aeruginosa internalization. Examination of the roles of the individual Rho family GTPases in internalization shows that expression of a constitutively active allele of RhoA (RhoAV14), but not of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac1V12) or Cdc42 (Cdc42V12), is sufficient to increase uptake of PA103pscJ. This relative increase persists when bacterial infection is established at the basolateral surface of polarized cells, suggesting that the effect of RhoAV14 is not simply due to its known ability to disrupt tight junction integrity in polarized cells. RhoAV14-mediated stimulation of bacterial uptake is actin dependent as it is abrogated by exposure to latrunculin A. We also find that endogenous Rho GTP levels in epithelial cells are increased by infection with an internalized strain of P. aeruginosa; conversely, a poorly internalized isogenic strain expressing the bacterial anti-internalization protein ExoT causes decreased Rho GTP levels. Experimental inhibition of Rho, either by expressing dominant negative RhoAN19 or by inhibiting native Rho using a membrane permeable fusion construct of a Rho-specific inhibitor, C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase, does not inhibit PA103pscJ internalization in MDCK or HeLa cells. Models consistent with these data are presented.
    Cellular Microbiology 03/2001; 3(2):85-98. · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing constitutively active Rac1 (Rac1V12) accumulate a large central aggregate of membranes beneath the apical membrane that contains filamentous actin, Rac1V12, rab11, and the resident apical membrane protein GP-135. To examine the roles of Rac1 in membrane traffic and the formation of this aggregate, we analyzed endocytic and biosynthetic trafficking pathways in MDCK cells expressing Rac1V12 and dominant inactive Rac1 (Rac1N17). Rac1V12 expression decreased the rates of apical and basolateral endocytosis, whereas Rac1N17 expression increased those rates from both membrane domains. Basolateral-to-apical transcytosis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) (a ligand for the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor [pIgR]), apical recycling of pIgR-IgA, and accumulation of newly synthesized GP-135 at the apical plasma membrane were all decreased in cells expressing Rac1V12. These effects of Rac1V12 on trafficking pathways to the apical membrane were the result of the delivery and trapping of these proteins in the central aggregate. In contrast to abnormalities in apical trafficking events, basolateral recycling of transferrin, degradation of EGF internalized from the basolateral membrane, and delivery of newly synthesized pIgR from the Golgi to the basolateral membrane were all relatively unaffected by Rac1V12 expression. Rac1N17 expression had little or no effect on these postendocytic or biosynthetic trafficking pathways. These results show that in polarized MDCK cells activated Rac1 may regulate the rate of endocytosis from both membrane domains and that expression of dominant active Rac1V12 specifically alters postendocytic and biosynthetic membrane traffic directed to the apical, but not the basolateral, membrane.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 02/2000; 11(1):287-304. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient postendocytic membrane traffic in polarized epithelial cells is thought to be regulated in part by the actin cytoskeleton. RhoA modulates assemblies of actin in the cell, and it has been shown to regulate pinocytosis and phagocytosis; however, its effects on postendocytic traffic are largely unexplored. To this end, we expressed wild-type RhoA (RhoAWT), dominant active RhoA (RhoAV14), and dominant inactive RhoA (RhoAN19) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. RhoAV14 expression stimulated the rate of apical and basolateral endocytosis, whereas RhoAN19 expression decreased the rate from both membrane domains. Polarized basolateral recycling of transferrin was disrupted in RhoAV14-expressing cells as a result of increased ligand release at the apical pole of the cell. Degradation of basolaterally internalized epidermal growth factor was slowed in RhoAV14-expressing cells. Although apical recycling of immunoglobulin A (IgA) was largely unaffected in cells expressing RhoAV14, transcytosis of basolaterally internalized IgA was severely impaired. Morphological and biochemical analyses demonstrated that a large proportion of IgA internalized from the basolateral pole of RhoAV14-expressing cells remained within basolateral early endosomes and was slow to exit these compartments. RhoAN19 and RhoAWT expression had little effect on these postendocytic pathways. These results indicate that in polarized MDCK cells activated RhoA may modulate endocytosis from both membrane domains and postendocytic traffic at the basolateral pole of the cell.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 01/2000; 10(12):4369-84. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    T S Jou, W J Nelson
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    ABSTRACT: MDCK cells expressing RhoA or Rac1 mutants under control of the tetracycline repressible transactivator were used to examine short-term effects of known amounts of each mutant before, during, or after development of cell polarity. At low cell density, Rac1V12 cells had a flattened morphology and intact cell-cell contacts, whereas Rac1N17 cells were tightly compacted. Abnormal intracellular aggregates formed between Rac1N17, F-actin, and E-cadherin in these nonpolarized cells. At all subsequent stages of polarity development, Rac1N17 and Rac1V12 colocalized with E-cadherin and F-actin in an unusual beaded pattern at lateral membranes. In polarized cells, intracellular aggregates formed with Rac1V12, F-actin, and an apical membrane protein (GP135). At low cell density, RhoAV14 and RhoAN19 were localized in the cytoplasm, and cells were generally flattened and more fibroblastic than epithelial in morphology. In polarized RhoAV14 cells, F-actin was diffuse at lateral membranes and prominent in stress fibers on the basal membrane. GP135 was abnormally localized to the lateral membrane and in intracellular aggregates, but E-cadherin distribution appeared normal. In RhoAN19 cells, F-actin, E-cadherin, and GP135 distributions were similar to those in controls. Expression of either RhoAV14 or RhoAN19 in Rac1V12 cells disrupted Rac1V12 distribution and caused cells to adopt the more fibroblastic, RhoA mutant phenotype. We suggest that Rac1 and RhoA are involved in the transition of epithelial cells from a fibroblastic to a polarized structure and function by direct and indirect regulation of actin and actin-associated membrane protein organizations.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 08/1998; 142(1):85-100. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tight junctions (TJ) govern ion and solute diffusion through the paracellular space (gate function), and restrict mixing of membrane proteins and lipids between membrane domains (fence function) of polarized epithelial cells. We examined roles of the RhoA and Rac1 GTPases in regulating TJ structure and function in MDCK cells using the tetracycline repressible transactivator to regulate RhoAV14, RhoAN19, Rac1V12, and Rac1N17 expression. Both constitutively active and dominant negative RhoA or Rac1 perturbed TJ gate function (transepithelial electrical resistance, tracer diffusion) in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. Freeze-fracture EM and immunofluoresence microscopy revealed abnormal TJ strand morphology and protein (occludin, ZO-1) localization in RhoAV14 and Rac1V12 cells. However, TJ strand morphology and protein localization appeared normal in RhoAN19 and Rac1N17 cells. All mutant GTPases disrupted the fence function of the TJ (interdomain diffusion of a fluorescent lipid), but targeting and organization of a membrane protein in the apical membrane were unaffected. Expression levels and protein complexes of occludin and ZO-1 appeared normal in all mutant cells, although ZO-1 was more readily solubilized from RhoAV14-expressing cells with Triton X-100. These results show that RhoA and Rac1 regulate gate and fence functions of the TJ, and play a role in the spatial organization of TJ proteins at the apex of the lateral membrane.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 08/1998; 142(1):101-15. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cadherin-catenin complex is important for mediating homotypic, calcium-dependent cell-cell interactions in diverse tissue types. Although proteins of this complex have been identified, little is known about their interactions. Using a genetic assay in yeast and an in vitro protein-binding assay, we demonstrate that beta-catenin is the linker protein between E-cadherin and alpha-catenin and that E-cadherin does not bind directly to alpha-catenin. We show that a 25-amino acid sequence in the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin and the amino-terminal domain of alpha-catenin are independent binding sites for beta-catenin. In addition to beta-catenin and plakoglobin, another member of the armadillo family, p120 binds to E-cadherin. However, unlike beta-catenin, p120 does not bind alpha-catenin in vitro, although a complex of p120 and endogenous alpha-catenin could be immunoprecipitated from cell extracts. In vitro protein-binding assays using recombinant E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain and alpha-catenin revealed two catenin pools in cell lysates: an approximately 1000- to approximately 2000-kDa complex bound to E-cadherin and an approximately 220-kDa pool that did not contain E-cadherin. Only beta-catenin in the approximately 220-kDa pool bound exogenous E-cadherin. Delineation of these molecular linkages and the demonstration of separate pools of catenins in different cell lines provide a foundation for examining regulatory mechanisms involved in the assembly and function of the cadherin-catenin complex.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1995; 92(11):5067-71. · 9.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
81.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001
    • National Taiwan University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2000–2001
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • School of Medicine
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1995–2000
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1998
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology
      Stanford, California, United States